Publications by authors named "Annemarie H Meijer"

127 Publications

Disruption of Cxcr3 chemotactic signaling alters lysosomal function and renders macrophages more microbicidal.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):109000

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Chemotaxis and lysosomal function are closely intertwined processes essential for the inflammatory response and clearance of intracellular bacteria. We used the zebrafish model to examine the link between chemotactic signaling and lysosome physiology in macrophages during mycobacterial infection and wound-induced inflammation in vivo. Macrophages from zebrafish larvae carrying a mutation in a chemokine receptor of the Cxcr3 family display upregulated expression of vesicle trafficking and lysosomal genes and possess enlarged lysosomes that enhance intracellular bacterial clearance. This increased microbicidal capacity is phenocopied by inhibiting the lysosomal transcription factor EC, while its overexpression counteracts the protective effect of chemokine receptor mutation. Tracking macrophage migration in zebrafish revealed that lysosomes of chemokine receptor mutants accumulate in the front half of cells, preventing macrophage polarization during chemotaxis and reaching sites of inflammation. Our work shows that chemotactic signaling affects the bactericidal properties and localization during chemotaxis, key aspects of the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109000DOI Listing
April 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof 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Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke 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Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella 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Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

A quantitative in vivo assay for craniofacial developmental toxicity of histone deacetylases.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 10;342:20-25. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Many bony features of the face develop from endochondral ossification of preexisting collagen-rich cartilage structures. The proper development of these cartilage structures is essential to the morphological formation of the face. The developmental programs governing the formation of the pre-bone facial cartilages are sensitive to chemical compounds that disturb histone acetylation patterns and chromatin structure. We have taken advantage of this fact to develop a quantitative morphological assay of craniofacial developmental toxicity based on the distortion and deterioration of facial cartilage structures in zebrafish larvae upon exposure to increasing concentrations of several well-described histone deacetylase inhibitors. In this assay, we measure the angle formed by the developing ceratohyal bone as a precise, sensitive and quantitative proxy for the overall developmental status of facial cartilages. Using the well-established developmental toxicant and histone deacetylase-inhibiting compound valproic acid along with 12 structurally related compounds, we demonstrate the applicability of the ceratohyal angle assay to investigate structure-activity relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.02.005DOI Listing
May 2021

The adapter protein Myd88 plays an important role in limiting mycobacterial growth in a zebrafish model for tuberculosis.

Virchows Arch 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in the world, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In this study, we have used Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) infection in zebrafish larvae as an animal model for this disease to study the role of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88), the key adapter protein of Toll-like receptors. Previously, Myd88 has been shown to enhance innate immune responses against bacterial infections, and in the present study, we have investigated the effect of Myd88 deficiency on the granuloma morphology and the intracellular distribution of bacteria during Mm infection. Our results show that granulomas formed in the tail fin from myd88 mutant larvae have a more compact structure and contain a reduced number of leukocytes compared to the granulomas observed in wild-type larvae. These morphological differences were associated with an increased bacterial burden in the myd88 mutant. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of Mm in the myd88 mutant are located extracellularly, whereas in the wild type, most bacteria were intracellular. In the myd88 mutant, intracellular bacteria were mainly present in compartments that were not electron-dense, suggesting that these compartments had not undergone fusion with a lysosome. In contrast, approximately half of the intracellular bacteria in wild-type larvae were found in electron-dense compartments. These observations in a zebrafish model for tuberculosis suggest a role for Myd88-dependent signalling in two important phenomena that limit mycobacterial growth in the infected tissue. It reduces the number of leukocytes at the site of infection and the acidification of bacteria-containing compartments inside these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03043-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Modeling Inflammation in Zebrafish for the Development of Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 15;8:620984. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Dysregulation of the inflammatory response in humans can lead to various inflammatory diseases, like asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. The innate branch of the immune system, including macrophage and neutrophil functions, plays a critical role in all inflammatory diseases. This part of the immune system is well-conserved between humans and the zebrafish, which has emerged as a powerful animal model for inflammation, because it offers the possibility to image and study inflammatory responses at the early life stages. This review focuses on different inflammation models established in zebrafish, and how they are being used for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs. The most commonly used model is the tail fin amputation model, in which part of the tail fin of a zebrafish larva is clipped. This model has been used to study fundamental aspects of the inflammatory response, like the role of specific signaling pathways, the migration of leukocytes, and the interaction between different immune cells, and has also been used to screen libraries of natural compounds, approved drugs, and well-characterized pathway inhibitors. In other models the inflammation is induced by chemical treatment, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and copper, and some chemical-induced models, such as treatment with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), specifically model inflammation in the gastro-intestinal tract. Two mutant zebrafish lines, carrying a mutation in the hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1a gene () and the cdp-diacylglycerolinositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase () gene, show an inflammatory phenotype, and they provide interesting model systems for studying inflammation. These zebrafish inflammation models are often used to study the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, to increase our understanding of the mechanism of action of this class of drugs and to develop novel glucocorticoid drugs. In this review, an overview is provided of the available inflammation models in zebrafish, and how they are used to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response and to screen for novel anti-inflammatory drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.620984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843790PMC
January 2021

Deletion of the Pro-Protein Processing Protease Gene Results in a pH-Dependent Morphological Transition during Submerged Cultivations and Increases Cell Wall Chitin Content.

Microorganisms 2020 Dec 2;8(12). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Microbial Sciences, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands.

There is a growing interest in the use of post-fermentation mycelial waste to obtain cell wall chitin as an added-value product. In the pursuit to identify suitable production strains that can be used for post-fermentation cell wall harvesting, we turned to an strain in which the gene was deleted. Previous work has shown that the deletion of causes hyper-branching and thicker cell walls, traits that may be beneficial for the reduction in fermentation viscosity and lysis. Hyper-branching of was previously found to be pH-dependent on solid medium at pH 6.0, but was absent at pH 5.0. This phenotype was reported to be less pronounced during submerged growth. Here, we show a series of controlled batch cultivations at a pH range of 5, 5.5, and 6 to examine the pellet phenotype of in liquid medium. Morphological analysis showed that formed wild type-like pellets at pH 5.0, whereas the hyper-branching phenotype was found at pH 6.0. The transition of phenotypic plasticity was found in cultivations at pH 5.5, seen as an intermediate phenotype. Analyzing the cell walls of from these controlled pH-conditions showed an increase in chitin content compared to the wild type across all three pH values. Surprisingly, the increase in chitin content was found to be irrespective of the hyper-branching morphology. Evidence for alterations in cell wall make-up are corroborated by transcriptional analysis that showed a significant cell wall stress response in addition to the upregulation of genes encoding other unrelated cell wall biosynthetic genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761569PMC
December 2020

Inhibition of macrophage migration in zebrafish larvae demonstrates in vivo efficacy of human CCR2 inhibitors.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 22;116:103932. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Animal Sciences and Health, Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55room BS1.02, 2333 CC Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The chemokine signaling axes CCR2-CCL2 and CXCR3-CXCL11 participate in the inflammatory response by recruiting leukocytes to damaged tissue or sites of infection and are, therefore, potential pharmacological targets to treat inflammatory disorders. Although multiple CCR2 orthosteric and allosteric inhibitors have been developed, none of these compounds has been approved for clinical use, highlighting the need for a fast, simple and robust preclinical test system to determine the in vivo efficacy of CCR2 inhibitors. Herein we show that human CCL2 and CXCL11 drive macrophage recruitment in zebrafish larvae and that CCR2 inhibitors designed for humans also limit macrophage recruitment in this model organism due to the high conservation of the chemokine system. We demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities of three orthosteric and two allosteric CCR2 inhibitors using macrophage recruitment to injury as a functional read-out of their efficiency, while simultaneously evaluating toxicity. These results provide proof-of-principle for screening CCR2 inhibitors in the zebrafish model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103932DOI Listing
March 2021

Autophagy and Lc3-Associated Phagocytosis in Zebrafish Models of Bacterial Infections.

Cells 2020 10 29;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Modeling human infectious diseases using the early life stages of zebrafish provides unprecedented opportunities for visualizing and studying the interaction between pathogens and phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. Intracellular pathogens use phagocytes or other host cells, like gut epithelial cells, as a replication niche. The intracellular growth of these pathogens can be counteracted by host defense mechanisms that rely on the autophagy machinery. In recent years, zebrafish embryo infection models have provided in vivo evidence for the significance of the autophagic defenses and these models are now being used to explore autophagy as a therapeutic target. In line with studies in mammalian models, research in zebrafish has shown that selective autophagy mediated by ubiquitin receptors, such as p62, is important for host resistance against several bacterial pathogens, including , , and . Furthermore, an autophagy related process, Lc3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), proved host beneficial in the case of Typhimurium infection but host detrimental in the case of infection, where LAP delivers the pathogen to a replication niche. These studies provide valuable information for developing novel therapeutic strategies aimed at directing the autophagy machinery towards bacterial degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9112372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694021PMC
October 2020

A seven-membered cell wall related transglycosylase gene family in is relevant for cell wall integrity in cell wall mutants with reduced α-glucan or galactomannan.

Cell Surf 2020 Dec 21;6:100039. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Leiden University, Institute of Biology Leiden, Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, the Netherlands.

Chitin is an important fungal cell wall component that is cross-linked to β-glucan for structural integrity. Acquisition of chitin to glucan cross-links has previously been shown to be performed by transglycosylation enzymes in , called Congo Red hypersensitive (Crh) enzymes. Here, we characterized the impact of deleting all seven members of the gene family () in on cell wall integrity, cell wall composition and genome-wide gene expression. In this study, we show that the seven-fold knockout strain shows slightly compact growth on plates, but no increased sensitivity to cell wall perturbing compounds. Additionally, we found that the cell wall composition of this knockout strain was virtually identical to that of the wild type. In congruence with these data, genome-wide expression analysis revealed very limited changes in gene expression and no signs of activation of the cell wall integrity response pathway. However, deleting the entire gene family in cell wall mutants that are deficient in either galactofuranose or α-glucan, mainly α-1,3-glucan, resulted in a synthetic growth defect and an increased sensitivity towards Congo Red compared to the parental strains, respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that loss of the gene family in does not trigger the cell wall integrity response, but does play an important role in ensuring cell wall integrity in mutant strains with reduced galactofuranose or α-glucan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcsw.2020.100039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7389268PMC
December 2020

Ginsenoside Rg1 Acts as a Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonist with Anti-Inflammatory Action without Affecting Tissue Regeneration in Zebrafish Larvae.

Cells 2020 04 29;9(5). Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, 2333CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Glucocorticoids are effective anti-inflammatory drugs, but their clinical use is complicated due to the wide range of side effects they induce. Patients requiring glucocorticoid therapy would benefit from more selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists, capable of attenuating the immune response without causing these side effects. Ginsenosides, such as the compound Rg1, are natural plant compounds with structural similarity to classical glucocorticoids and well-documented anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we have investigated the activity of the ginsenoside Rg1 using a zebrafish larval model, in which amputation of the tail fin allows us to assess drug effects on inflammation, while the ability to regenerate the wounded tissue serves as a readout for side effects. We found that Rg1 attenuates neutrophilic inflammation at the amputation site, similarly to a classical glucocorticoid, beclomethasone. Mutation of the Gr abolishes this anti-inflammatory effect of Rg1. Rg1 and beclomethasone differentially modulate gene expression, suggesting that Rg1 induces transrepression, but not transactivation, activity of Gr. Interestingly, we found no effect of Rg1 on tissue regeneration, whereas beclomethasone inhibits tissue regeneration entirely. We conclude that Rg1 is a promising candidate for development as a selective glucocorticoid drug, and that zebrafish larvae provide a useful model system for screening of such GR agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290513PMC
April 2020

Deficiency in the autophagy modulator Dram1 exacerbates pyroptotic cell death of Mycobacteria-infected macrophages.

Cell Death Dis 2020 04 24;11(4):277. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 1 (DRAM1) is a stress-inducible regulator of autophagy and cell death. DRAM1 has been implicated in cancer, myocardial infarction, and infectious diseases, but the molecular and cellular functions of this transmembrane protein remain poorly understood. Previously, we have proposed DRAM1 as a host resistance factor for tuberculosis (TB) and a potential target for host-directed anti-infective therapies. In this study, we generated a zebrafish dram1 mutant and investigated its loss-of-function effects during Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) infection, a widely used model in TB research. In agreement with previous knockdown analysis, dram1 mutation increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Mm infection. RNA sequencing revealed major effects of Dram1 deficiency on metabolic, immune response, and cell death pathways during Mm infection, and only minor effects on proteinase and metabolic pathways were found under uninfected conditions. Furthermore, unchallenged dram1 mutants did not display overt autophagic defects, but autophagic targeting of Mm was reduced in the absence of Dram1. The phagocytic ability of macrophages in dram1 mutants was unaffected, but acidification of Mm-containing vesicles was strongly reduced, indicating that Dram1 is required for phagosome maturation. By in vivo imaging, we observed that Dram1-deficient macrophages fail to restrict Mm during early stages of infection. The resulting increase in bacterial burden could be reverted by knockdown of inflammatory caspase a (caspa) and gasdermin Eb (gsdmeb), demonstrating pyroptosis as the mechanism underlying premature cell death of Mm-infected macrophages in dram1 mutants. Collectively, these data demonstrate that dissemination of mycobacterial infection in zebrafish larvae is promoted in the absence of Dram1 due to reduced maturation of mycobacteria-containing vesicles, failed intracellular containment, and consequent pyroptotic death of infected macrophages. These results provide new evidence that Dram1 plays a central role in host resistance to intracellular infection, acting at the crossroad of autophagy and cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2477-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181687PMC
April 2020

The autophagic response to provides an intracellular niche in neutrophils.

Autophagy 2020 Mar 15:1-15. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Faculty of Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

is a major human pathogen causing multiple pathologies, from cutaneous lesions to life-threatening sepsis. Although neutrophils contribute to immunity against , multiple lines of evidence suggest that these phagocytes can provide an intracellular niche for staphylococcal dissemination. However, the mechanism of neutrophil subversion by intracellular remains unknown. Targeting of intracellular pathogens by macroautophagy/autophagy is recognized as an important component of host innate immunity, but whether autophagy is beneficial or detrimental to -infected hosts remains controversial. Here, using larval zebrafish, we showed that the autophagy marker Lc3 rapidly decorates following engulfment by macrophages and neutrophils. Upon phagocytosis by neutrophils, Lc3-positive, non-acidified spacious phagosomes are formed. This response is dependent on phagocyte NADPH oxidase as both knockdown and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) treatment inhibited Lc3 decoration of phagosomes. Importantly, NADPH oxidase inhibition diverted neutrophil processing into tight acidified vesicles, which resulted in increased host resistance to the infection. Some intracellular bacteria within neutrophils were also tagged by Sqstm1/p62-GFP fusion protein and loss of Sqstm1 impaired host defense. Together, we have shown that intracellular handling of by neutrophils is best explained by Lc3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which appears to provide an intracellular niche for bacterial pathogenesis, while the selective autophagy receptor Sqstm1 is host-protective. The antagonistic roles of LAP and Sqstm1-mediated pathways in -infected neutrophils may explain the conflicting reports relating to anti-staphylococcal autophagy and provide new insights for therapeutic strategies against antimicrobial-resistant . ATG: autophagy related; CFU: colony-forming units; CMV: cytomegalovirus; Cyba/P22phox: cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; DPI: diphenyleneiodonium; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; GFP: green fluorescent protein; hpf: hours post-fertilization; hpi: hours post-infection; Irf8: interferon regulatory factor 8; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; lyz: lysozyme; LWT: london wild type; Map1lc3/Lc3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; NADPH oxidase: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; RFP: red fluorescent protein; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; Sqstm1/p62: sequestosome 1; Tg: transgenic; TSA: tyramide signal amplification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1739443DOI Listing
March 2020

Chemokine Receptors and Phagocyte Biology in Zebrafish.

Front Immunol 2020 25;11:325. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Phagocytes are highly motile immune cells that ingest and clear microbial invaders, harmful substances, and dying cells. Their function is critically dependent on the expression of chemokine receptors, a class of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Chemokine receptors coordinate the recruitment of phagocytes and other immune cells to sites of infection and damage, modulate inflammatory and wound healing responses, and direct cell differentiation, proliferation, and polarization. Besides, a structurally diverse group of atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) are unable to signal in G-protein-dependent fashion themselves but can shape chemokine gradients by fine-tuning the activity of conventional chemokine receptors. The optically transparent zebrafish embryos and larvae provide a powerful system to visualize phagocytes during development and study them as key elements of the immune response in real-time. In this review, we discuss how the zebrafish model has furthered our understanding of the role of two main classes of chemokine receptors, the CC and CXC subtypes, in phagocyte biology. We address the roles of the receptors in the migratory properties of phagocytes in zebrafish models for cancer, infectious disease, and inflammation. We illustrate how studies in zebrafish enable visualizing the contribution of chemokine receptors and ACKRs in shaping self-generated chemokine gradients of migrating cells. Taking the functional antagonism between two paralogs of the CXCR3 family as an example, we discuss how the duplication of chemokine receptor genes in zebrafish poses challenges, but also provides opportunities to study sub-functionalization or loss-of-function events. We emphasize how the zebrafish model has been instrumental to prove that the major determinant for the functional outcome of a chemokine receptor-ligand interaction is the cell-type expressing the receptor. Finally, we highlight relevant homologies and analogies between mammalian and zebrafish phagocyte function and discuss the potential of zebrafish models to further advance our understanding of chemokine receptors in innate immunity and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053378PMC
March 2021

Functional Inhibition of Host Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Enhances and Anti-mycobacterial Activity in Human Macrophages and in Zebrafish.

Front Immunol 2020 3;11:36. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

The rapid and persistent increase of drug-resistant () infections poses increasing global problems in combatting tuberculosis (TB), prompting for the development of alternative strategies including host-directed therapy (HDT). Since is an intracellular pathogen with a remarkable ability to manipulate host intracellular signaling pathways to escape from host defense, pharmacological reprogramming of the immune system represents a novel, potentially powerful therapeutic strategy that should be effective also against drug-resistant . Here, we found that host-pathogen interactions in -infected primary human macrophages affected host epigenetic features by modifying histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptomic levels. In addition, broad spectrum inhibition of HDACs enhanced the antimicrobial response of both pro-inflammatory macrophages (Mϕ1) and anti-inflammatory macrophages (Mϕ2), while selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs mainly decreased bacterial outgrowth in Mϕ2. Moreover, chemical inhibition of HDAC activity during differentiation polarized macrophages into a more bactericidal phenotype with a concomitant decrease in the secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, chemical inhibition of HDAC activity in -infected zebrafish embryos, a well-characterized animal model for tuberculosis, significantly reduced mycobacterial burden, validating our findings in primary human macrophages. Collectively, these data identify HDACs as druggable host targets for HDT against intracellular .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008710PMC
February 2021

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Modulation by Tuberculosis Drugs Impairs Host Defense and Treatment Outcomes.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 02 31;27(2):238-248.e7. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Immunology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a public health threat of global dimension, worsened by increasing drug resistance. Host-directed therapy (HDT) is an emerging concept currently explored as an adjunct therapeutic strategy for TB. One potential host target is the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which binds TB virulence factors and controls antibacterial responses. Here, we demonstrate that in the context of therapy, the AhR binds several TB drugs, including front line drugs rifampicin (RIF) and rifabutin (RFB), resulting in altered host defense and drug metabolism. AhR sensing of TB drugs modulates host defense mechanisms, notably impairs phagocytosis, and increases TB drug metabolism. Targeting AhR in vivo with a small-molecule inhibitor increases RFB-treatment efficacy. Thus, the AhR markedly impacts TB outcome by affecting both host defense and drug metabolism. As a corollary, we propose the AhR as a potential target for HDT in TB in adjunct to canonical chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.12.005DOI Listing
February 2020

Infection and RNA-seq analysis of a zebrafish tlr2 mutant shows a broad function of this toll-like receptor in transcriptional and metabolic control and defense to Mycobacterium marinum infection.

BMC Genomics 2019 Nov 20;20(1):878. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9505, 2300 RA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The function of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in host defense against pathogens, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is poorly understood. To investigate the role of TLR2 during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed the response of tlr2 zebrafish mutant larvae to infection with Mycobacterium marinum (Mm), a close relative to Mtb, as a model for tuberculosis. We measured infection phenotypes and transcriptome responses using RNA deep sequencing in mutant and control larvae.

Results: tlr2 mutant embryos at 2 dpf do not show differences in numbers of macrophages and neutrophils compared to control embryos. However, we found substantial changes in gene expression in these mutants, particularly in metabolic pathways, when compared with the heterozygote tlr2 control. At 4 days after Mm infection, the total bacterial burden and the presence of extracellular bacteria were higher in tlr2 larvae than in tlr2, or tlr2 larvae, whereas granuloma numbers were reduced, showing a function of Tlr2 in zebrafish host defense. RNAseq analysis of infected tlr2 versus tlr2 shows that the number of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in response to infection was greatly diminished in tlr2 mutants by at least 2 fold and 10 fold, respectively. Analysis of the transcriptome data and qPCR validation shows that Mm infection of tlr2 mutants leads to decreased mRNA levels of genes involved in inflammation and immune responses, including il1b, tnfb, cxcl11aa/ac, fosl1a, and cebpb. Furthermore, RNAseq analyses revealed that the expression of genes for Maf family transcription factors, vitamin D receptors, and Dicps proteins is altered in tlr2 mutants with or without infection. In addition, the data indicate a function of Tlr2 in the control of induction of cytokines and chemokines, such as the CXCR3-CXCL11 signaling axis.

Conclusion: The transcriptome and infection burden analyses show a function of Tlr2 as a protective factor against mycobacteria. Transcriptome analysis revealed tlr2-specific pathways involved in Mm infection, which are related to responses to Mtb infection in human macrophages. Considering its dominant function in control of transcriptional processes that govern defense responses and metabolism, the TLR2 protein can be expected to be also of importance for other infectious diseases and interactions with the microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6265-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6869251PMC
November 2019

Inhibition of ErbB kinase signalling promotes resolution of neutrophilic inflammation.

Elife 2019 10 15;8. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Neutrophilic inflammation with prolonged neutrophil survival is common to many inflammatory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are few specific therapies that reverse neutrophilic inflammation, but uncovering mechanisms regulating neutrophil survival is likely to identify novel therapeutic targets. Screening of 367 kinase inhibitors in human neutrophils and a zebrafish tail fin injury model identified ErbBs as common targets of compounds that accelerated inflammation resolution. The ErbB inhibitors gefitinib, CP-724714, erbstatin and tyrphostin AG825 significantly accelerated apoptosis of human neutrophils, including neutrophils from people with COPD. Neutrophil apoptosis was also increased in Tyrphostin AG825 treated-zebrafish in vivo. Tyrphostin AG825 decreased peritoneal inflammation in zymosan-treated mice, and increased lung neutrophil apoptosis and macrophage efferocytosis in a murine acute lung injury model. Tyrphostin AG825 and knockdown of and by CRISPR/Cas9 reduced inflammation in zebrafish. Our work shows that inhibitors of ErbB kinases have therapeutic potential in neutrophilic inflammatory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.50990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839918PMC
October 2019

Role of β-glucosidase 2 in aberrant glycosphingolipid metabolism: model of glucocerebrosidase deficiency in zebrafish.

J Lipid Res 2019 11 27;60(11):1851-1867. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Department of Medical Biochemistry Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands

β-glucosidases [GBA1 (glucocerebrosidase) and GBA2] are ubiquitous essential enzymes. Lysosomal GBA1 and cytosol-facing GBA2 degrade glucosylceramide (GlcCer); GBA1 deficiency causes Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by lysosomal accumulation of GlcCer, which is partly converted to glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph). GBA1 and GBA2 also may transfer glucose from GlcCer to cholesterol, yielding glucosylated cholesterol (GlcChol). Here, we aimed to clarify the role of zebrafish Gba2 in glycosphingolipid metabolism during Gba1 deficiency in zebrafish (), which are able to survive total Gba1 deficiency. We developed Gba1 (), Gba2 (), and double () zebrafish knockouts using CRISPR/Cas9 and explored the effects of both genetic and pharmacological interventions on GlcCer metabolism in individual larvae. Activity-based probes and quantification of relevant glycolipid metabolites confirmed enzyme deficiency. GlcSph increased in larvae (0.09 pmol/fish) but did not increase more in larvae. GlcCer was comparable in and WT larvae but increased in and larvae. Independent of Gba1 status, GlcChol was low in all larvae (0.05 vs. 0.18 pmol/fish in WT). Pharmacologic inactivation of zebrafish Gba1 comparably increased GlcSph. Inhibition of GlcCer synthase (GCS) in Gba1-deficient larvae reduced GlcCer and GlcSph, and concomitant inhibition of GCS and Gba2 with iminosugars also reduced excessive GlcChol. Finally, overexpression of human GBA1 and injection of recombinant GBA1 both decreased GlcSph. We determined that zebrafish larvae offer an attractive model to study glucosidase actions in glycosphingolipid metabolism in vivo, and we identified distinguishing characteristics of zebrafish Gba2 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.RA119000154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824494PMC
November 2019

Frontline Science: Antagonism between regular and atypical Cxcr3 receptors regulates macrophage migration during infection and injury in zebrafish.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 02 17;107(2):185-203. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The CXCR3-CXCL11 chemokine-signaling axis plays an essential role in infection and inflammation by orchestrating leukocyte trafficking in human and animal models, including zebrafish. Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) play a fundamental regulatory function in signaling networks by shaping chemokine gradients through their ligand scavenging function, while being unable to signal in the classic G-protein-dependent manner. Two copies of the CXCR3 gene in zebrafish, cxcr3.2 and cxcr3.3, are expressed on macrophages and share a highly conserved ligand-binding site. However, Cxcr3.3 has structural characteristics of ACKRs indicative of a ligand-scavenging role. In contrast, we previously showed that Cxcr3.2 is an active CXCR3 receptor because it is required for macrophage motility and recruitment to sites of mycobacterial infection. In this study, we generated a cxcr3.3 CRISPR-mutant to functionally dissect the antagonistic interplay among the cxcr3 paralogs in the immune response. We observed that cxcr3.3 mutants are more susceptible to mycobacterial infection, whereas cxcr3.2 mutants are more resistant. Furthermore, macrophages in the cxcr3.3 mutant are more motile, show higher activation status, and are recruited more efficiently to sites of infection or injury. Our results suggest that Cxcr3.3 is an ACKR that regulates the activity of Cxcr3.2 by scavenging common ligands and that silencing the scavenging function of Cxcr3.3 results in an exacerbated Cxcr3.2 signaling. In human, splice variants of CXCR3 have antagonistic functions and CXCR3 ligands also interact with ACKRs. Therefore, in zebrafish, an analogous regulatory mechanism appears to have evolved after the cxcr3 gene duplication event, through diversification of conventional and atypical receptor variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.2HI0119-006RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028096PMC
February 2020

Aspergillus fumigatus establishes infection in zebrafish by germination of phagocytized conidia, while Aspergillus niger relies on extracellular germination.

Sci Rep 2019 09 5;9(1):12791. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Among opportunistically pathogenic filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus genus, Aspergillus fumigatus stands out as a drastically more prevalent cause of infection than others. Utilizing the zebrafish embryo model, we applied a combination of non-invasive real-time imaging and genetic approaches to compare the infectious development of A. fumigatus with that of the less pathogenic A. niger. We found that both species evoke similar immune cell migratory responses, but A. fumigatus is more efficiently phagocytized than A. niger. Though efficiently phagocytized, A. fumigatus conidia retains the ability to germinate and form hyphae from inside macrophages leading to serious infection even at relatively low infectious burdens. By contrast, A. niger appears to rely on extracellular germination, and rapid hyphal growth to establish infection. Despite these differences in the mechanism of infection between the species, galactofuranose mutant strains of both A. fumigatus and A. niger display attenuated pathogenesis. However, deficiency in this cell wall component has a stronger impact on A. niger, which is dependent on rapid extracellular hyphal growth. In conclusion, we uncover differences in the interaction of the two fungal species with innate immune cells, noticeable from very early stages of infection, which drive a divergence in their route to establishing infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49284-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728357PMC
September 2019

Zebrafish in Inflammasome Research.

Cells 2019 08 15;8(8). Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses to danger stimuli and infection, and their dysregulation is associated with an increasing number of autoinflammatory diseases. In recent years, zebrafish models of human pathologies to study inflammasome function in vivo have started to emerge. Here, we discuss inflammasome research in zebrafish in light of current knowledge about mammalian inflammasomes. We summarize the evolutionary conservation of inflammasome components between zebrafish and mammals, highlighting the similarities and possible divergence in functions of these components. We present new insights into the evolution of the caspase-1 family in the teleost lineage, and how its evolutionary origin may help contextualize its functions. We also review existing infectious and non-infectious models in zebrafish in which inflammasomes have been directly implicated. Finally, we discuss the advantages of zebrafish larvae for intravital imaging of inflammasome activation and summarize available tools that will help to advance inflammasome research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8080901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721725PMC
August 2019

Rubicon-Dependent Lc3 Recruitment to -Containing Phagosomes Is a Host Defense Mechanism Triggered Independently From Major Bacterial Virulence Factors.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 2;9:279. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Intracellular pathogens such as depend on their molecular virulence factors to evade host defense responses like autophagy. Using a zebrafish systemic infection model, we have previously shown that phagocytes, predominantly macrophages, target Typhimurium by an autophagy-related pathway known as Lc3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which is dependent on the host protein Rubicon. Here, we explore the influence of virulence factors on pathogenicity in the zebrafish model and induction of LAP as a defense response. We investigated five mutant strains that all could trigger GFP-Lc3 recruitment as puncta or rings around single bacteria or bacterial clusters, in a Rubicon-dependent manner. We found that . Typhimurium strains carrying mutations in PhoP or PurA, responsible for adaptation to the intracellular environment and efficient metabolism of purines, respectively, are attenuated in the zebrafish model. However, both strains show increased virulence when LAP is inhibited by knockdown of Rubicon. Mutations in type III secretion systems 1 and 2, SipB and SsrB, which are important for invading and replicating in non-phagocytic cells, did not affect the ability to establish successful infection in the zebrafish model. This observation is in line with our previous characterization of this infection model revealing that macrophages actively phagocytose the majority of . Typhimurium. In contrast to SipB mutants, SsrB mutants were unable to become more virulent in Rubicon-deficient hosts, suggesting that type III system 2 effectors are important for intracellular replication of in the absence of LAP. Finally, we found that mutation of FlhD, required for production of flagella, renders . Typhimurium hypervirulent both in wild type zebrafish embryos and in Rubicon-deficient hosts. FlhD mutation also led to lower levels of GFP-Lc3 recruitment compared with the wild type strain, indicating that recognition of flagellin by the host innate immune system promotes the LAP response. Together, our results provide new evidence that the Rubicon-dependent LAP process is an important defense mechanism against . Typhimurium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688089PMC
July 2020

RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage Polarization During Mycobacterial Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 17;10:832. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Macrophages are phagocytic cells from the innate immune system, which forms the first line of host defense against invading pathogens. These highly dynamic immune cells can adopt specific functional phenotypes, with the pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 polarization states as the two extremes. Recently, the process of macrophage polarization during inflammation has been visualized by real time imaging in larvae of the zebrafish. This model organism has also become widely used to study macrophage responses to microbial pathogens. To support the increasing use of zebrafish in macrophage biology, we set out to determine the complete transcriptome of zebrafish larval macrophages. We studied the specificity of the macrophage signature compared with other larval immune cells and the macrophage-specific expression changes upon infection. We made use of the well-established , and fluorescent reporter lines to sort and sequence the transcriptome of larval macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphoid progenitor cells, respectively. Our results provide a complete dataset of genes expressed in these different immune cell types and highlight their similarities and differences. Major differences between the macrophage and neutrophil signatures were found within the families of proteinases. Furthermore, expression of genes involved in antigen presentation and processing was specifically detected in macrophages, while lymphoid progenitors showed expression of genes involved in macrophage activation. Comparison with datasets of polarized human macrophages revealed that zebrafish macrophages express a strongly homologous gene set, comprising both M1 and M2 markers. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of low numbers of macrophages infected by the intracellular pathogen revealed that infected macrophages change their transcriptomic response by downregulation of M2-associated genes and overexpression of specific M1-associated genes. Among the infection-induced genes, a homolog of the human chemokine gene, , stood out as the most strongly overexpressed M1 marker. Upregulation of in -infected macrophages was found to require the function of Myd88, a critical adaptor molecule in the Toll-like and interleukin 1 receptor pathways that are central to pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune response. Altogether, our data provide a valuable data mining resource to support infection and inflammation research in the zebrafish model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499218PMC
September 2020

Glucocorticoids inhibit macrophage differentiation towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype upon wounding without affecting their migration.

Dis Model Mech 2019 05 30;12(5). Epub 2019 May 30.

Animal Science and Health Cluster, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2333CC Leiden, The Netherlands

Glucocorticoid drugs are widely used to treat immune-related diseases, but their use is limited by side effects and by resistance, which especially occurs in macrophage-dominated diseases. In order to improve glucocorticoid therapies, more research is required into the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action. In the present study, we have used a zebrafish model for inflammation to study glucocorticoid effects on the innate immune response. In zebrafish larvae, the migration of neutrophils towards a site of injury is inhibited upon glucocorticoid treatment, whereas migration of macrophages is glucocorticoid resistant. We show that wounding-induced increases in the expression of genes that encode neutrophil-specific chemoattractants (Il8 and Cxcl18b) are attenuated by the synthetic glucocorticoid beclomethasone, but that beclomethasone does not attenuate the induction of the genes encoding Ccl2 and Cxcl11aa, which are required for macrophage recruitment. RNA sequencing on FACS-sorted macrophages shows that the vast majority of the wounding-induced transcriptional changes in these cells are inhibited by beclomethasone, whereas only a small subset is glucocorticoid-insensitive. As a result, beclomethasone decreases the number of macrophages that differentiate towards a pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype, which we demonstrated using a reporter line and analysis of macrophage morphology. We conclude that differentiation and migration of macrophages are regulated independently, and that glucocorticoids leave the chemotactic migration of macrophages unaffected, but exert their anti-inflammatory effect on these cells by inhibiting their differentiation to an M1 phenotype. The resistance of macrophage-dominated diseases to glucocorticoid therapy can therefore not be attributed to an intrinsic insensitivity of macrophages to glucocorticoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.037887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6550045PMC
May 2019

The selective autophagy receptors Optineurin and p62 are both required for zebrafish host resistance to mycobacterial infection.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 28;15(2):e1007329. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Mycobacterial pathogens are the causative agents of chronic infectious diseases like tuberculosis and leprosy. Autophagy has recently emerged as an innate mechanism for defense against these intracellular pathogens. In vitro studies have shown that mycobacteria escaping from phagosomes into the cytosol are ubiquitinated and targeted by selective autophagy receptors. However, there is currently no in vivo evidence for the role of selective autophagy receptors in defense against mycobacteria, and the importance of autophagy in control of mycobacterial diseases remains controversial. Here we have used Mycobacterium marinum (Mm), which causes a tuberculosis-like disease in zebrafish, to investigate the function of two selective autophagy receptors, Optineurin (Optn) and SQSTM1 (p62), in host defense against a mycobacterial pathogen. To visualize the autophagy response to Mm in vivo, optn and p62 zebrafish mutant lines were generated in the background of a GFP-Lc3 autophagy reporter line. We found that loss-of-function mutation of optn or p62 reduces autophagic targeting of Mm, and increases susceptibility of the zebrafish host to Mm infection. Transient knockdown studies confirmed the requirement of both selective autophagy receptors for host resistance against Mm infection. For gain-of-function analysis, we overexpressed optn or p62 by mRNA injection and found this to increase the levels of GFP-Lc3 puncta in association with Mm and to reduce the Mm infection burden. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both Optn and p62 are required for autophagic host defense against mycobacterial infection and support that protection against tuberculosis disease may be achieved by therapeutic strategies that enhance selective autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413957PMC
February 2019

Macrophages target Salmonella by Lc3-associated phagocytosis in a systemic infection model.

Autophagy 2019 05 24;15(5):796-812. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

a Institute of Biology Leiden , Leiden University , Leiden , The Netherlands.

Innate immune defense against intracellular pathogens, like Salmonella, relies heavily on the autophagy machinery of the host. This response is studied intensively in epithelial cells, the target of Salmonella during gastrointestinal infections. However, little is known of the role that autophagy plays in macrophages, the predominant carriers of this pathogen during systemic disease. Here we utilize a zebrafish embryo model to study the interaction of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium with the macroautophagy/autophagy machinery of macrophages in vivo. We show that phagocytosis of live but not heat-killed Salmonella triggers recruitment of the autophagy marker GFP-Lc3 in a variety of patterns labeling tight or spacious bacteria-containing compartments, also revealed by electron microscopy. Neutrophils display similar GFP-Lc3 associations, but genetic modulation of the neutrophil/macrophage balance and ablation experiments show that macrophages are critical for the defense response. Deficiency of atg5 reduces GFP-Lc3 recruitment and impairs host resistance, in contrast to atg13 deficiency, indicating that Lc3-Salmonella association at this stage is independent of the autophagy preinitiation complex and that macrophages target Salmonella by Lc3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). In agreement, GFP-Lc3 recruitment and host resistance are impaired by deficiency of Rubcn/Rubicon, known as a negative regulator of canonical autophagy and an inducer of LAP. We also found strict dependency on NADPH oxidase, another essential factor for LAP. Both Rubcn and NADPH oxidase are required to activate a Salmonella biosensor for reactive oxygen species inside infected macrophages. These results identify LAP as the major host protective autophagy-related pathway responsible for macrophage defense against Salmonella during systemic infection. Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related gene; BECN1: Beclin 1; CFU: colony forming units; CYBA/P22PHOX: cytochrome b-245, alpha chain; CYBB/NOX2: cytochrome b-245 beta chain; dpf: days post fertilization; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; GFP: green fluorescent protein; hfp: hours post fertilization; hpi: hours post infection; IRF8: interferon regulatory factor 8; Lcp1/L-plastin: lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3; mCherry: red fluorescent protein; mpeg1: macrophage expressed gene 1; mpx: myeloid specific peroxidase; NADPH oxidase: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; NCF4/P40PHOX: neutrophil cytosolic factor 4; NTR-mCherry: nitroreductase-mCherry fusion; PTU: phenylthiourea; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB-1 inducible coiled coin 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RUBCN/RUBICON: RUN and cysteine rich domain containing BECN1-interacting protein; SCV: Salmonella-containing vacuole; S. Typhimurium/S.T: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; Tg: transgenic; TSA: tyramide signal amplification; ULK1/2: unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1/2; UVRAG: UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; wt: wild type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1569297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526873PMC
May 2019

Ras-Induced miR-146a and 193a Target Jmjd6 to Regulate Melanoma Progression.

Front Genet 2018 18;9:675. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Cibio, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Ras genes are among the most commonly mutated genes in human cancer; yet our understanding of their oncogenic activity at the molecular mechanistic level is incomplete. To identify downstream events that mediate ras-induced cellular transformation , we analyzed global microRNA expression in three different models of Ras-induction and tumor formation in zebrafish. Six microRNAs were found increased in Ras-induced melanoma, glioma and in an inducible model of ubiquitous Ras expression. The upregulation of the microRNAs depended on the activation of the ERK and AKT pathways and to a lesser extent, on mTOR signaling. Two Ras-induced microRNAs (miR-146a and 193a) target Jmjd6, inducing downregulation of its mRNA and protein levels at the onset of Ras expression during melanoma development. However, at later stages of melanoma progression, levels were found elevated. The dynamic of Jmjd6 levels during progression of melanoma in the zebrafish model suggests that upregulation of the microRNAs targeting Jmjd6 may be part of an anti-cancer response. Indeed, triple transgenic fish engineered to express a microRNA-resistant Jmjd6 from the onset of melanoma have increased tumor burden, higher infiltration of leukocytes and shorter melanoma-free survival. Increased expression is found in several human cancers, including melanoma, suggesting that the up-regulation of Jmjd6 is a critical event in tumor progression. The following link has been created to allow review of record GSE37015: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?token=jjcrbiuicyyqgpc&acc=GSE37015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305343PMC
December 2018

Deep learning image recognition enables efficient genome editing in zebrafish by automated injections.

PLoS One 2019 7;14(1):e0202377. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Life Science Methods BV, Leiden, the Netherlands.

One of the most popular techniques in zebrafish research is microinjection. This is a rapid and efficient way to genetically manipulate early developing embryos, and to introduce microbes, chemical compounds, nanoparticles or tracers at larval stages. Here we demonstrate the development of a machine learning software that allows for microinjection at a trained target site in zebrafish eggs at unprecedented speed. The software is based on the open-source deep-learning library Inception v3. In a first step, the software distinguishes wells containing embryos at one-cell stage from wells to be skipped with an accuracy of 93%. A second step was developed to pinpoint the injection site. Deep learning allows to predict this location on average within 42 μm to manually annotated sites. Using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), both steps together take less than 100 milliseconds. We first tested our system by injecting a morpholino into the middle of the yolk and found that the automated injection efficiency is as efficient as manual injection (~ 80%). Next, we tested both CRISPR/Cas9 and DNA construct injections into the zygote and obtained a comparable efficiency to that of an experienced experimentalist. Combined with a higher throughput, this results in a higher yield. Hence, the automated injection of CRISPR/Cas9 will allow high-throughput applications to knock out and knock in relevant genes to study their mechanisms or pathways of interest in diverse areas of biomedical research.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202377PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322765PMC
September 2019

In vivo inactivation of glycosidases by conduritol B epoxide and cyclophellitol as revealed by activity-based protein profiling.

FEBS J 2019 02 2;286(3):584-600. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Bio-organic Synthesis, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) is a lysosomal β-glucosidase-degrading glucosylceramide. Its deficiency causes Gaucher disease (GD), a common lysosomal storage disorder. Carrying a genetic abnormality in GBA constitutes at present the largest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Conduritol B epoxide (CBE), a mechanism-based irreversible inhibitor of GBA, is used to generate cell and animal models for investigations on GD and PD. However, CBE may have additional glycosidase targets besides GBA. Here, we present the first in vivo target engagement study for CBE, employing a suite of activity-based probes to visualize catalytic pocket occupancy of candidate off-target glycosidases. Only at significantly higher CBE concentrations, nonlysosomal glucosylceramidase (GBA2) and lysosomal α-glucosidase were identified as major off-targets in cells and zebrafish larvae. A tight, but acceptable window for selective inhibition of GBA in the brain of mice was observed. On the other hand, cyclophellitol, a closer glucose mimic, was found to inactivate with equal affinity GBA and GBA2 and therefore is not suitable to generate genuine GD-like models. ENZYMES: Glucocerebrosidase (EC 3.2.1.45), nonlysosomal β-glucocerebrosidase (EC 3.2.1.45); cytosolic β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21); α-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20); β-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.14744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850446PMC
February 2019