Publications by authors named "Annemarie Jagielo"

10 Publications

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Development of a Prognostic Awareness Impact Scale for Patients with Advanced Cancer.

J Palliat Med 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

No reliable instruments exist to measure prognostic awareness and its psychological and behavioral impacts for patients with advanced cancer. We developed the Prognostic Awareness Impact Scale (PAIS) using a qualitative approach. During phase 1, we convened a working group with a transdisciplinary team of clinicians from oncology ( = 2), psychology ( = 2), psychiatry ( = 1), palliative care ( = 3), and survey development ( = 1) to identify key domains of PAIS. Using a consensus-driven process, the team generated an item bank for each domain. During phase 2, we conducted cognitive interviews with 39 patients with advanced cancer to assess the understandability of the PAIS. The working group developed a conceptual framework for PAIS, identifying three domains: (1) cognitive understanding of prognosis (capacity to understand intellectually one's prognosis), (2) emotional coping (capacity to process prognostic uncertainty and terminal prognosis), and (3) adaptive response (capacity to use prognostic awareness to inform life decisions). Cognitive interviews revealed that patients had an accurate understanding of most PAIS items. Patients reported difficulty with binary response options for questions pertaining to emotional coping. They expressed difficulty answering numerous questions regarding their cognitive understanding of their prognosis. We revised the PAIS by (1) replacing binary response options with ordinal agreement scales; and (2) reducing the number of items focused on cognitive understanding of prognosis. We developed a conceptual framework to capture prognostic awareness and its psychological and behavioral impacts for patients with advanced cancer using the PAIS. Future work should focus on validating the PAIS by testing its psychometric properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2021.0238DOI Listing
October 2021

Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 16;27(4):341.e1-341.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is an intensive and potentially curative therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients admitted for HCT experience a prolonged, isolating hospitalization and endure substantial physical and psychological symptoms. However, there is a paucity of research on the impact of HCT on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in transplant recipients. This secondary analysis of 250 patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic HCT examined PTSD using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian measured at 6 months after HCT. We used the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess quality of life (QOL) and depression and anxiety symptoms at the time of admission for HCT, week 2 during hospitalization, and 6 months after HCT. We used multivariate regression models to assess factors associated with PTSD symptoms. Given collinearity between QOL, depression, and anxiety symptoms, we modeled these separately. The rate of clinically significant PTSD symptoms at 6 months after HCT was 18.9% (39/206). Participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms experienced hypervigilance (92.3%), avoidance (92.3%), and intrusion (76.9%) symptoms. Among patients without clinically significant PTSD symptoms, 24.5% had clinically significant hypervigilance symptoms and 13.7% had clinically significant avoidance symptoms. Lower QOL at time of HCT admission (B = -0.04, P = .004) and being single (B = -3.35, P = .027) were associated with higher PTSD symptoms at 6 months after HCT. Higher anxiety at time of HCT admission (B = 1.34, P <.001), change in anxiety during HCT hospitalization (B = 0.59, P =.006), and being single (B = -3.50, P = .017) were associated with higher PTSD symptoms at 6 months. In a separate model using depression, younger age (B = -0.13, P = .017), being single (B = -3.58, P = .018), and higher baseline depression symptoms were also associated with higher PTSD symptoms at 6 months (B = 0.97, P < .001). Approximately one fifth of patients undergoing HCT experience clinically significant PTSD symptoms at 6 months after transplantation. The prevalence of hypervigilance and avoidance symptoms are notable even among patients who do not have clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Interventions to prevent and treat PTSD symptoms in HCT recipients are clearly warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.011DOI Listing
April 2021

Palliative care for patients undergoing stem cell transplant: intervention components and supportive care measures.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 08 6;56(8):1971-1977. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

An inpatient palliative care intervention during HCT led to improvement in patient QOL and mood. We sought to describe components of the intervention, investigate differences in supportive care practices by treatment arm, and explore whether these differences mediated the impact of the intervention on patient QOL and mood. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial investigating inpatient palliative care integrated with transplant care versus standard transplant care for HCT recipients. Palliative care clinicians completed weekly surveys to describe topics addressed during visits. We extracted use of supportive care medications from the medical record. Participants completed QOL and mood assessments at baseline and two weeks post-HCT. Causal mediation assessed whether differences in supportive care practices mediated the impact of the intervention on patient-reported outcomes. A total of 160 HCT recipients participated. Palliative care visits most frequently focused on managing symptoms and coping with HCT. Patients randomized to the intervention were more likely to use Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) (32.1% vs. 15.2%, p = 0.02) and atypical antipsychotics (35.8% vs. 17.7%, p = 0.01). Neither PCA nor atypical antipsychotics mediated the effect of the intervention on patient-reported outcomes. Future work to explore mechanisms by which the palliative care intervention improves QOL and mood is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01281-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Caregivers Prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HCT).

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 5;27(6):517.e1-517.e5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Family and friends caring for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipients experience substantial disruptions in daily life as they prepare for transplant. These disruptions may increase their psychological distress, yet little research has described the extent of this distress. The goals of the present study were to characterize rates of anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to HCT and their relationship with modifiable caregiving domains. We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data of caregivers of patients undergoing HCT. Caregivers completed self-report measures to assess 8 domains of caregiving (Caregiver Oncology Quality of Life Questionnaire) and anxiety and depression symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]) prior to transplant. Scores ≥8 on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales signified clinically significant symptoms. We used multivariable regression models adjusting for age, sex, caregiver relationship, and HCT type to examine the associations between caregiving domains and anxiety and depression symptoms. We enrolled 193 caregivers (median age = 60 years, 70.0% female, 52.3% allogeneic transplant). A majority of participants were providing care for a spouse (79.8%), followed by a child (7.8%) or parent (5.2%). On average, caregivers reported more anxiety (mean = 7.04, SD = 3.94) than depression symptoms (mean = 4.18, SD = 3.49), with 46.6% and 16.1% endorsing clinically significant anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. Caregiver anxiety was associated with worse physical well-being, less leisure time, and poorer coping (Ps < .05). Caregiver depression symptoms were associated with worse physical well-being and less leisure time (Ps < .05). Caregivers of HCT recipients experience substantial psychological distress, particularly anxiety, prior to transplant. This distress is linked to modifiable caregiving domains. Study findings identify possible targets for psychosocial interventions aimed at managing caregiver anxiety and depression symptoms as well as highlight the need for intervention early during the course of transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217210PMC
June 2021

Association Between Baseline Patient-Reported Outcomes and Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 25;27(6):496.e1-496.e5. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematologic malignancies, but it often results in significant toxicities and impaired quality of life (QOL). Although the value of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is increasingly recognized in HCT, data are limited regarding the relationship between PROs and HCT complications. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 250 patients who were hospitalized for autologous or allogeneic HCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2011 through 2016. We assessed QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General), mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and fatigue (FACT-Fatigue) at baseline. We abstracted from the Electronic Health Record (1) hospitalization during the first 100 days after HCT, (2) days alive and out of the hospital in the first 100 days after HCT, and (3) cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) among allogeneic HCT recipients. We assessed the association of baseline PROs with HCT complications using multivariable models adjusting for patient and transplant characteristics. Overall, 44.4% (111/250) of patients underwent an autologous HCT, 25.2% (63/250) received a myeloablative allogeneic HCT, and 30.4% (76/250) underwent a reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT. In multivariable logistic regression, higher anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, P = .004) was associated with higher likelihood of rehospitalization within 100 days after HCT. In multivariable Poisson regression, lower fatigue (β = 0.003, P = .015) was associated with increased days alive and out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-HCT. In multivariable logistic regression, lower baseline QOL (OR = 0.97, P = .034), higher fatigue (OR = 0.95, P = .004), and higher depression (OR = 1.15, P = .020) were associated with increased likelihood of acute GVHD. Baseline PROs are associated with health care utilization after HCT and risk of acute GVHD in allogeneic HCT recipients. These findings underscore the potential utility of pretransplantation PROs as important prognostic factors for HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.029DOI Listing
June 2021

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer 2021 Jul 25;127(14):2500-2506. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving intensive chemotherapy face a life-threatening illness, isolating hospitalization, and substantial physical and psychological symptoms. However, data are limited regarding risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in this population.

Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data from 160 patients with high-risk AML who were enrolled in a supportive care trial. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version was used to assess PTSD symptoms at 1 month after AML diagnosis. The Brief COPE and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Leukemia were to assess coping and quality of life (QOL), respectively. In addition, multivariate regression models were constructed to assess the relation between PTSD symptoms and baseline sociodemographic factors, coping, and QOL.

Results: Twenty-eight percent of patients reported PTSD symptoms, describing high rates of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigiliance. Baseline sociodemographic factors significantly associated with PTSD symptoms were age (B = -0.26; P = .002), race (B = -8.78; P = .004), and postgraduate education (B = -6.30; P = .029). Higher baseline QOL (B = -0.37; P ≤ .001) and less decline in QOL during hospitalization (B = -0.05; P = .224) were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms. Approach-oriented coping (B = -0.92; P = .001) was associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, whereas avoidant coping (B = 2.42; P ≤ .001) was associated with higher PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with AML report clinically significant PTSD symptoms 1 month after initiating intensive chemotherapy. Patients' baseline QOL, coping strategies, and extent of QOL decline during hospitalization emerge as important risk factors for PTSD, underscoring the need for supportive oncology interventions to reduce the risk of PTSD in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33524DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Boston.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 05 24;36(5):1285-1291. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Hematology Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have been described in health systems overwhelmed with a surge of cases. However, studies examining outcomes of patients admitted to hospitals not in crisis are lacking.

Objective: To describe clinical characteristic and outcomes of all patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to hospitals not in crisis, and factors associated with mortality in this population.

Design: A retrospective analysis PARTICIPANTS: In total, 470 consecutive patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization in one health system in Boston from January 1, 2020 to April 15, 2020.

Main Measures: We collected clinical outcomes during hospitalization including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors. We utilized multivariable logistic regression models to examine factors associated with mortality.

Key Results: A total of 470 patients (median age 66 [range 23-98], 54.0% male) were included. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (38.5%, 181/470) and obesity (41.3%, 194/470). On admission, 41.9% (197/470) of patients were febrile and 60.6% (285/470) required supplemental oxygen. During hospitalization, 37.9% (178/470) were admitted to the ICU, 33.6% (158/470) received mechanical ventilation, 29.4% (138/470) received vasopressors, 16.4% (77/470) reported limitations on their desire for life-sustaining therapies such as intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 25.1% (118/470) died. Among those admitted to the ICU (N=178), the median number of days on the ventilator was 10 days (IQR 1-29), and 58.4% (104/178) were discharged alive. Older age (OR=1.04, P<0.001), male sex (OR=2.14, P=0.007), higher comorbidities (OR=1.20, P=0.001), higher lactate dehydrogenase on admission (2nd tertile: OR=4.07, P<0.001; 3rd tertile: OR=8.04, P<0.001), and the need for supplemental oxygen on admission (OR=2.17, P=0.014) were all associated with higher mortality.

Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and those who received mechanical ventilation survived. These data highlight the need to examine public health and system factors that contribute to improved outcomes for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-06622-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904295PMC
May 2021

Enhanced coping and self-efficacy in caregivers of stem cell transplant recipients: Identifying mechanisms of a multimodal psychosocial intervention.

Cancer 2020 12 7;126(24):5337-5346. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: In a recent trial, a 6-session intervention (BMT-CARE) integrating medical information with cognitive-behavioral strategies improved quality of life (QOL), mood, coping skills, and self-efficacy for family/friend caregivers of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. This study examined whether improvements in coping and self-efficacy mediated the intervention effects on QOL and mood.

Methods: From December 2017 to April 2019, 100 caregivers of HCT recipients were enrolled into a randomized clinical trial of BMT-CARE versus usual care. Caregivers completed self-report measures of QOL (CareGiver Oncology Quality of Life questionnaire), depression and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), coping skills (Measure of Current Status), and self-efficacy (Cancer Self-Efficacy Scale-Transplant) at enrollment (before HCT) and 60 days after HCT. Causal mediation regression models were used to examine whether changes in coping and self-efficacy mediated intervention effects on QOL as well as depression and anxiety symptoms.

Results: Improvements in 60-day QOL in patients assigned to BMT-CARE were partially mediated by improved coping and self-efficacy (indirect effect, 6.93; SE, 1.85; 95% CI, 3.71-11.05). Similarly, reductions in 60-day depression and anxiety symptoms were partially mediated by improved coping and self-efficacy (indirect effect for depression, -1.19; SE, 0.42; 95% CI, -2.23 to -0.53; indirect effect for anxiety, -1.46; SE, 0.55; 95% CI, -2.52 to -0.43). Combined improvements in coping and self-efficacy accounted for 67%, 80%, and 39% of the total intervention effects on QOL and depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively.

Conclusions: Coping and self-efficacy are essential components of a brief psychosocial intervention that improves QOL and mood for caregivers of HCT recipients during the acute recovery period.

Lay Summary: A 6-session program (BMT-CARE) focused on providing medical information, caregiving skills, and self-care and coping strategies has been previously reported to improve the quality of life and mood of caregivers of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients in comparison with caregivers who receive care as usual. Using statistical models, this study suggests that learning coping skills and improving self-efficacy are the most essential components of this program that likely lead to better quality of life and mood for caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7950641PMC
December 2020

Psychological Distress in Bereaved Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Cancer.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 03 31;61(3):488-494. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Division of Hematology & Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Context: Individuals caring for patients with advanced cancer (caregivers) experience psychological distress during the patient's illness course. However, data on the prevalence of bereaved caregivers' psychological distress and its relationship with the quality of patient's end of life (EOL) care are limited.

Objectives: To describe rates of depression and anxiety symptoms in bereaved caregivers of patients with advanced cancer and to understand the relationship between these outcomes and patient distress at the EOL.

Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of 168 caregivers enrolled in a supportive care trial for patients with incurable lung and gastrointestinal cancers and their caregivers. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess caregivers' depression and anxiety symptoms at three months after the patient's death. Caregivers also rated the patient's physical and psychological distress in the last week of life on a 10-point scale three months after the patient death. We used linear regression adjusting for caregiver age, sex, randomization, and cancer type to explore the relationship between bereaved caregivers' depression and anxiety symptoms and their ratings of physical and psychological distress in patients at the EOL.

Results: Of the 168 bereaved caregivers, 30.4% (n = 51) and 43.4% (n = 73) reported clinically significant depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Caregiver ratings of worse physical (B = 0.32; P = 0.009) and psychological (B = 0.50; P < 0.001) distress experienced by the patient at the EOL were associated with worse depression symptoms in bereaved caregivers. Only caregiver rating of worse psychological distress experienced by the patient at the EOL (B = 0.42; P < 0.001) was associated with worse bereaved caregivers' anxiety symptoms.

Conclusion: Many bereaved caregivers of patients with advanced cancer experience symptoms of depression and anxiety, which are associated with their perceptions of distress in their loved ones at the EOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.08.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914132PMC
March 2021

Multimodal psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A randomized clinical trial.

Cancer 2020 04 3;126(8):1758-1765. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Caregivers of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) experience an immense caregiving burden before, during, and after HCT.

Methods: We conducted an unblinded, randomized trial of a psychosocial intervention (BMT-CARE) for caregivers of patients undergoing autologous and allogeneic HCT at Massachusetts General Hospital. Caregivers were randomly assigned to BMT-CARE or usual care. BMT-CARE was tailored to the HCT trajectory and integrated treatment-related education and self-care with cognitive-behavioral skills to promote coping. Caregivers assigned to BMT-CARE met with a trained interventionist (a psychologist or a social worker) in person, via telephone, or via videoconferencing for 6 sessions starting before HCT and continuing up to day +60 after HCT. The primary endpoint was feasibility, which was defined as at least 60% of eligible caregivers enrolling and completing 50% or more of the intervention sessions. We assesed caregiver quality of life (QOL; Caregiver Oncology Quality of Life Questionnaire), caregiving burden (Caregiver Reaction Assessment), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), self-efficacy (Cancer Self-Efficacy Scale-Transplant), and coping (Measures of Current Status) at baseline and 30 and 60 days after HCT. We used mixed linear effect models to assess the effect of BMT-CARE on outcomes longitudinally.

Results: We enrolled 72.5% of eligible caregivers (100 of 138), and 80% attended 50% or more of the intervention sessions. Caregivers randomized to BMT-CARE reported improved QOL (B = 6.11; 95% CI, 3.50-8.71; P < .001), reduced caregiving burden (B = -6.02; 95% CI, -8.49 to -3.55; P < .001), lower anxiety (B = -2.18; 95% CI, -3.07 to -1.28; P < .001) and depression symptoms (B = -1.23; 95% CI, -1.92 to -0.54; P < .001), and improved self-efficacy (B = 7.22; 95% CI, 2.40-12.03; P = .003) and coping skills (B = 4.83; 95% CI, 3.04-6.94; P < .001) in comparison with the usual-care group.

Conclusions: A brief multimodal psychosocial intervention tailored for caregivers of HCT recipients is feasible and may improve QOL, mood, coping, and self-efficacy while reducing the caregiving burden during the acute HCT period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103553PMC
April 2020
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