Publications by authors named "Annemarie Koster"

159 Publications

Measures of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Cardiorespiratory Fitness According to Glucose Metabolism Status: The Maastricht Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jun 14:e020387. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Cardiology Maastricht University Medical Centre+ Maastricht The Netherlands.

Background This cross-sectional study evaluated associations between structural and functional measures of left ventricular diastolic function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a well-characterized population-based cohort stratified according to glucose metabolism status. Methods and Results Six hundred seventy-two participants from The Maastricht Study (mean±SD age, 61±9 years; 17.4% prediabetes and 25.4% type 2 diabetes mellitus) underwent both echocardiography to determine left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, maximum tricuspid flow regurgitation, average e' and E/e' ratio; and submaximal cycle ergometer test to determine CRF as maximum power output per kilogram body mass. Associations were examined with linear regression adjusted for cardiovascular risk and lifestyle factors, and interaction terms. After adjustment, in normal glucose metabolism but not (pre)diabetes, higher left atrial volume index (per 1 mL/m), left ventricular mass index (per 1 g/m), maximum tricuspid regurgitation flow (per 1 m/s) were associated with higher CRF (maximum power output per kilogram body mass; β in normal glucose metabolism 0.015 [0.008-0.023], (pre)diabetes <0.10; 0.007 [-0.001 to 0.015], type 2 diabetes mellitus <0.10; 0.129 [0.011-0.246], >0.10; for left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, maximum tricuspid regurgitation flow, respectively). Furthermore, after adjustment, in all individuals, higher average E/e' ratio (per unit), but not average e', was associated with lower CRF (normal glucose metabolism -0.044 [-0.071 to -0.016]), >0.10). Conclusions In this population-based study, structural and functional measures of left ventricular diastolic function were independently differentially associated with CRF over the strata of glucose metabolism status. This suggests that deteriorating left ventricular diastolic function, although of small effect, may contribute to the pathophysiological process of impaired CRF in the general population. Moreover, the differential effects in these structural measures may be the consequence of cardiac structural adaptation to effectively increase CRF in normal glucose metabolism, which is absent in (pre)diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020387DOI Listing
June 2021

Effectiveness of a reablement training program for homecare staff on older adults' sedentary behavior: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Health Services Research, Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background/objectives: Homecare staff often take over activities instead of "doing activities with" clients, thereby hampering clients from remaining active in daily life. Training and supporting staff to integrate reablement into their working practices may reduce clients' sedentary behavior and improve their independence. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stay Active at Home" (SAaH) reablement training program for homecare staff on older homecare clients' sedentary behavior.

Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial (c-RCT).

Setting: Dutch homecare (10 nursing teams comprising a total of 313 staff members).

Participants: 264 clients (aged ≥65 years).

Intervention: SAaH seeks to equip staff with knowledge, attitude, and skills on reablement, and to provide social and organizational support to implement reablement in homecare practice. SAaH consists of program meetings, practical assignments, and weekly newsletters over a 9-month period. The control group received no additional training and delivered care as usual.

Measurements: Sedentary behavior (primary outcome) was measured using tri-axial wrist-worn accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included daily functioning (GARS), physical functioning (SPPB), psychological functioning (PHQ-9), and falls. Data were collected at baseline and at 12 months; data on falls were also collected at 6 months. Intention-to-treat analyses using mixed-effects linear and logistic regression were performed.

Results: We found no statistically significant differences between the study groups for sedentary time expressed as daily minutes (adjusted mean difference: β 18.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] -22.4, 59.3), p = 0.374) and as proportion of wake/wear time (β 0.6 [95% CI -1.5, 2.6], p = 0.589) or for most secondary outcomes.

Conclusion: Our c-RCT showed no evidence for the effectiveness of SAaH for all client outcomes. Refining SAaH, by adding components that intervene directly on homecare clients, may optimize the program and require further research. Additional research should explore the effectiveness of SAaH on behavioral determinants of clients and staff and cost-effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17286DOI Listing
June 2021

Greater daily glucose variability and lower time in range assessed with continuous glucose monitoring are associated with greater aortic stiffness: The Maastricht Study.

Diabetologia 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Aims: CVD is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes. It is currently unclear whether daily glucose variability contributes to CVD. Therefore, we investigated whether glucose variability is associated with arterial measures that are considered important in CVD pathogenesis.

Methods: We included participants of The Maastricht Study, an observational population-based cohort, who underwent at least 48 h of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (n = 853; age: 59.9 ± 8.6 years; 49% women, 23% type 2 diabetes). We studied the cross-sectional associations of two glucose variability indices (CGM-assessed SD [SD] and CGM-assessed CV [CV]) and time in range (TIR) with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), carotid distensibility coefficient, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index and circumferential wall stress via multiple linear regression.

Results: Higher SD was associated with higher cf-PWV after adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle factors (regression coefficient [B] per 1 mmol/l SD [and corresponding 95% CI]: 0.413 m/s [0.147, 0.679], p = 0.002). In the model additionally adjusted for CGM-assessed mean sensor glucose (MSG), SD and MSG contributed similarly to cf-PWV (respective standardised regression coefficients [st.βs] and 95% CIs of 0.065 [-0.018, 0.167], p = 0.160; and 0.059 [-0.043, 0.164], p = 0.272). In the fully adjusted models, both higher CV (B [95% CI] per 10% CV: 0.303 m/s [0.046, 0.559], p = 0.021) and lower TIR (B [95% CI] per 10% TIR: -0.145 m/s [-0.252, -0.038] p = 0.008) were statistically significantly associated with higher cf-PWV. Such consistent associations were not observed for the other arterial measures.

Conclusions: Our findings show that greater daily glucose variability and lower TIR are associated with greater aortic stiffness (cf-PWV) but not with other arterial measures. If corroborated in prospective studies, these results support the development of therapeutic agents that target both daily glucose variability and TIR to prevent CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05474-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Sex differences in the association of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications and function: The Maastricht Study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 05 7;20(1):102. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Women with type 2 diabetes are disproportionally affected by macrovascular complications; we here investigated whether this is also the case for microvascular complications and retinal microvascular measures.

Methods: In a population-based cohort study of individuals aged 40-75 years (n = 3410; 49% women, 29% type 2 diabetes (oversampled by design)), we estimated sex-specific associations, and differences therein, of (pre)diabetes (reference: normal glucose metabolism), and of continuous measures of glycemia with microvascular complications and retinal measures (nephropathy, sensory neuropathy, and retinal arteriolar and venular diameters and dilatation). Sex differences were analyzed using regression models with interaction terms (i.e. sex-by- (pre)diabetes and sex-by-glycemia) and were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: Men with type 2 diabetes (but not those with prediabetes) compared to men with normal glucose metabolism, (and men with higher levels of glycemia), had significantly higher prevalences of nephropathy (odds ratio: 1.58 95% CI (1.01;2.46)) and sensory neuropathy (odds ratio: 2.46 (1.67;3.63)), larger retinal arteriolar diameters (difference: 4.29 µm (1.22;7.36)) and less retinal arteriolar dilatation (difference: - 0.74% (- 1.22; - 0.25)). In women, these associations were numerically in the same direction, but generally not statistically significant (odds ratios: 1.71 (0.90;3.25) and 1.22 (0.75;1.98); differences: 0.29 µm (- 3.50;4.07) and: - 0.52% (- 1.11;0.08), respectively). Interaction analyses revealed no consistent pattern of sex differences in the associations of either prediabetes or type 2 diabetes or glycemia with microvascular complications or retinal measures. The prevalence of advanced-stage complications was too low for evaluation.

Conclusions: Our findings show that women with type 2 diabetes are not disproportionately affected by early microvascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01290-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106227PMC
May 2021

Carotid stiffness is associated with retinal microvascular dysfunction-The Maastricht study.

Microcirculation 2021 Apr 27:e12702. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University (UM), Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: This study investigated whether arterial stiffening is a determinant of subtle retinal microvascular changes that precede diabetic retinopathy.

Research Design And Methods: This study used cross-sectional data from the Maastricht Study, a type 2 diabetes-enriched population-based cohort study. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to investigate, in individuals without and with type 2 diabetes, the associations of carotid distensibility coefficient and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity with retinal microvascular diameters and flicker light-induced dilation and adjusted for cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors.

Results: The retinal microvascular diameter study population consisted of N = 2434 participants (51.4% men, mean ± SD age 59.8 ± 8.1 years, and 28.1% type 2 diabetes). No measures of arterial stiffness were significantly associated with microvascular diameters. Greater carotid distensibility coefficient (i.e., lower carotid stiffness) was significantly associated with greater retinal arteriolar flicker light-induced dilation (per standard deviation, standardized beta [95% CI] 0.06 [0.00; 0.12]) and non-significantly, but directionally similarly, associated with greater retinal venular flicker light-induced dilation (0.04 [-0.02; 0.10]). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (i.e., aortic stiffness) was not associated with retinal microvascular flicker light-induced dilation. The associations between carotid distensibility coefficient and retinal arteriolar and venular flicker light-induced dilation were two- to threefold stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes than in those without.

Conclusion: In this population-based study greater carotid, but not aortic, stiffness was associated with worse retinal flicker light-induced dilation and this association was stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hence, carotid stiffness may be a determinant of retinal microvascular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/micc.12702DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations of Dietary Patterns with Incident Depression: The Maastricht Study.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 23;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Our aim was to assess the association between defined dietary patterns and incident depressive symptoms. We used data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study ( = 2646, mean (SD) age 59.9 (8.0) years, 49.5% women; 15,188 person-years of follow-up). Level of adherence to the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD), Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension (DASH) were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually over seven-year-follow-up (using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire). We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to assess the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. One standard deviation (SD) higher adherence in the DHD and DASH was associated with a lower hazard ratio (HR) of depressive symptoms with HRs (95%CI) of 0.78 (0.69-0.89) and 0.87 (0.77-0.98), respectively, after adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. After further adjustment for lifestyle factors, the HR per one SD higher DHD was 0.83 (0.73-0.96), whereas adherence to Mediterranean and DASH diets was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. Higher adherence to the DHD lowered risk of incident depressive symptoms. Adherence to healthy diet could be an effective non-pharmacological preventive measure to reduce the incidence of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13031034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004955PMC
March 2021

Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 13;2021:6671823. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

For the Health ABC Study, Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Objective: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prevalent among older adults; however, longitudinal studies examining 25(OH)D status and MetS are lacking. We explore the association of 25(OH)D levels with prevalent and incident MetS in white and black older adults. . A total of 1620 white and 1016 black participants aged 70-79 years from the Health ABC cohort with measured 25(OH)D levels and data on MetS and covariates of interest were examined. The association between 25(OH)D levels and prevalent MetS at baseline and incident MetS at 6-year follow-up was examined in whites and blacks separately using logistic regression adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and renal function.

Results: At baseline, 635 (39%) white and 363 (36%) black participants had prevalent MetS. In whites, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with prevalent MetS (adjusted OR (95% CI), 1.85 (1.47, 2.34)) and 1.96 (1.46, 2.63) for 25(OH)D of 20-<30 and <20 vs. ≥30 ng/ml, respectively). The association was attenuated after adjustment for BMI but remained significant. No association was found between 25(OH)D levels and prevalent MetS in blacks. Among those without MetS at baseline (765 whites, 427 blacks), 150 (20%) whites and 87 (20%) blacks had developed MetS at 6-year follow-up. However, 25(OH)D levels were not associated with incident MetS in whites or blacks.

Conclusion: In older adults, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased odds of prevalent MetS in whites but not in blacks. No association was observed between 25(OH)D levels and incident MetS in either whites or blacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6671823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981173PMC
March 2021

The relation of depression with structural brain abnormalities and cognitive functioning: the Maastricht study.

Psychol Med 2021 Feb 26:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Alzheimer Centrum Limburg, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Individuals with depression often experience widespread and persistent cognitive deficits, which might be due to brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We therefore studied the associations between depression, markers of brain atrophy and CSVD, and cognitive functioning.

Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the population-based Maastricht study (n = 4734; mean age 59.1 ± 8.6 years, 50.2% women), which focuses on type 2 diabetes. A current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 151) was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Volumes of cerebral spinal fluid, white matter, gray matter and white matter hyperintensities, presence of lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds, and total CSVD burden were assessed by 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested the associations between MDD, brain markers and cognitive functioning in memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning & attention, and presence of cognitive impairment. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation.

Results: In fully adjusted models, MDD was associated with lower scores in information processing speed [mean difference = -0.18(-0.28;-0.08)], executive functioning & attention [mean difference = -0.13(-0.25;-0.02)], and with higher odds of cognitive impairment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60(1.06;2.40)]. MDD was associated with CSVD in participants without type 2 diabetes [OR = 1.65(1.06;2.56)], but CSVD or other markers of brain atrophy or CSVD did not mediate the association with cognitive functioning.

Conclusions: MDD is associated with more impaired information processing speed and executive functioning & attention, and overall cognitive impairment. Furthermore, MDD was associated with CSVD in participants without type 2 diabetes, but this association did not explain an impaired cognitive profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721000222DOI Listing
February 2021

Spousal concordance in pathophysiological markers and risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of The Maastricht Study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Feb;9(1)

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: We compared the degree of spousal concordance in a set of detailed pathophysiological markers and risk factors for type 2 diabetes to understand where in the causal cascade spousal similarities are most relevant.

Research Design And Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of couples who participated in The Maastricht Study (n=172). We used quantile regression models to assess spousal concordance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes, including four adiposity measures, two dimensions of physical activity, sedentary time and two diet indicators. We additionally assessed beta cell function and insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism status with fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c.

Results: The strongest spousal concordance (beta estimates) was observed for the Dutch Healthy Diet Index (DHDI) in men. A one-unit increase in wives' DHDI was associated with a 0.53 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.67) unit difference in men's DHDI. In women, the strongest concordance was for the time spent in high-intensity physical activity (HPA); thus, a one-unit increase in husbands' time spent in HPA was associated with a 0.36 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.64) unit difference in women's time spent in HPA. The weakest spousal concordance was observed in beta cell function indices.

Conclusions: Spousal concordance was strongest in behavioral risk factors. Concordance weakened when moving downstream in the causal cascade leading to type 2 diabetes. Public health prevention strategies to mitigate diabetes risk may benefit from targeting spousal similarities in health-related behaviors and diabetes risk factors to design innovative and potentially more effective couple-based interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893653PMC
February 2021

Thigh-worn accelerometry for measuring movement and posture across the 24-hour cycle: a scoping review and expert statement.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020 24;6(1):e000874. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

School of Public Health, The University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: The Prospective Physical Activity Sitting and Sleep consortium (ProPASS) is an international collaboration platform committed to harmonise thigh-worn accelerometry data. The aim of this paper is to (1) outline observational thigh-worn accelerometry studies and (2) summarise key strategic directions arising from the inaugural ProPASS meeting.

Methods: (1) We performed a systematic scoping review for observational studies of thigh-worn triaxial accelerometers in free-living adults (n≥100, 24 hours monitoring protocols). (2)Attendees of the inaugural ProPASS meeting were sent a survey focused on areas related to developing ProPASS: important terminology (Q1); accelerometry constructs (Q2); advantages and distinct contribution of the consortium (Q3); data pooling and harmonisation (Q4); data access and sharing (Q5 and Q6).

Results: (1) Eighty eligible articles were identified (22 primary studies; n~17 685). The accelerometers used most often were the ActivPAL3 and ActiGraph GT3X. The most commonly collected health outcomes were cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal. (2) None of the survey questions elicited the predefined 60% agreement. Survey responses recommended that ProPASS: use the term physical behaviour or movement behaviour rather than 'physical activity' for the data we are collecting (Q1); make only minor changes to ProPASS's accelerometry construct (Q2); prioritise developing standardised protocols/tools (Q4); facilitate flexible methods of data sharing and access (Q5 and Q6).

Conclusions: Thigh-worn accelerometry is an emerging method of capturing movement and posture across the 24 hours cycle. In 2020, the literature is limited to 22 primary studies from high-income western countries. This work identified ProPASS's strategic directions-indicating areas where ProPASS can most benefit the field of research: use of clear terminology, refinement of the measured construct, standardised protocols/tools and flexible data sharing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768971PMC
December 2020

Accelerometer-derived sedentary time and physical activity and the incidence of depressive symptoms - The Maastricht Study.

Psychol Med 2020 Dec 18:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Social Medicine, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Background: This study examined the associations between accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST), lower intensity physical activity (LPA), higher intensity physical activity (HPA) and the incidence of depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up.

Methods: We included 2082 participants from The Maastricht Study (mean ± s.d. age 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 51.2% men) without depressive symptoms at baseline. ST, LPA and HPA were measured with the ActivPAL3 activity monitor. Depressive symptoms were measured annually over 4 years of follow-up with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between ST, LPA, HPA and incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10). Analyses were adjusted for total waking time per day, age, sex, education level, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status and alcohol use.

Results: During 7812.81 person-years of follow-up, 203 (9.8%) participants developed incident depressive symptoms. No significant associations [Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found between sex-specific tertiles of ST (lowest v. highest tertile) [1.13 (0.76-1.66], or HPA (highest v. lowest tertile) [1.14 (0.78-1.69)] and incident depressive symptoms. LPA (highest v. lowest tertile) was statistically significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms in women [1.98 (1.19-3.29)], but not in men (p-interaction <0.01).

Conclusions: We did not observe an association between ST or HPA and incident depressive symptoms. Lower levels of daily LPA were associated with an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms in women. Future research is needed to investigate accelerometer-derived measured physical activity and ST with incident depressive symptoms, preferably stratified by sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720004924DOI Listing
December 2020

Exercise SBP response and incident depressive symptoms: The Maastricht Study.

J Hypertens 2021 Mar;39(3):494-502

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre.

Objective: : An exaggerated exercise SBP, which is potentially modifiable, may be associated with incident depressive symptoms via an increased pulsatile pressure load on the brain. However, the association between exaggerated exercise SBP and incident depressive symptoms is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether exaggerated exercise SBP is associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms over time.

Methods: : We used longitudinal data from the population-based Maastricht Study, with only individuals free of depressive symptoms at baseline included (n = 2121; 51.3% men; age 59.5 ± 8.5 years). Exercise SBP was measured at baseline with a submaximal exercise cycle test. We calculated a composite score of exercise SBP based on four standardized exercise SBP measures: SBP at moderate workload, SBP at peak exercise, SBP change per minute during exercise and SBP 4 min after exercise. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were determined annually at follow-up and defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire score of at least 10.

Results: : After a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, 175 participants (8.3%) had incident clinically relevant depressive symptoms. A 1 SD higher exercise SBP composite score was associated with a higher incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms [hazard ratio: 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.54)]. Results were adjusted for age, sex, education level, glucose metabolism status, lifestyle, cardiovascular risk factors, resting SBP and cardiorespiratory fitness.

Conclusion: : A higher exercise SBP response is associated with a higher incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002657DOI Listing
March 2021

The association between cardio-respiratory fitness and incident depression: The Maastricht Study.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 29;279:484-490. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands; CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) can help to prevent depression, but identification of the most important psycho-biological pathways involved is unclear. The improvement of cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) in response to MVPA can vary markedly, we therefore examined the association between CRF and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

Methods: We used data from The Maastricht Study, a large population-based prospective-cohort study. CRF was estimated at baseline from a graded submaximal exercise protocol and MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the validated Dutch version of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, both at baseline and during annual follow-up over five years. Cox proportional hazards models were used.

Results: A total of 1,730 individuals without depressive symptoms at baseline were included in the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up, n = 166 (9.6%) of individuals developed depressive symptoms. Compared to individuals with a low CRF, those with a moderate-to-high CRF had a significantly lower risk of developing depressive symptoms, independent of MVPA (medium CRF: HR = 0.49 (95%CI = 0.33-0.72); high CRF: HR = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.30-0.75). These associations were adjusted for age, sex, level of education, diabetes status, smoking status, alcohol use, energy intake, waist circumferences and antidepressant medications.

Limitations: PHQ-9 is a validated screening instrument, but it is not a diagnostic tool of depression.

Conclusions: Higher CRF was strongly associated with a lower risk of incident depressive symptoms over 5-year follow-up, independent of the level of MVPA at baseline, suggesting that interventions aimed at improving CRF could reduce the risk of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.090DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of the Amount and Pattern of Physical Activity With Arterial Stiffness: The Maastricht Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 10 15;9(20):e017502. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute Maastricht University Maastricht the Netherlands.

Background Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and can be beneficially influenced by physical activity. However, it is not clear how an individual's physical activity pattern over a week is associated with arterial stiffness. Therefore, we examined the associations of the amount and pattern of higher intensity physical activity with arterial stiffness. Methods and Results Data from the Maastricht Study (n=1699; mean age: 60±8 years, 49.4% women, 26.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus) were used. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility. The amount (continuous variable as h/wk) and pattern (categorical variable) of higher intensity physical activity were assessed with the activPAL3. Activity groups were: inactive (<75 min/wk), insufficiently active (75-150 min/wk), weekend warrior (>150 min/wk in ≤2 sessions), and regularly active (>150 min/wk in ≥3 sessions). In the fully adjusted model (adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and cardiovascular risk factors), higher intensity physical activity was associated with lower carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (amount: β = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.01; insufficiently active: β = -0.33, 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; weekend warrior: β = -0.38, 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; and regularly active: β = -0.46, 95% CI, -0.71 to -0.21 [reference: inactive]). These associations were stronger in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant association between higher intensity physical activity with carotid distensibility. Conclusions Participating in higher intensity physical activity was associated with lower carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity, but there was no difference between the regularly actives and the weekend warriors. From the perspective of arterial stiffness, engaging higher intensity physical activity, regardless of the weekly pattern, may be an important strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763372PMC
October 2020

Daily Physical Activity Patterns and Their Association With Health-Related Physical Fitness Among Aging Workers-The Finnish Retirement and Aging Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun;76(7):1242-1250

Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.

Background: This study aimed to identify accelerometer-measured daily physical activity patterns, and to examine how they associate with health-related physical fitness among aging workers.

Methods: The study population consisted of 263 participants (mean age 62.4 years, SD 1.0) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study, who used wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer for at least 1 week including both workdays and days off. Health-related physical fitness measures included body composition (waist circumference, bioimpedance), cardiorespiratory fitness (bicycle ergometer test), and muscular fitness (push-up and chair rise tests).

Results: Based on the latent class trajectory analysis, 6 trajectories were identified for workdays showing variation in activity level on working hours and on evening hours. Moderate activity during working hours and increase of activity level in the evening was associated with the most favorable health-related fitness in comparison to low activity throughout the workday: waist circumference 90.0 cm (95% confidence interval [CI] 85.5-94.5) versus 99.5 cm (95% CI 96.8-102.3), fat mass 13.9 kg (9.3-18.5) versus 23.8 kg (20.2-27.4), cardiorespiratory fitness 33.4 mL/kg/min (95% CI 31.4-35.3) versus 29.1 mL/kg/min (95% CI 27.8-30.3) (adjusted for age, sex, days off activity, smoking, and alcohol). For the days off, 2 different trajectories were identified, but they differed only in terms of level and not by timing of physical activity.

Conclusions: A large variation in the workday physical activity patterns was observed among aging workers. Independent of worktime activity, people who were more active in the evenings had more favorable health-related physical fitness than those who were less active throughout the day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa193DOI Listing
June 2021

The association of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance with incident depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up: The Maastricht Study.

Diabetologia 2020 11 5;63(11):2315-2328. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Aims/hypothesis: Depression is twice as common in individuals with type 2 diabetes as in the general population. However, it remains unclear whether hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are directly involved in the aetiology of depression. Therefore, we investigated the association of markers of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, measured as continuous variables, with incident depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up.

Methods: We used data from the longitudinal population-based Maastricht Study (n = 2848; mean age 59.9 ± 8.1 years, 48.8% women, 265 incident depression cases, 10,932 person-years of follow-up). We assessed hyperglycaemia by fasting and 2 h post-load OGTT glucose levels, HbA and skin autofluorescence (reflecting AGEs) at baseline. We used the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index and HOMA-IR to calculate insulin resistance at baseline. Depressive symptoms (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10) were assessed at baseline and annually over 4 years. We used Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for demographic, cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors.

Results: Fasting plasma glucose, 2 h post-load glucose and HbA levels were associated with an increased risk for incident depressive symptoms after full adjustment (HR 1.20 [95% CI 1.08, 1.33]; HR 1.25 [1.08, 1.44]; and HR 1.22 [1.09, 1.37] per SD, respectively), while skin autofluorescence, insulin sensitivity index and HOMA-IR were not (HR 0.99 [0.86, 1.13]; HR 1.02 [0.85, 1.25]; and HR 0.93 [0.81, 1.08], per SD, respectively).

Conclusions/interpretation: The observed temporal association between hyperglycaemia and incident depressive symptoms in this study supports the presence of a mechanistic link between hyperglycaemia and the development of depressive symptoms. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05247-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527373PMC
November 2020

Association of Markers of Microvascular Dysfunction With Prevalent and Incident Depressive Symptoms: The Maastricht Study.

Hypertension 2020 08 8;76(2):342-349. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Internal Medicine (A.F.J.G., M.J.M.v.A., C.D.A.S., B.M.S., N.C.S., R.M.A.H., C.J.H.v.d.K., T.T.v.S., M.T.S., A.J.H.M.H.), Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), the Netherlands.

The etiology of late-life depression (LLD) is still poorly understood. Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of LLD, but direct evidence of this association is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct and indirect markers of early microvascular dysfunction are associated with prevalent and incident LLD in the population-based Maastricht Study cohort. We measured microvascular dysfunction at baseline by use of flicker light-induced retinal vessel dilation response (Dynamic Vessel Analyzer), heat-induced skin hyperemic response (laser- Doppler flowmetry), and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction (endothelial dysfunction; sICAM-1 [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1], sVCAM-1 [soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1], sE-selectin [soluble E-selectin], and vWF [Von Willebrand Factor]). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at baseline and annually over 4 years of follow-up (n=3029; mean age 59.6±8.2 years, 49.5% were women, n=132 and n=251 with prevalent and incident depressive symptoms [PHQ-9≥10]). We used logistic, negative binominal and Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for demographic, cardiovascular, and lifestyle factors. Retinal venular dilatation and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction were associated with the more prevalent depressive symptoms after full adjustment (PHQ-9 score, RR, 1.05 [1.00-1.11] and RR 1.06 [1.01-1.11], respectively). Retinal venular dilatation was also associated with prevalent depressive symptoms (PHQ-9≥10; odds ratio, 1.42 [1.09-1.84]), after full adjustment. Retinal arteriolar dilatation and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction were associated with incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9≥10; HR, 1.23 [1.04-1.46] and HR, 1.19 [1.05-1.35]), after full adjustment. These findings support the concept that microvascular dysfunction in the retina, and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction is involved in the etiology of LLD and might help in finding additional targets for the prevention and treatment of LLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15260DOI Listing
August 2020

Cardiometabolic risk factors as determinants of peripheral nerve function: the Maastricht Study.

Diabetologia 2020 08 15;63(8):1648-1658. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to examine associations of cardiometabolic risk factors, and (pre)diabetes, with (sensorimotor) peripheral nerve function.

Methods: In 2401 adults (aged 40-75 years) we previously determined fasting glucose, HbA, triacylglycerol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, inflammation, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking, glucose metabolism status (by OGTT) and medication use. Using nerve conduction tests, we measured compound muscle action potential, sensory nerve action potential amplitudes and nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) of the peroneal, tibial and sural nerves. In addition, we measured vibration perception threshold (VPT) of the hallux and assessed neuropathic pain using the DN4 interview. We assessed cross-sectional associations of risk factors with nerve function (using linear regression) and neuropathic pain (using logistic regression). Associations were adjusted for potential confounders and for each other risk factor. Associations from linear regression were presented as standardised regression coefficients (β) and 95% CIs in order to compare the magnitudes of observed associations between all risk factors and outcomes.

Results: Hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose or HbA) was associated with worse sensorimotor nerve function for all six outcome measures, with associations of strongest magnitude for motor peroneal and tibial NCV, β = -0.17 SD (-0.21, -0.13) and β = -0.18 SD (-0.23, -0.14), respectively. Hyperglycaemia was also associated with higher VPT and neuropathic pain. Larger waist circumference was associated with worse sural nerve function and higher VPT. Triacylglycerol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure were not associated with worse nerve function; however, antihypertensive medication usage (suggestive of history of exposure to hypertension) was associated with worse peroneal compound muscle action potential amplitude and NCV. Smoking was associated with worse nerve function, higher VPT and higher risk for neuropathic pain. Inflammation was associated with worse nerve function and higher VPT, but only in those with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and, to a lesser extent, prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) were associated with worse nerve function, higher VPT and neuropathic pain (p for trend <0.01 for all outcomes).

Conclusions/interpretation: Hyperglycaemia (including the non-diabetic range) was most consistently associated with early-stage nerve damage. Nonetheless, larger waist circumference, inflammation, history of hypertension and smoking may also independently contribute to worse nerve function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05194-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351845PMC
August 2020

Neighbourhood property value and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maastricht study: A multilevel study.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(6):e0234324. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Social Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Low individual socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the extent to which the local context in which people live may influence T2DM rates remains unclear. This study examines whether living in a low property value neighbourhood is associated with higher rates of T2DM independently of individual SES.

Research Design And Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the Maastricht Study (2010-2013) and geographical data from Statistics Netherlands, multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between neighbourhood property value and T2DM. Individual SES was based on education, occupation and income. Of the 2,056 participants (aged 40-75 years), 494 (24%) were diagnosed with T2DM.

Results: Individual SES was strongly associated with T2DM, but a significant proportion of the variance in T2DM was found at the neighbourhood level (VPC = 9.2%; 95% CI = 5.0%-16%). Participants living in the poorest neighbourhoods had a 2.38 times higher odds ratio of T2DM compared to those living in the richest areas (95% CI = 1.58-3.58), independently of individual SES.

Conclusions: Neighbourhood property value showed a significant association with T2DM, suggesting the usefulness of area-based programmes aimed at improving neighbourhood characteristics in order to tackle inequalities in T2DM.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234324PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279598PMC
August 2020

Both Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Are Associated With Lower Heart Rate Variability: The Maastricht Study.

Diabetes Care 2020 05 11;43(5):1126-1133. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

Objective: Low heart rate variability (HRV), a marker for cardiac autonomic dysfunction, is a known feature of type 2 diabetes, but it remains incompletely understood whether this also applies to prediabetes or across the whole glycemic spectrum. Therefore, we investigated the association among prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and measures of glycemia and HRV.

Research Design And Methods: In the population-based Maastricht Study ( = 2,107; mean ± SD age 59 ± 8 years; 52% men; normal glucose metabolism [ = 1,226], prediabetes [ = 331], and type 2 diabetes [ = 550, oversampled]), we determined 24-h electrocardiogram-derived HRV in time and frequency domains (individual -scores, based upon seven and six variables, respectively). We used linear regression with adjustments for age, sex, and major cardiovascular risk factors.

Results: After adjustments, both time and frequency domain HRV were lower in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes as compared with normal glucose metabolism (standardized β [95% CI] for time domain: -0.15 [-0.27; -0.03] and -0.34 [-0.46; -0.22], respectively, for trend <0.001; for frequency domain: -0.14 [-0.26; -0.02] and -0.31 [-0.43; -0.19], respectively, for trend <0.001). In addition, 1-SD higher glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postload glucose were associated with lower HRV in both domains (time domain: -0.16 [-0.21; -0.12], -0.16 [-0.21; -0.12], and -0.15 [-0.20; -0.10], respectively; frequency domain: -0.14 [-0.19; -0.10], -0.14 [-0.18; -0.09], and -0.13 [-0.18; -0.08], respectively).

Conclusions: Both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes were independently associated with lower HRV. This is further substantiated by independent continuous associations between measures of hyperglycemia and lower HRV. These data strongly suggest that cardiac autonomic dysfunction is already present in prediabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc19-2367DOI Listing
May 2020

Higher levels of daily physical activity are associated with better skin microvascular function in type 2 diabetes-The Maastricht Study.

Microcirculation 2020 05 10;27(4):e12611. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Physical activity may provide a means for the prevention of cardiovascular disease via improving microvascular function. Therefore, this study investigated whether physical activity is associated with skin and retinal microvascular function.

Methods: In The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study enriched with type 2 diabetes (n = 1298, 47.3% women, aged 60.2 ± 8.1 years, 29.5% type 2 diabetes), we studied whether accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary time associate with skin and retinal microvascular function. Associations were studied by linear regression and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we investigated whether associations were stronger in type 2 diabetes.

Results: In individuals with type 2 diabetes, total physical activity and higher-intensity physical activity were independently associated with greater heat-induced skin hyperemia (regression coefficients per hour), respectively, 10 (95% CI: 1; 18) and 36 perfusion units (14; 58). In individuals without type 2 diabetes, total physical activity and higher-intensity physical activity were not associated with heat-induced skin hyperemia. No associations with retinal arteriolar %-dilation were identified.

Conclusion: Higher levels of total and higher-intensity physical activity were associated with greater skin microvascular vasodilation in individuals with, but not in those without, type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/micc.12611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317394PMC
May 2020

Glucose Variability Assessed with Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Reliability, Reference Values, and Correlations with Established Glycemic Indices-The Maastricht Study.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2020 05 17;22(5):395-403. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Glucose variability (GV) measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has become an accepted marker of glycemic control. Nevertheless, several methodological aspects of GV assessment require further study. We, therefore, investigated the minimum number of days needed to reliably measure GV, assessed GV reference values, and studied the correlation of GV with established glycemic indices (i.e., HbA, seven-point oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]-derived indices). We used cross-sectional data from The Maastricht Study, an observational population-based cohort enriched with type 2 diabetes. Participants with more than 48 h of CGM (iPro2; Medtronic) were included for analysis ( = 851; age: 60 ± 9years; 49% women; 23% type 2 diabetes). We used mean sensor glucose (MSG), standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) as CGM-derived indices (the latter two for GV quantification). We calculated reliability using the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, established reference values by calculating 2.5th-97.5th percentiles, and studied correlations using Spearman's rho. Sufficient reliability ( > 0.80) was achieved with two (MSG and SD), or three monitoring days (CV). The reference ranges, assessed in individuals with normal glucose metabolism ( = 470), were 90.5-120.6 mg/dL (MSG), 7.9-24.8 mg/dL (SD), and 7.74%-22.45% (CV). For MSG, the strongest correlation was found with fasting plasma glucose (rho = 0.65 [0.61; 0.69]); for SD, with the 1-h OGTT value (rho = 0.61 [0.56; 0.65]); and for CV, with both the incremental glucose peak (IGP) during the OGTT (rho = 0.50 [0.45; 0.55]) and the 1-h OGTT value (rho = 0.50 [0.45; 0.55]). The reliability findings and reference values are relevant for studies that aim to investigate CGM-measured GV. One-hour OGTT and IGP values can be used as GV indices when CGM is unavailable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2019.0385DOI Listing
May 2020

Adverse differences in cardiometabolic risk factor levels between individuals with pre-diabetes and normal glucose metabolism are more pronounced in women than in men: the Maastricht Study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2019 15;7(1):e000787. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To investigate whether adverse differences in levels of cardiovascular risk factors in women than men, already established when comparing individuals with and without diabetes, are also present before type 2 diabetes onset.

Research Design And Methods: In a population-based cohort study of individuals aged 40-75 years (n=3410; 49% women, 29% type 2 diabetes (oversampled by design)), we estimated associations with cardiometabolic and lifestyle risk factors of (1) pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes (reference category: normal glucose metabolism) and (2) among non-diabetic individuals, of continuous levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Age-adjusted sex differences were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models with sex interaction terms.

Results: In pre-diabetes, adverse differences in cardiometabolic risk factors were greater in women than men for systolic blood pressure (difference, 3.02 mm Hg; 95% CI:-0.26 to 6.30), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (difference, -0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.02), total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (difference, 0.22; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.44), triglycerides (ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.22), and inflammation markers Z-score (ratio: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.41). In type 2 diabetes, these sex differences were similar in direction, and of greater magnitude. Additionally, HbA1c among non-diabetic individuals was more strongly associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors in women than men: per one per cent point increase, systolic blood pressure (difference, 3.58 mm Hg; 95% CI: -0.03 to 7.19), diastolic blood pressure (difference, 2.10 mm Hg; 95% CI: -0.02 to 4.23), HDL cholesterol (difference, -0.09 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.19 to 0.00), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (difference, 0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.47). With regard to lifestyle risk factors, no consistent pattern was observed.

Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the concept that the more adverse changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in women (than men) arise as a continuous process before the onset of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861068PMC
September 2020

Microvascular Dysfunction Is Associated With Worse Cognitive Performance: The Maastricht Study.

Hypertension 2020 01 18;75(1):237-245. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

From the CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases (S.P.R., T.T.v.S., A.J.H.M.H., A.A.K., N.S., R.M.A.H., M.T.S., C.D.A.S.), Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, Limburg, the Netherlands.

Microvascular dysfunction may be associated with worse cognitive performance. Most previous studies did not adjust for important confounders, evaluated only individual measures of microvascular dysfunction, and showed inconsistent results. We evaluated the association between a comprehensive set of measures of microvascular dysfunction and cognitive performance in the population-based Maastricht Study. We used cross-sectional data including 3011 participants (age 59.5±8.2; 48.9% women; 26.5% type 2 diabetes mellitus [oversampled by design]). Measures of microvascular dysfunction included magnetic resonance imaging features of cerebral small vessel disease, plasma biomarkers of microvascular dysfunction, albuminuria, flicker light-induced retinal arteriolar and venular dilation response and heat-induced skin hyperemia. These measures were summarized into a microvascular dysfunction composite score. Cognitive domains assessed were memory, processing speed, and executive function. A cognitive function score was calculated as the sum of the scores on these 3 cognitive domains. The microvascular dysfunction score was associated with a worse cognitive function score (standardized β, -0.087 [95% CI, -0.127 to -0.047]), independent of age, education level, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, total/HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, lipid-modifying medication, prior cardiovascular disease, depression and plasma biomarkers of low-grade inflammation. The fully adjusted β-coefficient of the association between the microvascular dysfunction score and the cognitive function score was equivalent to 2 (range, 1-3) years of aging for each SD higher microvascular dysfunction score. The microvascular dysfunction score was associated with worse memory and processing speed but not with worse executive function. The present study shows that microvascular dysfunction is associated with worse cognitive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.13023DOI Listing
January 2020

A Privacy-Preserving Infrastructure for Analyzing Personal Health Data in a Vertically Partitioned Scenario.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2019 Aug;264:373-377

Institute of Data Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

It is widely anticipated that the use and analysis of health-related big data will enable further understanding and improvements in human health and wellbeing. Here, we propose an innovative infrastructure, which supports secure and privacy-preserving analysis of personal health data from multiple providers with different governance policies. Our objective is to use this infrastructure to explore the relation between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus status and healthcare costs. Our approach involves the use of distributed machine learning to analyze vertically partitioned data from the Maastricht Study, a prospective population-based cohort study, and data from the official statistics agency of the Netherlands, Statistics Netherlands (Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek; CBS). This project seeks an optimal solution accounting for scientific, technical, and ethical/legal challenges. We describe these challenges, our progress towards addressing them in a practical use case, and a simulation experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI190246DOI Listing
August 2019

Adulthood Socioeconomic Position and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-A Comparison of Education, Occupation, Income, and Material Deprivation: The Maastricht Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 23;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Social Medicine, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

In an effort to better quantify the impact of adulthood socioeconomic circumstances on prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we set out to examine the relative importance of four adulthood socioeconomic indicators. Using cross-sectional data from The Maastricht Study on 2011 middle-aged older men and women, our findings indicate that low educational level (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.24-2.64), low occupational level (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.98-2.05), and material deprivation (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.33-2.38) were independently associated with T2DM. Low income (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.88-1.87) was the strongest, albeit not significant, SEP (socioeconomic position) correlate of prediabetes. This association confirms SEP as a multifaceted concept and indicates the need to measure SEP accordingly. In order to tackle the social gradient in prediabetes and T2DM, one should, therefore, address multiple SEP indicators and their possible pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517950PMC
April 2019

Dynamic sitting: Measurement and associations with metabolic health.

J Sports Sci 2019 Aug 30;37(15):1746-1754. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

a Department of Social Medicine/CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute , Maastricht University , Maastricht , The Netherlands.

Dynamic sitting, such as fidgeting and desk work, might be associated with health, but remains difficult to identify out of accelerometry data. We examined, in a laboratory study, whether dynamic sitting can be identified out of triaxial activity counts. Among 18 participants (56% men, 27.3 ± 6.5 years), up to 236 counts per minute were recorded in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes during dynamic sitting using a hip-worn accelerometer. Subsequently, we examined in 621 participants (38% men, 80.0 ± 4.7 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study whether dynamic sitting was associated with cardio-metabolic health. Compared to participants who recorded the fewest dynamic sitting minutes (Q), those with more dynamic sitting minutes had a lower BMI (Q = -1.39 (95%CI = -2.33;-0.46); Q = -1.87 (-2.82;-0.92); Q = -3.38 (-4.32;-2.45)), a smaller waist circumference (Q = -2.95 (-5.44;-0.46); Q = -3.47 (-6.01;-0.93); Q = -8.21 (-10.72;-5.71)), and a lower odds for the metabolic syndrome (Q = 0.74 [0.45;1.20] Q = 0.58 [0.36;0.95]; Q = 0.36 [0.22;0.59]). Our findings suggest that dynamic sitting might be identified using accelerometry and that this behaviour was associated with health. This might be important given the large amounts of time people spend sitting. Future studies with a focus on validation, causation and physiological pathways are needed to further examine the possible relevance of dynamic sitting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1592800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579695PMC
August 2019

Effects, costs and feasibility of the 'Stay Active at Home' Reablement training programme for home care professionals: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMC Geriatr 2018 11 13;18(1):276. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Health Services Research, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200, MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: According to the principles of Reablement, home care services are meant to be goal-oriented, holistic and person-centred taking into account the capabilities and opportunities of older adults. However, home care services traditionally focus on doing things for older adults rather than with them. To implement Reablement in practice, the 'Stay Active at Home' programme was developed. It is assumed that the programme leads to a reduction in sedentary behaviour in older adults and consequently more cost-effective outcomes in terms of their health and wellbeing. However, this has yet to be proven.

Methods/ Design: A two-group cluster randomised controlled trial with 12 months follow-up will be conducted. Ten nursing teams will be selected, pre-stratified on working area and randomised into an intervention group ('Stay Active at Home') or control group (no training). All nurses of the participating teams are eligible to participate in the study. Older adults and, if applicable, their domestic support workers (DSWs) will be allocated to the intervention or control group as well, based on the allocation of the nursing team. Older adults are eligible to participate, if they: 1) receive homecare services by the selected teams; and 2) are 65 years or older. Older adults will be excluded if they: 1) are terminally ill or bedbound; 2) have serious cognitive or psychological problems; or 3) are unable to communicate in Dutch. DSWs are eligible to participate if they provide services to clients who fulfil the eligibility criteria for older adults. The study consists of an effect evaluation (primary outcome: sedentary behaviour in older adults), an economic evaluation and a process evaluation. Data for the effect and economic evaluation will be collected at baseline and 6 and/or 12 months after baseline using performance-based and self-reported measures. In addition, data from client records will be extracted. A mixed-methods design will be applied for the process evaluation, collecting data of older adults and professionals throughout the study period.

Discussion: This study will result in evidence about the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and feasibility of the 'Stay Active at Home' programme.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03293303 , registered on 20 September 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-018-0968-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234661PMC
November 2018

Daily physical activity patterns among aging workers: the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study (FIREA).

Occup Environ Med 2019 01 23;76(1):33-39. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Public Health, University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Objectives: Physical activity is associated with the aging workers' ability to work and predicts working beyond retirement age. To better understand physical activity behaviour in this growing population group, we aimed at characterising 24-hour physical activity patterns among aging workers, and to describe the association between occupational category and total, occupational and leisure-time physical activities.

Methods: We included 878 workers (mean age 62.4 years, SD 1.1, 85% women) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study, who wore an accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist for 1 week. We plotted mean hourly activity counts per minute (CPM) for working days and days off. We also compared mean daily CPM between genders and occupations between working days and days off, and work and leisure time by using repeated measures analysis of variance.

Results: Activity patterns were different between genders, occupations and types of the day. Women (2580, 95% CI 2540 to 2620) had higher daily mean CPM than men (2110, 95% CI 2020 to 2000). Women in manual occupations were more active than women in non-manual occupations during working days. The differences among men were in the same direction but less pronounced than among women. We found no differences in activity levels between occupations during days off and leisure time on working days.

Conclusions: In aging workers, physical activity differs by gender and occupation during working time, but not during leisure time. As low physical activity is associated with increased risk of early exit from employment, physical activity should be promoted at workplaces, especially among men and people in non-manual occupations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-105266DOI Listing
January 2019