Publications by authors named "Anne-Marie Gerdes"

152 Publications

Prevalence of Pathogenic Germline Variants in Young Individuals Thyroidectomised Due to Goitre - A National Danish Cohort.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 6;12:727970. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: DICER1 syndrome encompasses a variety of benign and malignant manifestations including multinodular goitre, which is the most common manifestation among individuals carrying pathogenic variants. This is the first study estimating the prevalence of pathogenic variants in young individuals with multinodular goitre.

Methods: Danish individuals diagnosed with nodular goitre based on thyroidectomy samples in 2001-2016 with the age limit at time of operation being ≤ 25 years were offered germline gene testing.

Results: Six of 46 individuals, 13% (CI [3.3;22.7], p <0.05), diagnosed with nodular goitre on the basis of thyroidectomy samples under the age of 25 years had pathogenic germline variants in . They were found in different pathoanatomical nodular goitre cohorts i.e. nodular goitre (n=2), colloid nodular goitre (n=3) and hyperplastic nodular goitre (n=1).

Conclusions: We recommend referral of patients thyroidectomised due to goitre aged <21 years and patients thyroidectomised due to goitre aged <25 years with a family history of goitre to genetic counselling. Patients of all ages thyroidectomised due to goitre, who are affected by another DICER1 manifestation should be referred to genetic counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.727970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8451242PMC
September 2021

Tumour-infiltrating CD4-, CD8- and FOXP3-positive immune cells as predictive markers of mortality in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer.

Br J Cancer 2021 Aug 7. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Surgical Pathology, Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark.

Background: The prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer is well-established. However, the investigation of specific T-cell subsets exclusively in BRCA-associated breast cancer is sparse.

Methods: Tumour tissues from 414 BRCA-mutated breast cancer patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis for expression of CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 immune markers. Distribution of CD4-, CD8- and FOXP3-positive cells and clinicopathological characteristics were assessed according to groups of low or high expression. The prognostic value was evaluated as continuous variables in univariate and multivariate analyses of overall survival and disease-free survival.

Results: Both CD4 and CD8 expression are associated with histological diagnosis, tumour grade and oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression status. CD4 expression is associated with BRCA gene status. A high percentage of tumour-infiltrating CD4-, CD8- or FOXP3-positive cells is significantly associated with lower mortality in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer and CD8-positive cells are associated with disease-free survival. No heterogeneity according to BRCA gene status was found for the prognostic value of the immune markers.

Conclusions: The results support a prognostic role of specific T-cell subsets in BRCA-associated breast cancer and the promising potential of targeting the immune system in the treatment of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01514-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Whole genome sequencing identifies rare germline variants enriched in cancer related genes in first degree relatives of familial pancreatic cancer patients.

Clin Genet 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

First-degree relatives (FDRs) of familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) patients have increased risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Investigating and understanding the genetic basis for PDAC susceptibility in FPC predisposed families may contribute toward future risk-assessment and management of high-risk individuals. Using a Danish cohort of 27 FPC families, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 61 FDRs of FPC patients focusing on rare genetic variants that may contribute to familial aggregation of PDAC. Statistical analysis was performed using the gnomAD database as external controls. Through analysis of heterozygous premature truncating variants (PTV), we identified cancer-related genes and cancer-driver genes harboring multiple germline mutations. Association analysis detected 20 significant genes with false discovery rate, q < 0.05 including: PALD1, LRP1B, COL4A2, CYLC2, ZFYVE9, BRD3, AHDC1, etc. Functional annotation showed that the significant genes were enriched by gene clusters encoding for extracellular matrix and associated proteins. PTV genes were over-represented by functions related to transport of small molecules, innate immune system, ion channel transport, and stimuli-sensing channels. In conclusion, FDRs of FPC patients carry rare germline variants related to cancer pathogenesis that may contribute to increased susceptibility to PDAC. The identified variants may potentially be useful for risk prediction of high-risk individuals in predisposed families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.14038DOI Listing
July 2021

Cohort profile and heritability assessment of familial pancreatic cancer: a nation-wide study.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 24;56(8):965-971. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) is responsible for up to 10% of all cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Individuals predisposed for FPC have an estimated lifetime risk of 16-39% of developing PDAC. While heritability of PDAC has been estimated to be 36% in a Nordic twin study, no heritability estimate specific on FPC has been reported.

Methods: A national cohort of Danish families with predisposition for FPC is currently included in a screening program for PDAC at Odense University Hospital. Family members included in the screening program were interviewed for pedigree data including: cases of PDAC among first-degree relatives (FDRs) and number of affected/unaffected siblings. Heritability for FPC in the predisposed families was assessed by doubling the estimated intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) from a random intercept logistic model fitted to data on FDRs.

Results: Among families with predisposition for FPC, 83 cases of PDAC were identified. The median age at diagnosis of PDAC was 66 years, and median time from diagnosis to death was 7.6 months. A total of 359 individuals were found as unaffected FDRs of the 83 PDAC cases. The retrieved FDRs included a total of 247 individuals in sibship and 317 individuals in parent-offspring relatedness. We estimated an ICC of 0.25, corresponding to a narrow sense additive heritability estimate of 0.51 in the FPC family cohort.

Conclusion: We have established a nation-wide cohort of FPC families to facilitate clinical and genetic studies on FPC. The estimated heritability of 51% prominently underlines a strong genetic background of FPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1937697DOI Listing
August 2021

The predictive ability of the 313 variant-based polygenic risk score for contralateral breast cancer risk prediction in women of European ancestry with a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

Methods: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS and CBC risk.

Results: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively.

Conclusion: The PRS can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Selection criteria for assembling a pediatric cancer predisposition syndrome gene panel.

Fam Cancer 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Increasing use of genomic sequencing enables standardized screening of all childhood cancer predisposition syndromes (CPS) in children with cancer. Gene panels currently used often include adult-onset CPS genes and genes without substantial evidence linking them to cancer predisposition. We have developed criteria to select genes relevant for childhood-onset CPS and assembled a gene panel for use in children with cancer. We applied our criteria to 381 candidate genes, which were selected through two in-house panels (n = 338), a literature search (n = 39), and by assessing two Genomics England's PanelApp panels (n = 4). We developed evaluation criteria that determined a gene's eligibility for inclusion on a childhood-onset CPS gene panel. These criteria assessed (1) relevance in childhood cancer by a minimum of five childhood cancer patients reported carrying a pathogenic variant in the gene and (2) evidence supporting a causal relation between variants in this gene and cancer development. 138 genes fulfilled the criteria. In this study we have developed criteria to compile a childhood cancer predisposition gene panel which might ultimately be used in a clinical setting, regardless of the specific type of childhood cancer. This panel will be evaluated in a prospective study. The panel is available on (pediatric-cancer-predisposition-genepanel.nl) and will be regularly updated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-021-00254-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Birth cohort-specific trends of sun-related behaviors among individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 23;21(1):692. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited.

Methods: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates.

Results: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis.

Conclusions: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10424-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063451PMC
April 2021

[Genetic screening of prospective parents].

Ugeskr Laeger 2021 03;183(13)

Risk of genetic diseases with autosomal recessive or X-linked inheritance can be unknown to prospective parents until an affected child is born. New technology has enabled carrier screening for hundreds of genetic diseases (expanded carrier screening, ECS). I Denmark, each year estimated 100-180 children are born affected with a serious condition which could have been detected with ECS of the parents. This review describes the considerations and perspectives of a systematic genetic screening programme for prospective parents in the Danish healthcare system.
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March 2021

[Genetic screening of adopted individuals].

Ugeskr Laeger 2021 03;183(13)

Information regarding hereditary disease predisposition is generally inaccessible for adoptees. The lack of family history restricts access to various surveillance programmes and the overall health of the adoptee. Genetic screening of asymptomatic adoptees could be a compensational tool. However, variant classification is difficult, even more so in certain ethnic groups and in cases where there is no knowledge of family history, as summarised in this review. The usefulness of genetic screening of asymptomatic adoptees is still unknown and requires further research for clarification.
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March 2021

Direct to consumer genetic testing in Denmark-public knowledge, use, and attitudes.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 May 1;29(5):851-860. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Direct to consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) is offered by commercial companies, but the use in the general population has only been sparsely investigated. A questionnaire was sent to 2013 representative Danish citizens asking about their awareness and use of DTC-GT. Individuals who had undergone a genetic test were interviewed to determine if the results had been understood correctly. A pilot study with 2469 questionnaires was performed before this study. In total, 45.4% of the individuals (n = 913/2013) had knowledge about DTC-GT and 2.5% (n = (18 + 5)/913) previously had a genetic test by a private company and 5.8% through the public health care system (n = (48 + 5)/913). Curiosity about own genetic information was the most frequent motivation (40.9%, n = 9/22) as well as knowledge of ancestry (36.4%, n = 8/22) and advice about lifestyle, exercise, or diet (36.4%, n = 8/22). Test of own disease risk was given as a reason in 27.3% (n = 6/22) and seeking possible explanation of specific symptoms in 13.6% (n = 3/22). 50% (n = 11/22) answered that they had become concerned after the test, and 17.4% (n = 4/23) had consulted their GP. Interviews in a subset of respondents from the pilot study revealed problems with understanding the results. One problem was how to interpret the genetic test results with respect to individual risk for a disease. For example, the difference between disease causing genetic variants in monogenetic diseases versus statistical risks by SNPs in multifactorial diseases was not understood by the respondents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00810-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110758PMC
May 2021

Oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: an international cohort study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 07 22;225(1):51.e1-51.e17. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates.

Study Design: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use.

Results: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; P=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size.

Conclusion: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278569PMC
July 2021

Nationwide germline whole genome sequencing of 198 consecutive pediatric cancer patients reveals a high incidence of cancer prone syndromes.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 17;16(12):e1009231. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Historically, cancer predisposition syndromes (CPSs) were rarely established for children with cancer. This nationwide, population-based study investigated how frequently children with cancer had or were likely to have a CPS.

Methods: Children (0-17 years) in Denmark with newly diagnosed cancer were invited to participate in whole-genome sequencing of germline DNA. Suspicion of CPS was assessed according to Jongmans'/McGill Interactive Pediatric OncoGenetic Guidelines (MIPOGG) criteria and familial cancer diagnoses were verified using population-based registries.

Results: 198 of 235 (84.3%) eligible patients participated, of whom 94/198 (47.5%) carried pathogenic variants (PVs) in a CPS gene or had clinical features indicating CPS. Twenty-nine of 198 (14.6%) patients harbored a CPS, of whom 21/198 (10.6%) harbored a childhood-onset and 9/198 (4.5%) an adult-onset CPS. In addition, 23/198 (11.6%) patients carried a PV associated with biallelic CPS. Seven of the 54 (12.9%) patients carried two or more variants in different CPS genes. Seventy of 198 (35.4%) patients fulfilled the Jongmans' and/or MIPOGG criteria indicating an underlying CPS, including two of the 9 (22.2%) patients with an adult-onset CPS versus 18 of the 21 (85.7%) patients with a childhood-onset CPS (p = 0.0022), eight of the additional 23 (34.8%) patients with a heterozygous PV associated with biallelic CPS, and 42 patients without PVs. Children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumor had family members with CNS tumors more frequently than patients with other cancers (11/44, p = 0.04), but 42 of 44 (95.5%) cases did not have a PV in a CPS gene.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate the value of systematically screening pediatric cancer patients for CPSs and indicate that a higher proportion of childhood cancers may be linked to predisposing germline variants than previously supposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787686PMC
December 2020

New Pathogenic Germline Variants in Very Early Onset and Familial Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Front Genet 2020 24;11:566266. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

A genetic diagnosis facilitates personalized cancer treatment and clinical care of relatives at risk, however, although 25% of colorectal cancer cases are familial, around 95% of the families are genetically unresolved. In this study, we performed gene panel analysis on germline DNA of 32 established or candidate colorectal cancer predisposing genes in 149 individuals from either families with an accumulation of colorectal cancers or families with only one sporadic case of very early onset colorectal cancer (≤40 years at diagnosis). We identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants in 10.1% of the participants in genes such as , , or . The variant, c.2168C>T, p.(Ser723Phe) was previously described as a variant of unknown significance, but we have now reclassified it to be likely pathogenic. The variant, c.1089C>A, p.(Asn363Lys) was identified in a patient with three metachronous colorectal cancers from age 28 and turned out to be . One pathogenic variant was novel. We also identified a number of highly interesting variants of unknown significance in , and . The variant is novel and was found in a large Amsterdam I positive family with a multi tumor phenotype including 12 cases of CRC from as early as age 24. This variant was found to segregate with cancer in the family and multiple tools predict it to be pathogenic. Our data further support the shift from phenotypic-based cancer panels to large panels including all established genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes or (targeted) whole genome sequencing. Additionally, identification of a likely disease-predisposing variant in expands the phenotypic spectrum of -related cancers and emphasize that this gene is relevant to include in colorectal cancer gene panels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.566266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541943PMC
September 2020

Breast cancer survival in Nordic BRCA2 mutation carriers-unconventional association with oestrogen receptor status.

Br J Cancer 2020 11 17;123(11):1608-1615. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Icelandic Cancer Registry, Icelandic Cancer Society, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Background: The natural history of breast cancer among BRCA2 carriers has not been clearly established. In a previous study from Iceland, positive ER status was a negative prognostic factor. We sought to identify factors that predicted survival after invasive breast cancer in an expanded cohort of BRCA2 carriers.

Methods: We studied 608 women with invasive breast cancer and a pathogenic BRCA2 mutation (variant) from four Nordic countries. Information on prognostic factors and treatment was retrieved from health records and by analysis of archived tissue specimens. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival using Cox regression.

Results: About 77% of cancers were ER-positive, with the highest proportion (83%) in patients under 40 years. ER-positive breast cancers were more likely to be node-positive (59%) than ER-negative cancers (34%) (P < 0.001). The survival analysis included 584 patients. Positive ER status was protective in the first 5 years from diagnosis (multivariate HR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.93, P = 0.03); thereafter, the effect was adverse (HR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.07-3.39, P = 0.03). The adverse effect of positive ER status was limited to women who did not undergo endocrine treatment (HR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.26-4.44, P = 0.01) and patients with intact ovaries (HR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.11-3.59, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: The adverse effect of a positive ER status in BRCA2 carriers with breast cancer may be contingent on exposure to ovarian hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01056-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686356PMC
November 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Characterization of the Cancer Spectrum in Men With Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variants: Results From the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).

JAMA Oncol 2020 08;6(8):1218-1230

Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population.

Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected.

Main Outcomes And Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview.

Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier.

Conclusions And Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333177PMC
August 2020

Cancer prevention with aspirin in hereditary colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome), 10-year follow-up and registry-based 20-year data in the CAPP2 study: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2020 06;395(10240):1855-1863

Division of Haematology and Immunology, Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: Lynch syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and with a broader spectrum of cancers, especially endometrial cancer. In 2011, our group reported long-term cancer outcomes (mean follow-up 55·7 months [SD 31·4]) for participants with Lynch syndrome enrolled into a randomised trial of daily aspirin versus placebo. This report completes the planned 10-year follow-up to allow a longer-term assessment of the effect of taking regular aspirin in this high-risk population.

Methods: In the double-blind, randomised CAPP2 trial, 861 patients from 43 international centres worldwide (707 [82%] from Europe, 112 [13%] from Australasia, 38 [4%] from Africa, and four [<1%] from The Americas) with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg aspirin daily or placebo. Cancer outcomes were monitored for at least 10 years from recruitment with English, Finnish, and Welsh participants being monitored for up to 20 years. The primary endpoint was development of colorectal cancer. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN59521990.

Findings: Between January, 1999, and March, 2005, 937 eligible patients with Lynch syndrome, mean age 45 years, commenced treatment, of whom 861 agreed to be randomly assigned to the aspirin group or placebo; 427 (50%) participants received aspirin and 434 (50%) placebo. Participants were followed for a mean of 10 years approximating 8500 person-years. 40 (9%) of 427 participants who received aspirin developed colorectal cancer compared with 58 (13%) of 434 who received placebo. Intention-to-treat Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significantly reduced hazard ratio (HR) of 0·65 (95% CI 0·43-0·97; p=0·035) for aspirin versus placebo. Negative binomial regression to account for multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio of 0·58 (0·39-0·87; p=0·0085). Per-protocol analyses restricted to 509 who achieved 2 years' intervention gave an HR of 0·56 (0·34-0·91; p=0·019) and an incidence rate ratio of 0·50 (0·31-0·82; p=0·0057). Non-colorectal Lynch syndrome cancers were reported in 36 participants who received aspirin and 36 participants who received placebo. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed no effect. For all Lynch syndrome cancers combined, the intention-to-treat analysis did not reach significance but per-protocol analysis showed significantly reduced overall risk for the aspirin group (HR=0·63, 0·43-0·92; p=0·018). Adverse events during the intervention phase between aspirin and placebo groups were similar, and no significant difference in compliance between intervention groups was observed for participants with complete intervention phase data; details reported previously.

Interpretation: The case for prevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin in Lynch syndrome is supported by our results.

Funding: Cancer Research UK, European Union, MRC, NIHR, Bayer Pharma AG, Barbour Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30366-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294238PMC
June 2020

A rare missense variant in interrupts splicing and causes AFAP in two Danish families.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2020 7;18. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

1Department of Clinical Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: We report the first case of a missense variant in the gene that interrupts splicing by creating a new cryptic acceptor site. The variant, c.289G>A, p.(Gly97Arg), is located in exon 3, and qualitative and semi-quantitative RNA splicing analysis reveal that the variant results in skipping of the last 70 nucleotides of the exon, which leads to the introduction of a frameshift and a premature stop codon.

Case Presentation: The variant was detected in two, apparently unrelated, Danish families with an accumulation of colorectal cancers, colonic adenomas and other cancers. The families both have an attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis phenotype, which is consistent with the association of pathogenic variants in the 5' end of the gene.One variant-carrier also had Caroli Disease and a Caroli Disease associated hepatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This is the first description of a person with both Caroli Disease and a pathogenic variant, and although the variant is not known to be connected to the development of the hepatic malformations in Caroli Disease, it remains unclear whether the variant could have contributed to the carcinogenesis of the liver tumour.

Conclusions: Based on functional and co-segregation data we classify the c.289G>A, p.(Gly97Arg) variant as pathogenic (class 5). Our findings emphasize the importance of a functional evaluation of missense variants although located far from the exon-intron boundaries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-020-00140-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140378PMC
April 2020

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, natural menopause, and breast cancer risk: an international prospective cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Breast Cancer Res 2020 01 16;22(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Background: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause.

Methods: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Results: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar.

Conclusion: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-1247-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966793PMC
January 2020

Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and Risk of Breast Cancer for and Mutation Carriers: Results from The BRCA1 and BRCA2 Cohort Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 02 2;29(2):368-378. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in and mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of and in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential.

Methods: Using a large international pooled cohort of and mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 mutation carriers and 3,525 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 mutation carriers and 1,610 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: For both and mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HR) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk.

Conclusions: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation.

Impact: This is the largest prospective study of mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611162PMC
February 2020

Association of Genomic Domains in and with Prostate Cancer Risk and Aggressiveness.

Cancer Res 2020 02 13;80(3):624-638. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Unité de Prévention et d'Epidémiologie Génétique, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in or () are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 and 171 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 and 2,880 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in . These results demonstrate that specific PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553241PMC
February 2020

Computational and cellular studies reveal structural destabilization and degradation of MLH1 variants in Lynch syndrome.

Elife 2019 11 7;8. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Biology, The Linderstrøm-Lang Centre for Protein Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Defective mismatch repair leads to increased mutation rates, and germline loss-of-function variants in the repair component MLH1 cause the hereditary cancer predisposition disorder known as Lynch syndrome. Early diagnosis is important, but complicated by many variants being of unknown significance. Here we show that a majority of the disease-linked MLH1 variants we studied are present at reduced cellular levels. We show that destabilized MLH1 variants are targeted for chaperone-assisted proteasomal degradation, resulting also in degradation of co-factors PMS1 and PMS2. In silico saturation mutagenesis and computational predictions of thermodynamic stability of MLH1 missense variants revealed a correlation between structural destabilization, reduced steady-state levels and loss-of-function. Thus, we suggest that loss of stability and cellular degradation is an important mechanism underlying many variants in Lynch syndrome. Combined with analyses of conservation, the thermodynamic stability predictions separate disease-linked from benign variants, and therefore hold potential for Lynch syndrome diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.49138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837844PMC
November 2019

A new family with a homozygous nonsense variant in further delineated the clinical phenotype of -associated polyposis.

Hum Genome Var 2019 10;6:46. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

A new family with -associated polyposis (NAP) is described, involving a 58-year-old male affected with >100 colorectal polyps and a 55-year-old female sibling with nine colorectal polyps. The female was also diagnosed with a thyroid adenoma at age 40. Significantly, no malignant neoplasms have been detected in this family, which is important to further delineate the clinical phenotype related to NAP. A review of previously reported obligate heterozygous carriers of variants showed two patients affected with neoplasms at <55 years of age, generating a study to outline the phenotypic spectrum in patients with heterozygous pathogenic variants relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41439-019-0077-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804823PMC
October 2019

Oral Contraceptive Use and Breast Cancer Risk: Retrospective and Prospective Analyses From a BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carrier Cohort Study.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2018 Apr 28;2(2):pky023. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: For BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the association between oral contraceptive preparation (OCP) use and breast cancer (BC) risk is still unclear.

Methods: Breast camcer risk associations were estimated from OCP data on 6030 BRCA1 and 3809 BRCA2 mutation carriers using age-dependent Cox regression, stratified by study and birth cohort. Prospective, left-truncated retrospective and full-cohort retrospective analyses were performed.

Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, OCP use was not associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.56), but in the left-truncated and full-cohort retrospective analyses, risks were increased by 26% (95% CI = 6% to 51%) and 39% (95% CI = 23% to 58%), respectively. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, OCP use was associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (HR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.97), but retrospective analyses were inconsistent (left-truncated: HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.33; full cohort: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.81). There was evidence of increasing risk with duration of use, especially before the first full-term pregnancy (BRCA1: both retrospective analyses, < .001 and = .001, respectively; BRCA2: full retrospective analysis, = .002).

Conclusions: Prospective analyses did not show that past use of OCP is associated with an increased BC risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers in young middle-aged women (40-50 years). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, a causal association is also not likely at those ages. Findings between retrospective and prospective analyses were inconsistent and could be due to survival bias or a true association for younger women who were underrepresented in the prospective cohort. Given the uncertain safety of long-term OCP use for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, indications other than contraception should be avoided and nonhormonal contraceptive methods should be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pky023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649757PMC
April 2018

Large scale multifactorial likelihood quantitative analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants: An ENIGMA resource to support clinical variant classification.

Hum Mutat 2019 09;40(9):1557-1578

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6772163PMC
September 2019

Exploring the hereditary background of renal cancer in Denmark.

PLoS One 2019 29;14(4):e0215725. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Every year more than 800 patients in Denmark are diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of which 3-5% are expected to be part of a hereditary renal cancer syndrome. We performed genetic screening of causative and putative RCC-genes (VHL, FH, FLCN, MET, SDHB, BAP1, MITF, CDKN2B) in RCC-patients suspected of a genetic predisposition.

Methods: The cohort consisted of forty-eight Danish families or individuals with early onset RCC, a family history of RCC, a family history of RCC and melanoma or both RCC- and melanoma diagnosis in the same individual. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples or cancer-free formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

Results: One start codon variant of unknown clinical significance (VUS) (c.3G>A, p.Met1Ile) and one missense VUS (c.631A>C, p.Met211Leu) was found in VHL in a patient with RCC-onset at twenty-eight years of age but without other manifestations or family history of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL). Furthermore, in three families we found three different variants in BAP1, one of which was a novel non-segregating missense variant (c.1502G>A, p.Ser501Asn) in a family with two brothers affected with RCC. Finally, we found the known E318K-substitution in MITF in a RCC-affected member of a family with multiple melanomas. No variants were detected in CDKN2B.

Conclusion: Although we did find three VUS's in BAP1 in three families and a pathogenic variant in MITF in one family, pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, MITF or CDKN2B are not frequent causes of hereditary renal cancer in Denmark. It is possible that the high prevalence of risk factors such as male gender, smoking and obesity has influenced the development of cancer in the patients of the current study. Further investigations into putative predisposing genes and risk factors of RCC are necessary to enable better prediction of renal cancer risk or presymptomatic testing of relatives in hereditary renal cancer families.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215725PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6488054PMC
January 2020

[Genomic medicine for preconception, prenatal and postnatal diagnostics].

Ugeskr Laeger 2019 Apr;181(7A)

New technology for genetic testing results in more precise diagnostics and individualised treatment but also identification of variants in genes with unknown association to disease or variants with uncertain significance. Genetic knowledge may involve preconception genetic testing to reduce the risk of passing serious gene variants on to the foetus. Prenatal diagnostics and whole genome sequencing in childhood have also benefitted from the new technology, but ethical dilemmas such as diagnosing a child with a late-onset disorder and potentially harm the child's right to an open future arise.
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April 2019

The Influence of Number and Timing of Pregnancies on Breast Cancer Risk for Women With or Mutations.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2018 Dec 8;2(4):pky078. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Background: Full-term pregnancy (FTP) is associated with a reduced breast cancer (BC) risk over time, but women are at increased BC risk in the immediate years following an FTP. No large prospective studies, however, have examined whether the number and timing of pregnancies are associated with BC risk for and mutation carriers.

Methods: Using weighted and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models, we investigated whether reproductive events are associated with BC risk for mutation carriers using a retrospective cohort (5707 and 3525 mutation carriers) and a prospective cohort (2276 and 1610 mutation carriers), separately for each cohort and the combined prospective and retrospective cohort.

Results: For mutation carriers, there was no overall association with parity compared with nulliparity (combined hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.18). Relative to being uniparous, an increased number of FTPs was associated with decreased BC risk (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.91; HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.82; HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.63, for 2, 3, and ≥4 FTPs, respectively, < .0001) and increasing duration of breastfeeding was associated with decreased BC risk (combined cohort  = .0003). Relative to being nulliparous, uniparous mutation carriers were at increased BC risk in the prospective analysis (prospective hazard ration [HR] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.62). For mutation carriers, being parous was associated with a 30% increase in BC risk (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.69), and there was no apparent decrease in risk associated with multiparity except for having at least 4 FTPs vs. 1 FTP (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98).

Conclusions: These findings suggest differential associations with parity between and mutation carriers with higher risk for uniparous carriers and parous carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pky078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405439PMC
December 2018

Estimating CDKN2A mutation carrier probability among global familial melanoma cases using GenoMELPREDICT.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Aug 5;81(2):386-394. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital Lund, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Although rare in the general population, highly penetrant germline mutations in CDKN2A are responsible for 5%-40% of melanoma cases reported in melanoma-prone families. We sought to determine whether MELPREDICT was generalizable to a global series of families with melanoma and whether performance improvements can be achieved.

Methods: In total, 2116 familial melanoma cases were ascertained by the international GenoMEL Consortium. We recapitulated the MELPREDICT model within our data (GenoMELPREDICT) to assess performance improvements by adding phenotypic risk factors and history of pancreatic cancer. We report areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) along with net reclassification indices (NRIs) as performance metrics.

Results: MELPREDICT performed well (AUC 0.752, 95% CI 0.730-0.775), and GenoMELPREDICT performance was similar (AUC 0.748, 95% CI 0.726-0.771). Adding a reported history of pancreatic cancer yielded discriminatory improvement (P < .0001) in GenoMELPREDICT (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.750-0.793, NRI 0.40). Including phenotypic risk factors did not improve performance.

Conclusion: The MELPREDICT model functioned well in a global data set of familial melanoma cases. Adding pancreatic cancer history improved model prediction. GenoMELPREDICT is a simple tool for predicting CDKN2A mutational status among melanoma patients from melanoma-prone families and can aid in directing these patients to receive genetic testing or cancer risk counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.01.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6634996PMC
August 2019
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