Publications by authors named "Annegien Broeks"

122 Publications

An ex vivo tumor fragment platform to dissect response to PD-1 blockade in cancer.

Nat Med 2021 07 8;27(7):1250-1261. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Molecular Oncology & Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Inhibitors of the PD-1-PD-L1 axis have been approved as therapy for many human cancers. In spite of the evidence for their widespread clinical activity, little is known about the immunological alterations that occur in human cancer tissue after PD-1 blockade. We developed and employed a patient-derived tumor fragment platform to dissect the early immunological response of human tumor tissue to ex vivo PD-1 blockade. We observed that the capacity of immune cells to be reactivated ex vivo was predictive of clinical response, and perturbation analyses identified tumor-resident T cells as a key component of this immunological response. In addition, through combined analysis of baseline properties and immune response capacity, we identified a new subgroup of infiltrated tumors that lacks the capacity to respond to PD-1 blockade. Finally, the baseline presence of tertiary lymphoid structures and their components correlated with the capacity of cancers to undergo intratumoral immune cell reactivation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01398-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Distinct Patterns of Myeloid Cell Infiltration in Patients With hrHPV-Positive and hrHPV-Negative Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Importance of Assessing Myeloid Cell Densities Within the Spatial Context of the Tumor.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:682030. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Comprehensive analysis of tumor infiltrating myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is lacking. In this retrospective study, for the first time, PSCC resection specimens (N = 103) were annotated into the following compartments: intratumoral tumor (IT Tumor), intratumoral stroma (IT Stroma), peritumoral tumor (PT Tumor) and peritumoral stroma (PT Stroma) compartments. We then quantified CD14+, CD68+ and CD163+ myeloid cells within these compartments using an image analysis software and assessed their association with various clinical parameters, including high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) status. In the total cohort, hrHPV status, grade of differentiation, age and tumor size were associated with myeloid cell densities. hrHPV tumors had higher infiltration rates of CD14+, CD68+ and CD163+ myeloid cells in the IT tumor compartment (p < 0.001, for all) compared to hrHPV tumors. Furthermore, when examining the association between compartment-specific infiltration and differentiation grade, increased myeloid cell densities in the IT tumor compartment were associated with a more advanced histological grade (p < 0.001, for all). This association remained significant when the hrHPV cohort (N = 60) was analyzed (CD14+ p = 0.001; CD68+ p < 0.001; CD163+ p = 0.004). Subgroup analysis in the hrHPV group (N = 43) showed that high infiltration rates of CD68+ and CD163+ cells in the PT tumor compartment were associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis (p = 0.031 and p = 0.026, respectively). Regarding the association between myeloid cell densities and disease-specific survival, the risk of death was found to decrease slightly as the number of myeloid cells in the IT tumor compartment increased (CD14+ p 0.04; CD68+ p = 0.05; CD163+ p = 0.02). However, after adjusting for hrHPV, no independent association between myeloid densities and disease-specific survival were found. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the importance of assessing myeloid cell densities within the spatial context of the tumor. Further studies are needed to unravel the specific phenotype of myeloid cells residing in the different compartments, their effect on clinical parameters and the impact of hrHPV on the recruitment of myeloid cell populations in PSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.682030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236714PMC
June 2021

Breast adipocyte size associates with ipsilateral invasive breast cancer risk after ductal carcinoma in situ.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Mar 22;7(1):31. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Although ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor to ipsilateral invasive breast cancer (iIBC), most DCIS lesions remain indolent. Hence, overdiagnosis and overtreatment of DCIS is a major concern. There is an urgent need for prognostic markers that can distinguish harmless from potentially hazardous DCIS. We hypothesised that features of the breast adipose tissue may be associated with risk of subsequent iIBC. We performed a case-control study nested in a population-based DCIS cohort, consisting of 2658 women diagnosed with primary DCIS between 1989 and 2005, uniformly treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) alone. We assessed breast adipose features with digital pathology (HALO, Indica Labs) and related these to iIBC risk in 108 women that developed subsequent iIBC (cases) and 168 women who did not (controls) by conditional logistic regression, accounting for clinicopathological and immunohistochemistry variables. Large breast adipocyte size was significantly associated with iIBC risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.25-6.05). High cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression in the DCIS cells was also associated with subsequent iIBC (OR 3.70 (95% CI = 1.59-8.64). DCIS with both high COX-2 expression and large breast adipocytes was associated with a 12-fold higher risk (OR 12.0, 95% CI = 3.10-46.3, P < 0.001) for subsequent iIBC compared with women with smaller adipocyte size and low COX-2 expression. Large breast adipocytes combined with high COX-2 expression in DCIS is associated with a high risk of subsequent iIBC. Besides COX-2, adipocyte size has the potential to improve clinical management in patients diagnosed with primary DCIS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00232-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985299PMC
March 2021

High CD8 tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte density associates with unfavourable prognosis in oesophageal adenocarcinoma following poor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

Histopathology 2021 Aug 27;79(2):238-251. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pathology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Determining prognosis following poor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) remains challenging. An immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME) as well as immune infiltrate density and composition are considered to play a critical role in the immune interaction between host and tumour and can predict therapy response and survival in many cancers, including gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of this study was to establish the TME characteristics associated with survival following a poor response to nCRT.

Methods And Results: The prognostic significance of OAC-associated CD3 , CD4 , CD8 , forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3 ) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and quantified by automated image analysis in 123 patients who underwent nCRT and curative resection. Results from good and poor responders were contrasted and immune infiltration was related to disease course in both groups. Subsequently a cohort of 57 patients with a moderate response to nCRT was analysed in a similar fashion. Tumour cell percentage positively correlated to immune infiltration markers. In good and moderate responders, none of the immune infiltrate parameters was associated with survival; in poor responders CD8 was an independent negative predictor of OS in univariate analysis (P = 0.03) and high CD8 infiltration was associated with worse OS (15 versus 32 months, P = 0.042).

Conclusion: A high CD8 density is an independent biomarker of poor OS in poor responders to nCRT, but not in good and moderate responders. Our results suggest that patients with a poor response to nCRT but concomitant high CD8 counts in the resection specimen require adjuvant therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14361DOI Listing
August 2021

Gene expression profiles of esophageal squamous cell cancers in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors versus sporadic cases.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(12):e0243178. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). We aimed to gain insight in the driving events of ESCC in HL survivors (hESCC) by using RNA sequencing and NanoString profiling. Objectives were to investigate differences in RNA signaling between hESCC and sporadic ESCC (sESCC), and to look for early malignant changes in non-neoplastic esophageal tissue of HL survivors (hNN-tissue). We analyzed material of 26 hESCC cases, identified via the Dutch pathology registry (PALGA) and 17 sESCC cases from one academic institute and RNA sequencing data of 44 sESCC cases from TCGA. Gene expression profiles for the NanoString panel PanCancer IO 360 were obtained from 16/26 hESCC and four hNN-tissue, while non-neoplastic squamous tissue of four sporadic cases (sNN-tissue) served as reference profile. Hierarchical clustering, differential expression and pathway analyses were performed. Overall, the molecular profiles of hESCC and sESCC were similar. There was increased immune, HMGB1 and ILK signaling compared to sNN-tissue. The profiles of hNN-tissue were distinct from sNN-tissue, indicating early field effects in the esophagus of HL survivors. The BRCA1 pathway was upregulated in hESCC tissue, compared to hNN tissue. Analysis of expression profiles reveals overlap between hESCC and sESCC, and differences between hESCC and its surrounding hNN-tissue. Further research is required to validate our results and to investigate whether the changes observed in hNN-tissue are already detectable before development of hESCC. In the future, our findings could be used to improve hESCC patient management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243178PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751872PMC
January 2021

Comprehensive analysis of cutaneous and uveal melanoma liver metastases.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 12;8(2)

Molecular Oncology & Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Background: The profound disparity in response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) by cutaneous melanoma (CM) and uveal melanoma (UM) patients is not well understood. Therefore, we characterized metastases of CM and UM from the same metastatic site (liver), in order to dissect the potential underlying mechanism in differential response on ICB.

Methods: Tumor liver samples from CM (n=38) and UM (n=28) patients were analyzed at the genomic (whole exome sequencing), transcriptional (RNA sequencing) and protein (immunohistochemistry and GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling) level.

Results: Comparison of CM and UM metastases from the same metastatic site revealed that, although originating from the same melanocyte lineage, CM and UM differed in somatic mutation profile, copy number profile, tumor mutational burden (TMB) and consequently predicted neoantigens. A higher melanin content and higher expression of the melanoma differentiation antigen MelanA was observed in liver metastases of UM patients. No difference in B2M and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression was observed. A higher expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) was found in CM compared with UM liver metastases, although the majority of CM and UM liver metastases lacked PD-L1 expression. There was no difference in the extent of immune infiltration observed between CM and UM metastases, with the exception of a higher expression of CD163 (p<0.0001) in CM liver samples. While the extent of immune infiltration was similar for CM and UM metastases, the ratio of exhausted CD8 T cells to cytotoxic T cells, to total CD8 T cells and to Th1 cells, was significantly higher in UM metastases.

Conclusions: While TMB was different between CM and UM metastases, tumor immune infiltration was similar. The greater dependency on PD-L1 as an immune checkpoint in CM and the identification of higher exhaustion ratios in UM may both serve as explanations for the difference in response to ICB. Consequently, in order to improve current treatment for metastatic UM, reversal of T cell exhaustion beyond programmed cell death 1 blockade should be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713183PMC
December 2020

Preoperative ipilimumab plus nivolumab in locoregionally advanced urothelial cancer: the NABUCCO trial.

Nat Med 2020 12 12;26(12):1839-1844. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Preoperative immunotherapy with anti-PD1 plus anti-CTLA4 antibodies has shown remarkable pathological responses in melanoma and colorectal cancer. In NABUCCO (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03387761 ), a single-arm feasibility trial, 24 patients with stage III urothelial cancer (UC) received two doses of ipilimumab and two doses of nivolumab, followed by resection. The primary endpoint was feasibility to resect within 12 weeks from treatment start. All patients were evaluable for the study endpoints and underwent resection, 23 (96%) within 12 weeks. Grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 55% of patients and in 41% of patients when excluding clinically insignificant laboratory abnormalities. Eleven patients (46%) had a pathological complete response (pCR), meeting the secondary efficacy endpoint. Fourteen patients (58%) had no remaining invasive disease (pCR or pTisN0/pTaN0). In contrast to studies with anti-PD1/PD-L1 monotherapy, complete response to ipilimumab plus nivolumab was independent of baseline CD8 presence or T-effector signatures. Induction of tertiary lymphoid structures upon treatment was observed in responding patients. Our data indicate that combined CTLA-4 plus PD-1 blockade might provide an effective preoperative treatment strategy in locoregionally advanced UC, irrespective of pre-existing CD8 T cell activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1085-zDOI Listing
December 2020

FGFR3 Mutation Status and FGFR3 Expression in a Large Bladder Cancer Cohort Treated by Radical Cystectomy: Implications for Anti-FGFR3 Treatment?.

Eur Urol 2020 11 15;78(5):682-687. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an actionable target in bladder cancer (BC). FGFR3 mutations are common in noninvasive BC and associated with favorable BC prognosis. Overexpression was reported in up to 40% of FGFR3 wild-type muscle-invasive BC. We analyzed FGFR3 mutations, FGFR3, and p53 protein expression and assessed their prognostic value in a cohort of 1000 chemotherapy-naive radical cystectomy specimens. FGFR3 mutations were found in 11%, FGFR3 overexpression was found in 28%, and p53 overexpression was found in 69% of tumors. Among FGFR3 mutant tumors, 73% had FGFR3 overexpression versus 22% among FGFR3 wild-type tumors. FGFR3 mutations were significantly associated with lower pT stage, tumor grade, absence of carcinoma in situ, pN0, low-level p53, and longer disease-specific survival (DSS). FGFR3 overexpression was associated only with lower pT stage and tumor grade. Moreover, FGFR3 overexpression was not associated with DSS in patients with FGFR3 wild-type tumors. In conclusion, FGFR3 mutations identified patients with favorable BC at cystectomy. Our results suggest that FGFR3 mutations have a driver role and are functionally distinct from FGFR3 overexpression. Hence, patients with FGFR3 mutations would be more likely to benefit from anti-FGFR3 therapy. Ideally, further research is needed to test this hypothesis. PATIENT SUMMARY: Oncogenic fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations are very common in bladder cancer. In this report, we found that these FGFR3 mutations were associated with favorable features and prognosis of bladder cancer compared with patients with FGFR3 overexpressed tumors only. As a consequence, patients with FGFR3 mutant tumors would be more likely to benefit from anti-FGFR3 therapy than patients with FGFR3 protein overexpression only.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.07.002DOI Listing
November 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy leads to pathological responses in MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient early-stage colon cancers.

Nat Med 2020 04 6;26(4):566-576. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Molecular Oncology and Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

PD-1 plus CTLA-4 blockade is highly effective in advanced-stage, mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancers, yet not in MMR-proficient (pMMR) tumors. We postulated a higher efficacy of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in early-stage colon cancers. In the exploratory NICHE study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03026140), patients with dMMR or pMMR tumors received a single dose of ipilimumab and two doses of nivolumab before surgery, the pMMR group with or without celecoxib. The primary objective was safety and feasibility; 40 patients with 21 dMMR and 20 pMMR tumors were treated, and 3 patients received nivolumab monotherapy in the safety run-in. Treatment was well tolerated and all patients underwent radical resections without delays, meeting the primary endpoint. Of the patients who received ipilimumab + nivolumab (20 dMMR and 15 pMMR tumors), 35 were evaluable for efficacy and translational endpoints. Pathological response was observed in 20/20 (100%; 95% exact confidence interval (CI): 86-100%) dMMR tumors, with 19 major pathological responses (MPRs, ≤10% residual viable tumor) and 12 pathological complete responses. In pMMR tumors, 4/15 (27%; 95% exact CI: 8-55%) showed pathological responses, with 3 MPRs and 1 partial response. CD8PD-1 T cell infiltration was predictive of response in pMMR tumors. These data indicate that neoadjuvant immunotherapy may have the potential to become the standard of care for a defined group of colon cancer patients when validated in larger studies with at least 3 years of disease-free survival data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0805-8DOI Listing
April 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and BRCA-like status in stage III breast cancer patients randomised to adjuvant intensified platinum-based chemotherapy versus conventional chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2020 03 16;127:240-250. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Division of Molecular Oncology & Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: The prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) differs by breast cancer (BC) subtype. The aim of this study was to evaluate TILs in stage III BC in the context of BRCA1/2-like phenotypes and association with outcome and benefit of intensified platinum-based chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: Patients participated in a randomised controlled trial of adjuvant intensified platinum-based chemotherapy versus conventional anthracycline-based chemotherapy carried out between 1993 and 1999 in stage III BC. Stromal TILs were scored according to International guidelines in these human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumours. BRCA-profiles were determined using Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

Results: TIL levels were evaluated in 248 BCs. High TILs were associated with Triple Negative BC (TNBC). BRCA-like tumours harboured higher TILs compared to non-BRCA-like tumours (median TILs of 20% versus 10%, p < 0.01). TIL levels in BRCA1-like tumours were higher compared to BRCA2-like tumours (median TILs of 20% versus 10%, p < 0.001). These correlations remained significant within the oestrogen (ER)-positive subgroup, however not within the TNBC subgroup. In this stage III BC cohort, high TIL level was associated with favourable outcome (TILs per 10% increment, recurrence-free survival (RFS): multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.94, p = 0.01; overall survival (OS): multivariate HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.94, p = 0.01). There was no significant interaction between TILs and benefit of intensified platinum-based chemotherapy.

Conclusion: In this high-risk breast cancer cohort, high TILs were associated with TNBC and BRCA1-like status. Within the ER-positive subgroup, TIL levels were higher in BRCA1-like compared to BRCA2-like tumours. When adjusted for clinical characteristics, TILs were significantly associated with a more favourable outcome in stage III BC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.12.003DOI Listing
March 2020

Phase Ib/II trial testing combined radiofrequency ablation and ipilimumab in uveal melanoma (SECIRA-UM).

Melanoma Res 2020 06;30(3):252-260

Departments of Medical Oncology.

Approximately, 50% of patients with uveal melanoma develop distant metastasis for which no standard therapy is established. In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab showed no clinical activity in uveal melanoma. Liver directed therapies improve local control, but fail to show overall survival (OS) benefit. Preclinical experiments demonstrated that radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induced durable responses in combination with anti-CTLA-4. The aim of this phase Ib/II study was to assess safety and efficacy of RFA plus ipilimumab in uveal melanoma. Patients underwent RFA of one liver lesion and subsequently received four courses ipilimumab 0.3, 3 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks in a 3 + 3 design. Primary endpoints were safety in terms of dose limiting toxicities per cohort to define the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in the phase Ib part and confirmed the objective response rate and disease control rate (DCR) of non-RFA lesions in the phase II part. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Ipilimumab 10 mg/kg + RFA was initially defined as the RP2D. However, after 19 patients, the study was amended to adjust the RP2D to ipilimumab 3 mg/kg + RFA, because 47% of patients treated with 10 mg/kg had developed grade 3 colitis. In the 3 mg/kg cohort, also 19 patients have been treated. Immunotherapy-related grade ≥3 adverse events were observed in 53% of patients in the 10 mg/kg cohort versus 32% in the 3 mg/kg cohort. No confirmed objective responses were observed; the confirmed DCR was 5% in the 10 mg/kg cohort and 11% in the 3 mg/kg cohort. Median PFS was 3 months and comparable for both cohorts, median OS was 14.2 months for the 10 mg/kg cohort versus 9.7 months for the 3 mg/kg cohort. Combining RFA with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg was well tolerated, but showed very limited clinical activity in uveal melanoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000653DOI Listing
June 2020

Discordant Marker Expression Between Invasive Breast Carcinoma and Corresponding Synchronous and Preceding DCIS.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 11;43(11):1574-1582

Division of Molecular Pathology.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a potential precursor of invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). Studies aiming to find markers involved in DCIS progression generally have compared characteristics of IBC lesions with those of adjacent synchronous DCIS lesions. The question remains whether synchronous DCIS and IBC comparisons are a good surrogate for primary DCIS and subsequent IBC. In this study, we compared both primary DCIS and synchronous DCIS with the associated IBC lesion, on the basis of immunohistochemical marker expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, HER2, p53, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) was performed for 143 primary DCIS and subsequent IBC lesions, including 81 IBC lesions with synchronous DCIS. Agreement between DCIS and IBC was assessed using kappa, and symmetry tests were performed to assess the pattern in marker conversion. The primary DCIS and subsequent IBC more often showed discordant marker expression than synchronous DCIS and IBC. Strikingly, 18 of 49 (36%) women with HER2-positive primary DCIS developed an HER2-negative IBC. Such a difference in HER2 expression was not observed when comparing synchronous DCIS and IBC. The frequency of discordant marker expression did not increase with longer time between primary DCIS and IBC. In conclusion, comparison of primary DCIS and subsequent IBC yields different results than a comparison of synchronous DCIS and IBC, in particular with regard to HER2 status. To gain more insight into the progression of DCIS to IBC, it is essential to focus on the relationship between primary DCIS and subsequent IBC, rather than comparing IBC with synchronous DCIS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001306DOI Listing
November 2019

Identification of the optimal combination dosing schedule of neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab in macroscopic stage III melanoma (OpACIN-neo): a multicentre, phase 2, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 07 31;20(7):948-960. Epub 2019 May 31.

Melanoma Institute of Australia, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Royal North Shore and Mater Hospitals, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: The outcome of patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma is poor. Neoadjuvant treatment with ipilimumab plus nivolumab at the standard dosing schedule induced pathological responses in a high proportion of patients in two small independent early-phase trials, and no patients with a pathological response have relapsed after a median follow up of 32 months. However, toxicity of the standard ipilimumab plus nivolumab dosing schedule was high, preventing its broader clinical use. The aim of the OpACIN-neo trial was to identify a dosing schedule of ipilimumab plus nivolumab that is less toxic but equally effective.

Methods: OpACIN-neo is a multicentre, open-label, phase 2, randomised, controlled trial. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, had a WHO performance status of 0-1, had resectable stage III melanoma involving lymph nodes only, and measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were enrolled from three medical centres in Australia, Sweden, and the Netherlands, and were randomly assigned (1:1:1), stratified by site, to one of three neoadjuvant dosing schedules: group A, two cycles of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg once every 3 weeks intravenously; group B, two cycles of ipilimumab 1 mg/kg plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks intravenously; or group C, two cycles of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks directly followed by two cycles of nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks intravenously. The investigators, site staff, and patients were aware of the treatment assignment during the study participation. Pathologists were masked to treatment allocation and all other data. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with grade 3-4 immune-related toxicity within the first 12 weeks and the proportion of patients achieving a radiological objective response and pathological response at 6 weeks. Analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02977052, and is ongoing with an additional extension cohort and to complete survival analysis.

Findings: Between Nov 24, 2016 and June 28, 2018, 105 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 89 (85%) eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Three patients were excluded after randomisation because they were found to be ineligible, and 86 received at least one dose of study drug; 30 patients in group A, 30 in group B, and 26 in group C (accrual to this group was closed early upon advice of the Data Safety Monitoring Board on June 4, 2018 because of severe adverse events). Within the first 12 weeks, grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events were observed in 12 (40%) of 30 patients in group A, six (20%) of 30 in group B, and 13 (50%) of 26 in group C. The difference in grade 3-4 toxicity between group B and A was -20% (95% CI -46 to 6; p=0·158) and between group C and group A was 10% (-20 to 40; p=0·591). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were elevated liver enzymes in group A (six [20%)]) and colitis in group C (five [19%]); in group B, none of the grade 3-4 adverse events were seen in more than one patient. One patient (in group A) died 9·5 months after the start of treatment due to the consequences of late-onset immune-related encephalitis, which was possibly treatment-related. 19 (63% [95% CI 44-80]) of 30 patients in group A, 17 (57% [37-75]) of 30 in group B, and nine (35% [17-56]) of 26 in group C achieved a radiological objective response, while pathological responses occurred in 24 (80% [61-92]) patients in group A, 23 (77% [58-90]) in group B, and 17 (65% [44-83]) in group C.

Interpretation: OpACIN-neo identified a tolerable neoadjuvant dosing schedule (group B: two cycles of ipilimumab 1 mg/kg plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg) that induces a pathological response in a high proportion of patients and might be suitable for broader clinical use. When more mature data confirm these early observations, this schedule should be tested in randomised phase 3 studies versus adjuvant therapies, which are the current standard-of-care systemic therapy for patients with stage III melanoma.

Funding: Bristol-Myers Squibb.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30151-2DOI Listing
July 2019

Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2019 04 15;10(1):1741. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Molecular Oncology Laboratory, CIBERONC, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, IdISSC (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos), 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08053-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465407PMC
April 2019

The circular RNome of primary breast cancer.

Genome Res 2019 03 28;29(3):356-366. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNAs that is under increasing scrutiny, although their functional roles are debated. We analyzed RNA-seq data of 348 primary breast cancers and developed a method to identify circRNAs that does not rely on unmapped reads or known splice junctions. We identified 95,843 circRNAs, of which 20,441 were found recurrently. Of the circRNAs that match exon boundaries of the same gene, 668 showed a poor or even negative ( < 0.2) correlation with the expression level of the linear gene. In silico analysis showed only a minority (8.5%) of circRNAs could be explained by known splicing events. Both these observations suggest that specific regulatory processes for circRNAs exist. We confirmed the presence of circRNAs of , , and in an independent pool of primary breast cancers. We identified circRNA profiles associated with subgroups of breast cancers and with biological and clinical features, such as amount of tumor lymphocytic infiltrate and proliferation index. siRNA-mediated knockdown of was shown to significantly reduce viability of the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-474, further underlining the biological relevance of circRNAs. Furthermore, we found that circular, and not linear, levels are predictive for progression-free survival time to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in advanced breast cancer patients, and found that is detectable in cell-free RNA from plasma. We showed that circRNAs are abundantly present, show characteristics of being specifically regulated, are associated with clinical and biological properties, and thus are relevant in breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.238121.118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396421PMC
March 2019

Author Correction: Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences.

Nature 2019 02;566(7742):E1

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK.

In the Methods section of this Article, 'greater than' should have been 'less than' in the sentence 'Putative regions of clustered rearrangements were identified as having an average inter-rearrangement distance that was at least 10 times greater than the whole-genome average for the individual sample. '. The Article has not been corrected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-0883-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood 2019 03 20;133(10):1130-1139. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

Female Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with chest radiotherapy (RT) have a very high risk of breast cancer. The contribution of genetic factors to this risk is unclear. We therefore examined 211 155 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene-radiation interaction on breast cancer risk in a case-only analysis including 327 breast cancer patients after chest RT for HL and 4671 first primary breast cancer patients. Nine SNPs showed statistically significant interaction with RT on breast cancer risk (false discovery rate, <20%), of which 1 SNP in the oncogene attained the Bonferroni threshold for statistical significance. A polygenic risk score (PRS) composed of these SNPs (RT-interaction-PRS) and a previously published breast cancer PRS (BC-PRS) derived in the general population were evaluated in a case-control analysis comprising the 327 chest-irradiated HL patients with breast cancer and 491 chest-irradiated HL patients without breast cancer. Patients in the highest tertile of the RT-interaction-PRS had a 1.6-fold higher breast cancer risk than those in the lowest tertile. Remarkably, we observed a fourfold increased RT-induced breast cancer risk in the highest compared with the lowest decile of the BC-PRS. On a continuous scale, breast cancer risk increased 1.4-fold per standard deviation of the BC-PRS, similar to the effect size found in the general population. This study demonstrates that genetic factors influence breast cancer risk after chest RT for HL. Given the high absolute breast cancer risk in radiation-exposed women, these results can have important implications for the management of current HL survivors and future patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-07-862607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405334PMC
March 2019

HLA class II expression on tumor cells and low numbers of tumor-associated macrophages predict clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer.

Head Neck 2019 02 14;41(2):463-478. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Medical Oncology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is a highly immunogenic tumor and differences in tumor microenvironment might contribute to the improved survival of HPV-positive OPSCC patient.

Methods: A comprehensive multivariate analysis with clinical and immune variables (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] I/II, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed death receptor 1 (PD1), T cells, and macrophages) was performed in 142 OPSCC patients.

Results: We found an inverse correlation between the expression of HLA class II molecules on tumor cells and CD68+ CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). High HLA-DP/DQ/DR expression and low number of TAMs were associated with longer disease-specific survival and disease-free survival (DFS). Furthermore, a new population of CD8+ FoxP3+ T cells was correlated with shorter DFS in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: \We identified new prognostic markers for patients with oropharyngeal cancer, which can be used for selecting patients that can benefit from immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.25442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519285PMC
February 2019

Assessment of PD-L1 expression across breast cancer molecular subtypes, in relation to mutation rate, -like status, tumor-infiltrating immune cells and survival.

Oncoimmunology 2018;7(12):e1509820. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Division of Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

To better understand the expression pattern of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in different breast cancer types, we characterized PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, in relation to mutation rate, -like status and survival. We analyzed 410 primary treatment-naive breast tumors comprising 162 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-, 101 HER2+ and 147 triple-negative (TN) cancers. Pathologists quantified tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and TILs using whole slides and tissue microarray. Mutation rate was assessed by DNA sequencing, -like status using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and immune landscape by multiplex image analyses of CD4, CD68, CD8, FOXP3, cytokeratin, and PD-L1. Half of PD-L1 scores evaluated by tissue microarray were false negatives compared to whole slide evaluations. We observed at least 1% of PD-L1-positive (PD-L1+) cells in 53.1% of ER+HER2-, 73.3% of HER2+, and 84.4% of TN tumors. PD-L1 expression was higher in ductal compared to lobular carcinomas, also within ER+HER2- tumors (p = 0.04). High PD-L1+ TILs score (> 50%) was independently associated with better outcome in TN tumors (HR = 0.27; 95%CI = 0.10-0.69). Within TN tumors, PD-L1 and TIL scores showed a modest but significant positive association with the number of silent mutations, but no association with -like status. Multiplex image analyses indicated that PD-L1 is expressed on multiple immune cells (CD68+ macrophages, CD4+, FOXP3+, and CD8+ T cells) in the breast tumor microenvironment, independent of the PD-L1 status of the tumor cells. We found no evidence that levels of PD-L1+ TILs in TN breast cancer are driven by high mutation rate or -like status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2018.1509820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279322PMC
September 2018

Concurrent Radiotherapy and Panitumumab after Lymph Node Dissection and Induction Chemotherapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer.

J Urol 2019 03;201(3):478-485

Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: In this prospective study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of concurrent radiotherapy and panitumumab following neoadjuvant/induction chemotherapy and pelvic lymph node dissection as a bladder preserving therapy for invasive bladder cancer.

Materials And Methods: Patients with cT1-4N0-2M0 bladder cancer were treated with pelvic lymph node dissection and 4 cycles of platinum based induction chemotherapy followed by a 6½-week schedule of weekly panitumumab (2.5 mg/kg) and concurrent radiotherapy to the bladder (33 × 2 Gy). As the primary objective we compared concurrent radiotherapy and panitumumab toxicity to a historical control toxicity rate of concurrent cisplatin/radiotherapy (less than 35% of patients with Grade 3-5 toxicity). A sample size of 31 patients was estimated. Secondary end points included complete remission at 3-month followup, the bladder preservation rate, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) expression and RAS mutational status.

Results: Of the 38 cases initially included in this study 34 were staged cN0. After pelvic lymph node dissection 7 cases (21%) were up staged to pN+. Of the 38 patients 31 started concurrent radiotherapy and panitumumab. During concurrent radiotherapy and panitumumab 5 patients (16%, 95% CI 0-31) experienced systemic or local grade 3-4 toxicity. Four patients did not complete treatment due to adverse events. Complete remission was achieved in 29 of 31 patients (94%, 95% CI 83-100). At a median followup of 34 months 4 patients had local recurrence, for which 3 (10%) underwent salvage cystectomy. Two tumors showed EGFR or RAS mutation while 84% showed positive EGFR expression.

Conclusions: Concurrent radiotherapy and panitumumab following induction chemotherapy and pelvic lymph node dissection has a safety profile that is noninferior to the historical profile of concurrent cisplatin/radiotherapy. The high complete remission and bladder preservation rates are promising and warrant further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2018.10.007DOI Listing
March 2019

Neoadjuvant versus adjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab in macroscopic stage III melanoma.

Nat Med 2018 11 8;24(11):1655-1661. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Division of Molecular Oncology & Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Adjuvant ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1) both improve relapse-free survival of stage III melanoma patients. In stage IV disease, the combination of ipilimumab + nivolumab is superior to ipilimumab alone and also appears to be more effective than nivolumab monotherapy. Preclinical work suggests that neoadjuvant application of checkpoint inhibitors may be superior to adjuvant therapy. To address this question and to test feasibility, 20 patients with palpable stage III melanoma were 1:1 randomized to receive ipilimumab 3 mg kg and nivolumab 1 mg kg, as either four courses after surgery (adjuvant arm) or two courses before surgery and two courses postsurgery (neoadjuvant arm). Neoadjuvant therapy was feasible, with all patients undergoing surgery at the preplanned time point. However in both arms, 9/10 patients experienced one or more grade 3/4 adverse events. Pathological responses were achieved in 7/9 (78%) patients treated in the neoadjuvant arm. None of these patients have relapsed so far (median follow-up, 25.6 months). We found that neoadjuvant ipilimumab + nivolumab expand more tumor-resident T cell clones than adjuvant application. While neoadjuvant therapy appears promising, with the current regimen it induced high toxicity rates; therefore, it needs further investigation to preserve efficacy but reduce toxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0198-0DOI Listing
November 2018

Retrospective methods to estimate radiation dose at the site of breast cancer development after Hodgkin lymphoma radiotherapy.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2017 Dec 24;7:20-27. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Divison of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: An increased risk of breast cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has now been robustly established. In order to estimate the dose-response relationship more accurately, and to aid clinical decision making, a retrospective estimation of the radiation dose delivered to the site of the subsequent breast cancer is required.

Methods: For 174 Dutch and 170 UK female patients with breast cancer following HL treatment, the 3-dimensional position of the breast cancer in the affected breast was determined and transferred onto a CT-based anthropomorphic phantom. Using a radiotherapy treatment planning system the dose distribution on the CT-based phantom was calculated for the 46 different radiation treatment field set-ups used in the study population. The estimated dose at the centre of the breast cancer, and a margin to reflect dose uncertainty were determined on the basis of the location of the tumour and the isodose lines from the treatment planning. We assessed inter-observer variation and for 47 patients we compared the results with a previously applied dosimetry method.

Results: The estimated median point dose at the centre of the breast cancer location was 29.75 Gy (IQR 5.8-37.2), or about 75% of the prescribed radiotherapy dose. The median dose uncertainty range was 5.97 Gy. We observed an excellent inter-observer variation (ICC 0.89 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95)). The absolute agreement intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for inter-method variation was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.75), indicating (nearly) good agreement. There were no systematic differences in the dose estimates between observers or methods.

Conclusion: Estimates of the dose at the point of a subsequent breast cancer show good correlation between methods, but the retrospective nature of the estimates means that there is always some uncertainty to be accounted for.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2017.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862668PMC
December 2017

- a novel candidate breast cancer susceptibility locus on 6q14.1.

Oncotarget 2017 Nov 12;8(61):102769-102782. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

VIB Center for Cancer Biology, VIB, Leuven, Belgium.

Most non- breast cancer families have no identified genetic cause. We used linkage and haplotype analyses in familial and sporadic breast cancer cases to identify a susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. Two independent genome-wide linkage analysis studies suggested a 3 Mb locus on chromosome 6q and two unrelated Swedish families with a LOD >2 together seemed to share a haplotype in 6q14.1. We hypothesized that this region harbored a rare high-risk founder allele contributing to breast cancer in these two families. Sequencing of DNA and RNA from the two families did not detect any pathogenic mutations. Finally, 29 SNPs in the region were analyzed in 44,214 cases and 43,532 controls from BCAC, and the original haplotypes in the two families were suggested as low-risk alleles for European and Swedish women specifically. There was also some support for one additional independent moderate-risk allele in Swedish familial samples. The results were consistent with our previous findings in familial breast cancer and supported a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q14.1 around the gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732689PMC
November 2017

Body mass index and breast cancer survival: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2017 12;46(6):1814-1822

Academic Unit of Pathology, Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer.

Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis.

Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, P = 0.95).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837506PMC
December 2017

Resection of pancreatic cancer in Europe and USA: an international large-scale study highlighting large variations.

Gut 2019 01 20;68(1):130-139. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Analytical Epidemiology and Health Impact Unit, Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), Milan, Italy.

Objective: Resection can potentially cure resectable pancreatic cancer (PaC) and significantly prolong survival in some patients. This large-scale international study aimed to investigate variations in resection for PaC in Europe and USA and determinants for its utilisation.

Design: Data from six European population-based cancer registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database during 2003-2016 were analysed. Age-standardised resection rates for overall and stage I-II PaCs were computed. Associations between resection and demographic and clinical parameters were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: A total of 153 698 records were analysed. In population-based registries in 2012-2014, resection rates ranged from 13.2% (Estonia) to 21.2% (Slovenia) overall and from 34.8% (Norway) to 68.7% (Denmark) for stage I-II tumours, with great international variations. During 2003-2014, resection rates only increased in USA, the Netherlands and Denmark. Resection was significantly less frequently performed with more advanced tumour stage (ORs for stage III and IV versus stage I-II tumours: 0.05-0.18 and 0.01-0.06 across countries) and increasing age (ORs for patients 70-79 and ≥80 versus those <60 years: 0.37-0.63 and 0.03-0.16 across countries). Patients with advanced-stage tumours (stage III-IV: 63.8%-81.2%) and at older ages (≥70 years: 52.6%-59.5%) receiving less frequently resection comprised the majority of diagnosed cases. Patient performance status, tumour location and size were also associated with resection application.

Conclusion: Rates of PaC resection remain low in Europe and USA with great international variations. Further studies are warranted to explore reasons for these variations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314828DOI Listing
January 2019

Long-term prognosis of young breast cancer patients (≤40 years) who did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment: protocol for the PARADIGM initiative cohort study.

BMJ Open 2017 Nov 14;7(11):e017842. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Division of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Introduction: Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient's prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. Since breast cancers diagnosed at a young age are considered prognostically unfavourable, many treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant systemic treatment for all young patients. Patients cured by locoregional treatment alone are, therefore, overtreated. Lack of prognosticators for young breast cancer patients represents an unmet medical need and has led to the initiation of the PAtients with bReAst cancer DIaGnosed preMenopausally (PARADIGM) initiative. Our aim is to reduce overtreatment of women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 40 years.

Methods And Analysis: All young, adjuvant systemic treatment naive breast cancer patients, who had no prior malignancy and were diagnosed between 1989 and 2000, were identified using the population based Netherlands Cancer Registry (n=3525). Archival tumour tissues were retrieved through linkage with the Dutch nationwide pathology registry. Tissue slides will be digitalised and placed on an online image database platform for clinicopathological revision by an international team of breast pathologists. Immunohistochemical subtype will be assessed using tissue microarrays. Tumour RNA will be isolated and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Differences in gene expression found between patients with a favourable and those with a less favourable prognosis will be used to establish a prognostic classifier, using the triple negative patients as proof of principle.

Ethics And Dissemination: Observational data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and left over archival patient material are used. Therefore, the Dutch law on Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) is not applicable. The PARADIGM study received a 'non-WMO' declaration from the Medical Ethics Committee of the Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital, waiving individual patient consent. All data and material used are stored in a coded way. Study results will be presented at international (breast cancer) conferences and published in peer-reviewed, open-access journals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695414PMC
November 2017

Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

Nature 2017 11 23;551(7678):92-94. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798588PMC
November 2017
-->