Publications by authors named "Anne-Siri Fismen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Thinness, overweight, and obesity in 6- to 9-year-old children from 36 countries: The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative-COSI 2015-2017.

Obes Rev 2021 11 7;22 Suppl 6:e13214. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Center for Health Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Podgorica, Montenegro.

In 2015-2017, the fourth round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was conducted in 36 countries. National representative samples of children aged 6-9 (203,323) were measured by trained staff, with similar equipment and using a standardized protocol. This paper assesses the children's body weight status and compares the burden of childhood overweight, obesity, and thinness in Northern, Eastern, and Southern Europe and Central Asia. The results show great geographic variability in height, weight, and body mass index. On average, the children of Northern Europe were the tallest, those of Southern Europe the heaviest, and the children living in Central Asia the lightest and the shortest. Overall, 28.7% of boys and 26.5% of girls were overweight (including obesity) and 2.5% and 1.9%, respectively, were thin according to the WHO definitions. The prevalence of obesity varied from 1.8% of boys and 1.1% of girls in Tajikistan to 21.5% and 19.2%, respectively, in Cyprus, and tended to be higher for boys than for girls. Levels of thinness, stunting, and underweight were relatively low, except in Eastern Europe (for thinness) and in Central Asia. Despite the efforts to halt it, unhealthy weight status is still an important problem in the WHO European Region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13214DOI Listing
November 2021

Socioeconomic differences in food habits among 6- to 9-year-old children from 23 countries-WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI 2015/2017).

Obes Rev 2021 11 7;22 Suppl 6:e13211. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Division of Country Health Programmes, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: Socioeconomic differences in children's food habits are a key public health concern. In order to inform policy makers, cross-country surveillance studies of dietary patterns across socioeconomic groups are required. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and children's food habits.

Methods: The study was based on nationally representative data from children aged 6-9 years (n = 129,164) in 23 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Multivariate multilevel analyses were used to explore associations between children's food habits (consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugar-containing soft drinks) and parental education, perceived family wealth and parental employment status.

Results: Overall, the present study suggests that unhealthy food habits are associated with lower SES, particularly as assessed by parental education and family perceived wealth, but not parental employment status. We found cross-national and regional variation in associations between SES and food habits and differences in the extent to which the respective indicators of SES were related to children's diet.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic differences in children's food habits exist in the majority of European and Asian countries examined in this study. The results are of relevance when addressing strategies, policy actions, and interventions targeting social inequalities in children's diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13211DOI Listing
November 2021

Time trends in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and related socioeconomic differences among adolescents in Eastern Europe: signs of a nutrition transition?

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 10;114(4):1476-1485

School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) contributes to detrimental cardio-metabolic indicators in youth. Monitoring of SSB consumption is lacking in Eastern Europe.

Objectives: We assessed trends in the prevalence of adolescent daily consumption of SSBs in 14 Eastern European countries between 2002 and 2018, both overall and according to family material affluence.

Methods: We used 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 data of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children school-based study (repeated cross-sectional). Nationally representative samples of adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included (n = 325,184; 51.2% girls). Adolescents completed a standardized questionnaire, including a question on SSB consumption frequency. We categorized adolescents into 3 socioeconomic groups based on the relative Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Adjusted prevalences of daily SSB consumption by survey year, as well as country-level time trends between 2002 and 2018, were computed using multilevel logistic models (overall and by FAS groups).

Results: In 2018, the prevalence of adolescents consuming SSBs every day varied considerably between countries (range, 5.1%-28.1%). Between 2002 and 2018, the prevalence of daily SSB consumption declined in 10/14 countries (P for linear trends ≤ 0.004). The largest reductions were observed in Slovenia (OR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.45-0.50) and the Russian Federation (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.64-0.70). Daily SSB consumption was reduced at faster rates among the most affluent adolescents (who were larger consumers in 2002) than in the least affluent adolescents in 11/14 countries (P for linear trends ≤ 0.004). Thus, differences between FAS groups narrowed over time or even reversed, leading to larger proportions of daily consumers in the least affluent adolescents in 2018 in 5/14 countries (P ≤ 0.05).

Conclusions: Adolescent daily consumption of SSBs decreased between 2002 and 2018 in most Eastern European countries. Declines were larger among higher-affluence adolescents. These results are useful to evaluate and plan interventions promoting healthy childhood diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab175DOI Listing
October 2021

Pharmacologically treated diabetes and hospitalization among older Norwegians receiving homecare services from 2009 to 2014: a nationwide register study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 03;9(1)

Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.

Introduction: The aim was to assess whether annual hospitalization (admissions, length of stay and total days hospitalized) among persons >65 years receiving home care services in Norway were higher for persons with diabetes than those without diabetes. Given the growing prevalence of diabetes, this issue has great importance for policy makers who must plan for meeting these needs.

Research Design And Methods: Data were obtained from national Norwegian registries, and the study population varied from 112 487 to 125 593 per calendar year during 2009-2014. Diabetes was defined as having been registered with at least one prescription for blood glucose lowering medication. Overall and cause-specific hospitalization were compared, as well as temporal trends in hospitalization. Hospitalization outcomes for persons with and without diabetes were compared using log-binomial regression or quantile regression, adjusting for age and gender. Results are reported as incidence rate ratios (IRRs).

Results: Higher total hospitalization rates (IRR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22) were found among persons with, versus without, diabetes, and this difference remained stable throughout the study period. Similar reductions over time in hospital length of stay were observed among persons with and without diabetes, but total annual days hospitalized decreased significantly (p=0.001) more among those with diabetes than among those without diabetes.

Conclusions: Among older recipients of home care services in Norway, diabetes was associated with a higher overall risk of hospitalization and increased days in the hospital. Given the growing prevalence of diabetes, it is important for policy makers to plan for meeting these needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-002000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006844PMC
March 2021

Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration of Children Aged 6-9 Years in 25 Countries: An Analysis within the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) 2015-2017.

Obes Facts 2021 22;14(1):32-44. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

National Institute of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge I.P., Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Children are becoming less physically active as opportunities for safe active play, recreational activities, and active transport decrease. At the same time, sedentary screen-based activities both during school and leisure time are increasing.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA), screen time, and sleep duration of girls and boys aged 6-9 years in Europe using data from the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI).

Method: The fourth COSI data collection round was conducted in 2015-2017, using a standardized protocol that included a family form completed by parents with specific questions about their children's PA, screen time, and sleep duration.

Results: Nationally representative data from 25 countries was included and information on the PA behaviour, screen time, and sleep duration of 150,651 children was analysed. Pooled analysis showed that: 79.4% were actively playing for >1 h each day, 53.9% were not members of a sport or dancing club, 50.0% walked or cycled to school each day, 60.2% engaged in screen time for <2 h/day, and 84.9% slept for 9-11 h/night. Country-specific analyses of these behaviours showed pronounced differences, with national prevalences in the range of 61.7-98.3% actively playing for >1 h/day, 8.2-85.6% were not members of a sport or dancing club, 17.7-94.0% walked or cycled to school each day, 32.3-80.0% engaged in screen time for <2 h/day, and 50.0-95.8% slept for 9-11 h/night.

Conclusions: The prevalence of engagement in PA and the achievement of healthy screen time and sleep duration are heterogenous across the region. Policymakers and other stakeholders, including school administrators and parents, should increase opportunities for young people to participate in daily PA as well as explore solutions to address excessive screen time and short sleep duration to improve the overall physical and mental health and well-being of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983588PMC
July 2021

Associations between family structure and adolescents' food habits.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Oct 28:1-8. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Health Promotion and Development, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: To investigate family structure differences in adolescents' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar-added soft drinks with adjustments for socio-demographic and socio-economic variables.

Design: Cross-sectional data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey.

Setting: Norwegian primary and secondary schools.

Participants: Adolescents (n 4475) aged 11, 13, 15 and 16 years.

Results: After adjusting for covariates, living in a single-mother family was associated with lower vegetable consumption (OR 0·76, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·91) and higher soft drink consumption (OR 1·29, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·57). Living in a mother and stepfather family was negatively associated with fruit (OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95) and vegetable (OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·97) consumption. Living in a single-father family was associated with lower sweets consumption (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·72). No significant interactions were demonstrated between family structure and socio-demographic or socio-economic covariates.

Conclusions: The study suggests that an independent association between family structure and adolescents' food habits exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020004334DOI Listing
October 2020

Weight Reduction Behaviors Among European Adolescents-Changes From 2001/2002 to 2017/2018.

J Adolesc Health 2020 06;66(6S):S70-S80

Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the prevalence of weight reduction behaviors (WRBs) among European adolescents from 26 countries between 2001/2002 and 2017/2018. The impact of the perception of body weight on WLB was also analyzed, with particular attention being paid to overestimation.

Methods: The data of 639,194 European adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were analyzed. Age-standardized prevalence rates of WRB were estimated separately by survey round and gender for each country, using the overall 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study population as the standard. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess WRB trends over time, adjusted for survey year, body mass index, body weight misperception, and family affluence and stratified by gender and age.

Results: In the 26 countries examined, the overall age-adjusted prevalence rates of WRB were 10.2% among boys and 18.0% among girls. The prevalence of WRB was higher for girls, but in the more recent surveys, gender differences in WRB decreased. There was a significant increase in the percentage of WRB among boys in most countries. Among girls, most countries did not experience significant changes. Increases in body mass index and overestimation of body weight were significant factors increasing the risk of WRB in both genders.

Conclusions: The change in the prevalence of WRB by gender warrants greater attention from researchers and practitioners alike.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.008DOI Listing
June 2020

Prognostic Factors in Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Glomerulonephritis with Severe Glomerular Sclerosis: A National Registry-Based Cohort Study.

Patholog Res Int 2018 3;2018:5653612. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Classification of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) into histological classes is useful for predicting a patient's risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, even in the worst prognostic group, the 5-year end-stage renal disease-free survival rate is as high as 50%.

Objectives: To investigate those prognostic factors indicative of progression to ESRD in patients with ANCA-GN and sclerosing histology.

Methods: Patients from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry between 1991 and 2012 who had biopsy verified pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, positive ANCA serology, and sclerosing histology were included. Cases with ESRD during follow-up were identified via linkage with the Norwegian Renal Registry. Potential prognostic factors with relevant cut-offs were compared in patients with and without progression to ESRD during follow-up.

Results: Of 23 included patients, 10 progressed to ESRD. ESRD patients had a lower initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; 21 versus 52 ml/min/1.73 m) and a lower percentage of normal glomeruli (4% versus 15%). Five-year risks of ESRD with eGFR >15 versus ≤15 ml/min/1.73 m were 77% and 15%, with percentage normal glomeruli >10% versus ≤10%, 83% and 39%.

Conclusions: eGFR and percentage of normal glomeruli are strong risk factors for ESRD in ANCA-GN with sclerosing histology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5653612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008801PMC
June 2018

Prognosis and Histological Classification in Elderly Patients with ANCA-Glomerulonephritis: A Registry-Based Cohort Study.

Biomed Res Int 2018 31;2018:7581567. Epub 2018 May 31.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Inndalsveien 28, 5063 Bergen, Norway.

Background: The value of a histologic classification scheme to classify patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) into focal, mixed, crescentic, and sclerotic types for predicting risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is well documented. However, the prognostic value of histological classification specifically in elderly patients (≥70 years) with ANCA-GN has not previously been investigated.

Methods: Patients with biopsy-verified pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis were identified from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry between 1991 and 2012 and those ≥70 years of age at the time of diagnosis and having positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody serology were included in this study. The incidence rate of ESRD and/or death was determined by linking the study cohort to the Norwegian Renal Registry and the Population Registry of Norway. The ESRD-free survival and patient survival were compared between the 4 histological types.

Results: Of the 81 patients included, 20 progressed to ESRD and 34 died. The 1-year and 5-year ESRD-free survival varied between histological groups ( = 0.003) as follows: focal, 97% and 97%, respectively; mixed, 70% and 57%; crescentic, 76% and 63%; and sclerotic, 49% and 49%. Patient survival did not differ significantly between groups ( = 0.30).

Conclusion: Histological classification in elderly patients with ANCA-GN is useful for predicting ESRD but not survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7581567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6000915PMC
January 2019

Impact of Proteinase 3 versus Myeloperoxidase Positivity on Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease in ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis Stratified by Histological Classification: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Dis Markers 2018 9;2018:3251517. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- (ANCA-) associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) according to ANCA serotype and stratified by histological classification has not been previously investigated.

Methods: Patients from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry (NKBR) between 1991 and 2012 who had biopsy-verified pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody serology were included. Cases with ESRD during follow-up were identified in the Norwegian Renal Registry. ESRD-free survival with proteinase 3 (PR3) versus myeloperoxidase- (MPO-) ANCA positivity stratified into 4 histological classes was investigated.

Results: Three hundred fifty-eight patients, of whom 87 progressed to ESRD during follow-up, were included. Patients with PR3- as compared to MPO-ANCA were younger (58 versus 64 years, = 0.001), had a higher percentage of males (62 versus 41%, < 0.001), had a lower percentage with a sclerozing glomerulonephritis pattern (4 versus 16%, < 0.001), and had a significantly higher cumulative ESRD-free survival (90 versus 80%, = 0.007) at 1-year follow-up. No significant differences in cumulative ESRD-free survival with PR3- as compared to MPO-ANCA were observed by histological stratification.

Conclusion: Advanced glomerular sclerosis is found more frequently in patients with MPO-ANCA, explaining the higher risk of ESRD. ANCA serotypes have no impact on prognosis of patients with similar histological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3251517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966671PMC
September 2018

Exploring sex-specific differences in the presentation and outcomes of ANCA-associated vasculitis: a nationwide registry-based cohort study.

Int Urol Nephrol 2018 Jul 22;50(7):1311-1318. Epub 2018 May 22.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Inndalsveien 28, 5063, Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: Sex-specific differences in the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) stratified by histological classification have not been previously investigated.

Methods: Patients with biopsy-verified pauci-immune necrotizing GN and positive ANCA serology in the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry between 1991 and 2012 were included. Patients with ESRD during follow-up were identified from the Norwegian Renal Registry. ESRD-free survival stratified by histological classifications was investigated.

Results: We analyzed 358 patients, of whom 87 progressed to ESRD during follow-up. Overall ESRD-free survival at 1 and 5 years in the entire cohort was 81 and 71% in males versus 90 and 80% in females, respectively; 94 and 84% in males versus 98 and 98% in females with focal histology, respectively; 85 and 76% in males versus 89 and 77% in females with mixed histology, respectively; 72 and 58% in males versus 90 and 78% in females with crescentic histology, respectively; and 52 and 46% in males versus 60 and 38% in females with sclerotic histology, respectively. Males had an increased risk of ESRD (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.44 [1.56-3.82]; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Male sex is associated with increased risk of ESRD across all histological classes of ANCA-GN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-1888-8DOI Listing
July 2018

Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010.

PLoS One 2016 9;11(2):e0148541. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Department of Health Promotion and Development, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries.

Methods: The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.

Results: Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption were observed in all countries, with no cross-country differences, and no changes over time. Small but not significant cross-country variation was identified for SES inequalities in sweet consumption. Reduced SES inequalities were observed in Sweden between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. SES was not associated with soft drink consumption in this study population, with the exception of Denmark for the survey year 2009/2010.

Conclusion: Different trends resulted in increased country differences in food habits during the time of observations. In survey year 2009/2010, Danish students reported a higher intake of fruit and vegetable consumption than their counterparts in the other Nordic countries. Finnish students reported the lowest frequency of sweets and soft drink consumption. Despite the positive dietary trends documented in the present study, the majority of Nordic adolescents are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Our findings underline the need for more comprehensive initiatives targeting young people's food habits as well as a more deliberate and focused action to close gaps in social inequalities that affect food choices.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148541PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747535PMC
July 2016

Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

BMC Public Health 2015 May 19;15:497. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Health Promotion and Development, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity and electronic media use are additive or interactive in predicting BMI and risk for overweight among adolescents.

Methods: The data used in this study stem from the 2009/2010 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: A WHO Cross-National Survey. The sample consisted of 107184 13 and 15 year students from 30 different countries. Multilevel regression models were used to produce the presented estimates.

Results: Overall, 18% of boys and 11% of girls were classified as overweight. EM use was found to be associated with increased BMI z-scores and odds for overweight among both boys and girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys.

Conclusion: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1810-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523027PMC
May 2015

A school based study of time trends in food habits and their relation to socio-economic status among Norwegian adolescents, 2001-2009.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2014 Sep 25;11:115. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Background: In recent years, adolescents' food habits have become a major source of concern, and substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to influence adolescents to consume more fruit and vegetables and less sweets and soft drink. Particular attention has been devoted to the social gradient in food habits, aiming to reduce dietary inequality. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated trends in teenagers' food habits, or investigated how dietary inequalities develop.

Methods: We used Norwegian cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001, 2005 and 2009. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar rich soft drink. Socio-economic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.

Results: The analyses indicated an overall positive trend in food habits among adolescents in Norway. Students were more likely to consume fruit (OR 1.76, CI 1.61-1.92) and vegetables (OR 1.51, CI 1.37-1.66) daily in 2005 as compared to 2001, and were less likely to consume sweets (OR 0.58, CI 0.51-0.66 resp. OR 0.77, CI 0.67-0.90) and soft drink (OR 0.55, CI 0.49-0.62 resp. OR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.96) daily when comparing, respectively, 2005 with 2001 and 2009 with 2005. Across all survey years, students with higher SES were more likely to eat fruit (OR 1.47, CI 1.32-1.65) and vegetables (OR 1.40, CI 1.24-1.58) daily than did students with lower SES. Our analyses indicated that the socio-economic differences were stable in the period 2002 - 2010, with uniform improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption across all SES levels. No significant associations between SES and intake of sweets and sugar-added soft drink were found.

Conclusion: The study identifies an overall improvement in diet among adolescents over a period characterized by onset of as well as ongoing initiatives targeting young people's food habits. However, the observed socio-economic gradient in fruit and vegetable consumption remained unchanged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-014-0115-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4177592PMC
September 2014

Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent's eating behaviours: a population-based survey.

BMC Public Health 2012 Nov 28;12:1036. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Department of health promotion and development, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 13, Bergen, 5015, Norway.

Background: Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents' socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population.

Methods: The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent's consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson's correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data.

Results: Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway.

Conclusions: Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence on health behaviour needs to be explored in future studies. Initiatives to promote healthy eating should focus on education, habits and consciousness of a healthy diet, but also at reducing the high cost of fruit and vegetables. There is further a need for developing appropriate indicators for adolescent socio-economic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-1036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533876PMC
November 2012
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