Publications by authors named "Anneke Seller"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Welcome to the new genomics: an introduction to the NHS Genomic Medicine Service for oral healthcare professionals.

Br Dent J 2020 Nov 27;229(10):682-686. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Scientific Director, Genomics Education Programme, Health Education England, St Chad's Court, 213 Hagley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B16 9RG, UK.

Genomic medicine is on the threshold of a significant advance in the United Kingdom (UK) with the introduction of a National Health Service (NHS) Genomic Medicine Service. This world-leading initiative aims to integrate genomic medicine into routine NHS care and has the potential to revolutionise healthcare in the UK, including dentistry. The initial focus will be on increasing diagnostic services for rare diseases and cancer, while also harnessing the use of personalised medicine for therapeutic interventions in multiple disorders. Here, we provide a brief overview of this new service, outlining the historical background that has led to its development and how it will work, as well as discussing some of the wider implications for healthcare within the NHS and highlighting the potential longer-term impact of genomics for oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-2348-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Using the Findings of a National Survey to Inform the Work of England's Genomics Education Programme.

Front Genet 2019 17;10:1265. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Genomics Education Programme, Health Education England, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

A national coordinated approach to workforce education and training in genomics is essential for the successful implementation of whole genome sequencing and, more broadly, genomic medicine within the National Health Service (NHS) in England. However, there have been no workforce wide assessments of genomics education and training needs that can be used to inform the strategic approach to be taken. In order to assess these needs the Genomics Education Programme (GEP) undertook a cross-professional training needs analysis. Responses from 2,814 individuals allowed the identification of four themes related to NHS staff's perceived education and training needs in genomics, those who: a) have a role in genomics and are competent; b) have a role in genomics but identified a specific learning need; c) could not identify whether genomics is relevant, but want to know more, and; d) do not see genomics as relevant to their role and do not believe they need to learn about it. Individuals are motivated to undertake training for their own continuing professional development and if they perceive training to have a direct impact on patient care. Overall, online learning is the preferred mode of delivery, but there are still many individuals who value face-to-face teaching. This paper demonstrates how the GEP has used these findings to provide an evidence base to inform the ongoing strategy for genomics education and training in the NHS, including the development of competency frameworks and a range of resources to address the diverse genomics learning needs of the healthcare workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.01265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927929PMC
December 2019

Genomic Education at Scale: The Benefits of Massive Open Online Courses for the Healthcare Workforce.

Front Genet 2019 13;10:1094. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Genomics Education Programme, Health Education England, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

To support the delivery of the UK's 100,000 Genomes Project, Health Education England's Genomics Education Programme developed a suite of resources, including a 3-week Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on whole genome sequencing the FutureLearn platform. This MOOC is a synchronous learning event, with course educators and mentors (NHS healthcare science trainees in genomics) facilitating the experience in real time. Crucially, the platform allows participants to interact and learn from each other's experiences. The evaluation of the course was considered from the learners' and mentors' perspectives. Perceptions of course relevance were examined through analysis of learner comments made throughout the course and responses to an end-of-course survey. Evaluation of mentors' experiences focused on how prepared they felt to undertake their role and the value and benefit of their experience. Data was collected through a mixed methods study after the first two runs of the course. Here we present findings from 440 learners who provided end-of-course reflections, 360 learners who completed the post-course survey and 14 mentors who facilitated the course. The course met learners' needs by providing a greater understanding of whole genome sequencing and the application of this technology in healthcare. Learners also highly valued the engagement with mentors. Mentors appreciated the experience and identified areas of professional development gained through the mentoring experience. Our findings show that a team of specialist healthcare course mentors engaging with a range of different healthcare professional MOOC learners in online conversation can enhance the learners' experiences and provide a beneficial continuing professional development opportunity for mentors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.01094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863921PMC
November 2019

Variable phenotype and discrete alterations of immune phenotypes in CTP synthase 1 deficiency: Report of 2 siblings.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 12 14;138(6):1722-1725.e6. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Clinical Immunology Group, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.04.059DOI Listing
December 2016

Reassessment of Mendelian gene pathogenicity using 7,855 cardiomyopathy cases and 60,706 reference samples.

Genet Med 2017 02 17;19(2):192-203. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Purpose: The accurate interpretation of variation in Mendelian disease genes has lagged behind data generation as sequencing has become increasingly accessible. Ongoing large sequencing efforts present huge interpretive challenges, but they also provide an invaluable opportunity to characterize the spectrum and importance of rare variation.

Methods: We analyzed sequence data from 7,855 clinical cardiomyopathy cases and 60,706 Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) reference samples to obtain a better understanding of genetic variation in a representative autosomal dominant disorder.

Results: We found that in some genes previously reported as important causes of a given cardiomyopathy, rare variation is not clinically informative because there is an unacceptably high likelihood of false-positive interpretation. By contrast, in other genes, we find that diagnostic laboratories may be overly conservative when assessing variant pathogenicity.

Conclusions: We outline improved analytical approaches that evaluate which genes and variant classes are interpretable and propose that these will increase the clinical utility of testing across a range of Mendelian diseases.Genet Med 19 2, 192-203.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2016.90DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116235PMC
February 2017

Next generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of neurological disorders using ataxias as a model.

Brain 2013 Oct 11;136(Pt 10):3106-18. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

1 Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Many neurological conditions are caused by immensely heterogeneous gene mutations. The diagnostic process is often long and complex with most patients undergoing multiple invasive and costly investigations without ever reaching a conclusive molecular diagnosis. The advent of massively parallel, next-generation sequencing promises to revolutionize genetic testing and shorten the 'diagnostic odyssey' for many of these patients. We performed a pilot study using heterogeneous ataxias as a model neurogenetic disorder to assess the introduction of next-generation sequencing into clinical practice. We captured 58 known human ataxia genes followed by Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing in 50 highly heterogeneous patients with ataxia who had been extensively investigated and were refractory to diagnosis. All cases had been tested for spinocerebellar ataxia 1-3, 6, 7 and Friedrich's ataxia and had multiple other biochemical, genetic and invasive tests. In those cases where we identified the genetic mutation, we determined the time to diagnosis. Pathogenicity was assessed using a bioinformatics pipeline and novel variants were validated using functional experiments. The overall detection rate in our heterogeneous cohort was 18% and varied from 8.3% in those with an adult onset progressive disorder to 40% in those with a childhood or adolescent onset progressive disorder. The highest detection rate was in those with an adolescent onset and a family history (75%). The majority of cases with detectable mutations had a childhood onset but most are now adults, reflecting the long delay in diagnosis. The delays were primarily related to lack of easily available clinical testing, but other factors included the presence of atypical phenotypes and the use of indirect testing. In the cases where we made an eventual diagnosis, the delay was 3-35 years (mean 18.1 years). Alignment and coverage metrics indicated that the capture and sequencing was highly efficient and the consumable cost was ∼£400 (€460 or US$620). Our pathogenicity interpretation pathway predicted 13 different mutations in eight different genes: PRKCG, TTBK2, SETX, SPTBN2, SACS, MRE11, KCNC3 and DARS2 of which nine were novel including one causing a newly described recessive ataxia syndrome. Genetic testing using targeted capture followed by next-generation sequencing was efficient, cost-effective, and enabled a molecular diagnosis in many refractory cases. A specific challenge of next-generation sequencing data is pathogenicity interpretation, but functional analysis confirmed the pathogenicity of novel variants showing that the pipeline was robust. Our results have broad implications for clinical neurology practice and the approach to diagnostic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784284PMC
October 2013

Clinical, biochemical, cellular and molecular characterization of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome due to novel mutations in the MPV17 gene.

Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Feb 29;22(2):184-91. Epub 2013 May 29.

Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford The Women's Centre, Oxford, UK.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS) are severe autosomal recessive disorders associated with decreased mtDNA copy number in clinically affected tissues. The hepatocerebral form (mtDNA depletion in liver and brain) has been associated with mutations in the POLG, PEO1 (Twinkle), DGUOK and MPV17 genes, the latter encoding a mitochondrial inner membrane protein of unknown function. The aims of this study were to clarify further the clinical, biochemical, cellular and molecular genetic features associated with MDS due to MPV17 gene mutations. We identified 12 pathogenic mutations in the MPV17 gene, of which 11 are novel, in 17 patients from 12 families. All patients manifested liver disease. Poor feeding, hypoglycaemia, raised serum lactate, hypotonia and faltering growth were common presenting features. mtDNA depletion in liver was demonstrated in all seven cases where liver tissue was available. Mosaic mtDNA depletion was found in primary fibroblasts by PicoGreen staining. These results confirm that MPV17 mutations are an important cause of hepatocerebral mtDNA depletion syndrome, and provide the first demonstration of mosaic mtDNA depletion in human MPV17 mutant fibroblast cultures. We found that a severe clinical phenotype was associated with profound tissue-specific mtDNA depletion in liver, and, in some cases, mosaic mtDNA depletion in fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2013.112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895632PMC
February 2014

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a diagnostic tool for retinal degeneration reveals a much higher detection rate in early-onset disease.

Eur J Hum Genet 2013 Mar 12;21(3):274-80. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) is a common cause of visual impairment (prevalence ∼1/3500). There is considerable phenotype and genotype heterogeneity, making a specific diagnosis very difficult without molecular testing. We investigated targeted capture combined with next-generation sequencing using Nimblegen 12plex arrays and the Roche 454 sequencing platform to explore its potential for clinical diagnostics in two common types of IRD, retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy. 50 patients (36 unknowns and 14 positive controls) were screened, and pathogenic mutations were identified in 25% of patients in the unknown, with 53% in the early-onset cases. All patients with new mutations detected had an age of onset <21 years and 44% had a family history. Thirty-one percent of mutations detected were novel. A de novo mutation in rhodopsin was identified in one early-onset case without a family history. Bioinformatic pipelines were developed to identify likely pathogenic mutations and stringent criteria were used for assignment of pathogenicity. Analysis of sequencing metrics revealed significant variability in capture efficiency and depth of coverage. We conclude that targeted capture and next-generation sequencing are likely to be very useful in a diagnostic setting, but patients with earlier onset of disease are more likely to benefit from using this strategy. The mutation-detection rate suggests that many patients are likely to have mutations in novel genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2012.172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3573204PMC
March 2013

Gross deletions in TCOF1 are a cause of Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome.

Eur J Hum Genet 2012 Jul 8;20(7):769-77. Epub 2012 Feb 8.

Clinical Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder characterised by midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, downslanting palpebral fissures, eyelid colobomata, and ear deformities that often lead to conductive deafness. A total of 182 patients with signs consistent with a diagnosis of TCS were screened by DNA sequence and dosage analysis of the TCOF1 gene. In all, 92 cases were found to have a pathogenic mutation by sequencing and 5 to have a partial gene deletion. A further case had a novel in-frame deletion in the alternatively spliced exon 6A of uncertain pathogenicity. The majority of the pathogenic sequence changes were found to predict premature protein termination, however, four novel missense changes in the LIS1 homology motif at the 5' end of the gene were identified. The partial gene deletions of different sizes represent ~5.2% of all the pathogenic TCOF1 mutations identified, indicating that gene rearrangements account for a significant proportion of TCS cases. This is the first report of gene rearrangements resulting in TCS. These findings expand the TCOF1 mutation spectrum indicating that dosage analysis should be performed together with sequence analysis, a strategy that is predicted to have a sensitivity of 71% for patients in whom TCS is strongly suspected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2012.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376267PMC
July 2012

DNA testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a cost-effectiveness model.

Eur Heart J 2010 Apr 18;31(8):926-35. Epub 2010 Mar 18.

Health Economics Research Centre, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

Aims To explore the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods of screening family members for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common monogenic cardiac disorder and the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young people. Methods and results Economic decision model comparing cascade screening by genetic, as opposed to clinical methods. The incremental cost per life year saved was 14,397 euro for the cascade genetic compared with the cascade clinical approach. Genetic diagnostic strategies are more likely to be cost-effective than clinical tests alone. The costs for cascade molecular genetic testing were slightly higher than clinical testing in the short run, but this was largely because the genetic approach is more effective and identifies more individuals at risk. Conclusion The use of molecular genetic information in the diagnosis and management of HCM is a cost-effective approach to the primary prevention of SCD in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq067DOI Listing
April 2010

Clinical dividends from the molecular genetic diagnosis of craniosynostosis.

Am J Med Genet A 2007 Aug;143A(16):1941-9

Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

A dozen years have passed since the first genetic lesion was identified in a family with craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures. Subsequently, mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3, TWIST1, and EFNB1 genes have been shown to account for approximately 25% of craniosynostosis, whilst several additional genes make minor contributions. Using specific examples, we show how these discoveries have enabled refinement of information on diagnosis, recurrence risk, prognosis for mental development, and surgical planning. However, phenotypic variability can present a significant challenge to the clinical interpretation of molecular genetic tests. In particular, the difficulty of analyzing the complex interaction of genetic background and prenatal environment in determining clinical features, limits the value of identifying low penetrance mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.31905DOI Listing
August 2007

QuantiSNP: an Objective Bayes Hidden-Markov Model to detect and accurately map copy number variation using SNP genotyping data.

Nucleic Acids Res 2007 6;35(6):2013-25. Epub 2007 Mar 6.

Genomics Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK.

Array-based technologies have been used to detect chromosomal copy number changes (aneuploidies) in the human genome. Recent studies identified numerous copy number variants (CNV) and some are common polymorphisms that may contribute to disease susceptibility. We developed, and experimentally validated, a novel computational framework (QuantiSNP) for detecting regions of copy number variation from BeadArray SNP genotyping data using an Objective Bayes Hidden-Markov Model (OB-HMM). Objective Bayes measures are used to set certain hyperparameters in the priors using a novel re-sampling framework to calibrate the model to a fixed Type I (false positive) error rate. Other parameters are set via maximum marginal likelihood to prior training data of known structure. QuantiSNP provides probabilistic quantification of state classifications and significantly improves the accuracy of segmental aneuploidy identification and mapping, relative to existing analytical tools (Beadstudio, Illumina), as demonstrated by validation of breakpoint boundaries. QuantiSNP identified both novel and validated CNVs. QuantiSNP was developed using BeadArray SNP data but it can be adapted to other platforms and we believe that the OB-HMM framework has widespread applicability in genomic research. In conclusion, QuantiSNP is a novel algorithm for high-resolution CNV/aneuploidy detection with application to clinical genetics, cancer and disease association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1874617PMC
May 2007

Clinical dividends from the molecular genetic diagnosis of craniosynostosis.

Am J Med Genet A 2006 Dec;140(23):2631-9

Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

A dozen years have passed since the first genetic lesion was identified in a family with craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures. Subsequently, mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3, TWIST1, and EFNB1 genes have been shown to account for approximately 25% of craniosynostosis, whilst several additional genes make minor contributions. Using specific examples, we show how these discoveries have enabled refinement of information on diagnosis, recurrence risk, prognosis for mental development, and surgical planning. However, phenotypic variability can present a significant challenge to the clinical interpretation of molecular genetic tests. In particular, the difficulty of analyzing the complex interaction of genetic background and prenatal environment in determining clinical features, limits the value of identifying low penetrance mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.31366DOI Listing
December 2006

Accurate detection and quantitation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial point mutations by pyrosequencing.

Genet Test 2005 ;9(3):190-9

National Genetics Reference Laboratory (Wessex), Salisbury District Hospital, Odstock, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

Disease-causing mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are typically heteroplasmic and therefore interpretation of genetic tests for mitochondrial disorders can be problematic. Detection of low level heteroplasmy is technically demanding and it is often difficult to discriminate between the absence of a mutation or the failure of a technique to detect the mutation in a particular tissue. The reliable measurement of heteroplasmy in different tissues may help identify individuals who are at risk of developing specific complications and allow improved prognostic advice for patients and family members. We have evaluated Pyrosequencing technology for the detection and estimation of heteroplasmy for six mitochondrial point mutations associated with the following diseases: Leber's hereditary optical neuropathy (LHON), G3460A, G11778A, and T14484C; mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), A3243G; myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF), A8344G, and neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP)/Leighs: T8993G/C. Results obtained from the Pyrosequencing assays for 50 patients with presumptive mitochondrial disease were compared to those obtained using the commonly used diagnostic technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion. The Pyrosequencing assays provided accurate genotyping and quantitative determination of mutational load with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The MELAS A3243G mutation was detected reliably at a level of 1% heteroplasmy. We conclude that Pyrosequencing is a rapid and robust method for detecting heteroplasmic mitochondrial point mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gte.2005.9.190DOI Listing
January 2006