Publications by authors named "Annemieke Kok"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nutritional interventions in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy: Current practice at the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology centres.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 Oct 12:e13518. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess variations in nutritional interventions during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) among the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology centres (HNOCs).

Methods: An online questionnaire about nutritional interventions and dietetic practices was sent to 14 oncology dietitians of the HNOCs.

Results: The response rate was 93%. The number of scheduled dietetic consultations varied from two to seven during CRT. Most centres (77%) reported using a gastrostomy for tube feeding in the majority of patients. Gastrostomies were placed prophylactically upon indication (39%) or in all patients (15%), reactive (15%), or both (31%). For calculating energy requirements, 54% of the dietitians used the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization and United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) formula and 77% uses 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight for calculating protein requirements. Almost half of the centres (46%) reported to remove the gastrostomy between 8 and 12 weeks after CR. Most centres (92%) reported to end dietary treatment within 6 months after CRT.

Conclusion: This study shows substantial variation in dietetic practice, especially in the use of a gastrostomy for tube feeding, between the HNOCs. There is a need for concise dietetic guidelines.
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October 2021

Prediction model for tube feeding dependency during chemoradiotherapy for at least four weeks in head and neck cancer patients: A tool for prophylactic gastrostomy decision making.

Clin Nutr 2020 08 3;39(8):2600-2608. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center +, the Netherlands; GROW-School of Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center +, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Chemoradiation and bioradiation (CRT/BRT) for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) often comes with high toxicity rates, interfering with oral intake and leading to temporary tube feeding (TF) dependency. High-quality scientific evidence for indicators of prophylactic gastrostomy insertion is not available. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to develop a prediction model to identify patients who need prophylactic gastrostomy insertion, defined as the expected use of TF for at least four weeks.

Methods: Four-hundred-fifty LAHNSCC patients receiving CRT/BRT with curative intent between 2013 and 2016 were included in the study. Primary outcome was TF-dependency for four weeks or longer. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were extracted from the medical records and their effects on the use of TF were analyzed using univariable and multivariable analysis. The prediction model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques.

Results: Sixty-five percent (294/450 patients) required TF for four weeks or longer. Variables included in the model were: body mass index and adjusted diet at start of CRT/BRT, percentage weight change at baseline, World Health Organization performance status, tumor subsite, TNM-classification, CRT/BRT, mean radiation dose on the contralateral submandibular and parotid gland. The corrected Area Under the Curve after internal validation was 72.3%, indicating good discriminative properties of the prediction model.

Conclusions: We developed and internally validated a prediction model that is intended to estimate TF-dependency for at least four weeks in LAHNSCC patients treated with CRT/BRT. This model can be used as a tool to support personalized decision making on prophylactic gastrostomy insertion.
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August 2020

Treatment of malignant gliomas with ketogenic or caloric restricted diets: A systematic review of preclinical and early clinical studies.

Clin Nutr 2019 10 14;38(5):1986-1994. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, G03.232, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis. Diets that lower blood glucose, such as ketogenic or caloric restricted diets (KCRDs), are hypothesized to reduce tumor growth and improve survival. In this systematic review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data on KCRDs in gliomas.

Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for preclinical and clinical studies on KCRDs in gliomas, and extracted data on surrogate and clinically relevant endpoints, in accordance with PRISMA statement. Quality assessment of clinical studies was performed with use of Cochrane Collaboration's tool. We performed Fisher's exact test to examine associations between surrogate and clinically relevant endpoints.

Results: We included 24 preclinical studies, seven clinical studies and one mixed study. Both preclinical and clinical studies were highly heterogeneous. Preclinically, KCRDs reduced tumor growth, but only a small majority of the in vivo studies found improved survival. These effects were stronger in groups with decreased blood glucose than in those with increased ketones, and also when other therapies were used concomitantly. Finally, KCRDs influence multiple molecular-biological pathways, including the PTEN/Akt/TSC2 and NF-kB pathway. In clinical studies, KCRDs seem to be safe and feasible in glioma patients. Clinical data were insufficient to draw conclusions regarding efficacy.

Conclusions: KCRDs have positive effects on malignant gliomas in published preclinical studies. Preliminary clinical data suggest that KCRDs are safe and feasible. However, because of the paucity of clinical data, the efficacy of KCRDs for improving survival and quality of life of glioma patients remains to be proven in prospective studies.
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October 2019

Indicators for Enteral Nutrition Use and Prophylactic Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Placement in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy.

Nutr Clin Pract 2017 Apr 15;32(2):225-232. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

5 Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a major risk factor for malnutrition and dehydration in patients with head and neck cancer. Enteral support is often needed, and a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is frequently placed. Specific indicators for PEG placement remain unclear. This study retrospectively determined which factors contributed to enteral nutrition (EN) use and PEG placement in a large patient group to gain insight on potential indicators for PEG placement protocol creation.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of 240 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent CRT in 2012-2015 was conducted. Lifestyle, oncological, treatment, and nutrition outcome characteristics were examined and compared between patients who used EN and those who did not, as well as between patients who received a PEG and those who did not.

Results: In total, 195 patients used EN (via PEG or nasogastric tube). Multivariate analysis showed that nodal disease presence ( P = .01) and bilateral neck irradiation ( P = .01) were significantly related to EN use while increased age ( P = .01), nodal disease presence ( P = .02), reconstruction extent other than primary closure ( P = .02), bilateral neck irradiation ( P < .01), and an adapted intake consistency prior to treatment ( P = .03) were significantly related to PEG placement.

Conclusion: Important factors for EN usage and PEG placement consideration include nodal disease and planned bilateral neck irradiation. Results from this study in combination with existing literature can be taken into consideration in the design of a PEG placement protocol. A better understanding of predictive indicators to PEG placement should be explored in further prospective studies.
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April 2017

Prediction Equations Underestimate Resting Energy Expenditure in Patients With End-Stage Cystic Fibrosis.

Nutr Clin Pract 2017 Feb 10;32(1):116-121. Epub 2016 Jul 10.

2 Cystic Fibrosis and Lung Transplantation Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with end-stage lung disease due to chronic inflammation and pulmonary infections. After lung transplantation (LTx), energy expenditure is expected to be lower because inflammation will decrease. We assessed the agreement between measured and predicted REE in pre-LTx CF and post-LTx patients with CF and differences in REE in pre-LTx CF and post-LTx patients with CF in a cross-sectional study.

Methods: Included were 12 pre-LTx patients with CF (9 women; median age 31.6 years; interquartile range [IQR], 23.3-40.0) and 12 patients with CF within 2 years after LTx (6 women; median age 33.5 years; IQR, 22.3-40.3). REE was measured in a fasted state using indirect calorimetry. Values were compared with predicted REE calculated by formulas of Harris-Benedict (1919 and 1984), Schofield, and the World Health Organization (1985). A calculated REE between 90% and 110% of REE measured was considered adequate.

Results: Prediction equations underestimate REE in at least 75% of pre-LTx and 33% of post-LTx patients with CF. Mean (SD) REE measured by indirect calorimetry was 1735 (251) kcal pre-LTx and 1650 (235) kcal post-LTx ( P = .40). REE expressed per kilogram of fat-free mass (FFM) was 40.5 kcal/kg in pre-LTx patients with CF, which was higher than the 34.3 kcal/kg in post-LTx patients with CF ( P = .01).

Conclusions: Prediction equations underestimate REE in patients with end-stage CF. REE per kg of FFM is lower post-LTx than pre-LTx in patients with CF. Measurement of REE is recommended for patients with CF, especially pre-LTx, to optimize energy requirements for improving nutrition status.
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February 2017