Publications by authors named "Anne-Marie Batt"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Compared effect of immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine A and rapamycin on cholesterol homeostasis key enzymes CYP27A1 and HMG-CoA reductase.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007 Jun;100(6):392-7

Faculty of Pharmacy 1, Nancy Universities, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM U525, 30 Rue Lionnois, Nancy, France.

Hyperlipidaemia, i.e. increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides, is a common side-effect of the immunosuppressive drugs rapamycin (RAPA) and cyclosporine A (CsA), and is probably related to inhibition of the 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol (acid pathway of bile acid biosynthesis). This might be one of the causes for the increase in plasma cholesterol, as 27-hydroxycholesterol is a potent suppressor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), a key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. As the sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) inhibition by CsA is well known, we evaluated the effect of another immunosuppressive drug, RAPA, on this enzyme in HepG2 mitochondria, which confirmed the dose-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial CYP27A1 by cyclosporine (10-20 microM), while the inhibition by RAPA required a higher dose (50-100 microM). Corresponding K(i) was 10 microM for CsA (non-competitive inhibition) and 110 microM for RAPA (competitive inhibition). Cotreatment with both immunosuppressive drugs showed an additive inhibitory effect on CYP27A1 activity. Later, we analysed the effect of these immunosuppressants on HMGR expression in HepG2 cells, and a dose-dependent up-regulation of HMGR gene expression was observed. The results suggest that RAPA and CsA are both inhibitors of CYP27A1 activity with slightly different mechanisms and that they may accordingly increase HMGR expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00066.xDOI Listing
June 2007

Effect of HMGCoA reductase inhibitors on cytochrome P450 expression in endothelial cell line.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2007 May;49(5):306-15

INSERM, U525, Equipe 4, Univ Henri Poincaré, Nancy I, Nancy, F-54000 France.

Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells are the major cells that constitute blood vessels, and endothelial cells line the lumen of blood vessels. These 2 types of cells also play an integral role in the regional specialization of vascular structure. On the basis of these observations, we designed our study to investigate the effect of various statins on CYP expression in endothelial cells. 3-hydroxymethyl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors play an important role in vascular function. The majority of the statins available on the market show extensive metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Both cell types are involved in the bioconversion of arachidonic acid into vasoactive compounds. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of statins on cytochrome P450 expression in endothelial cells. Our results show that endothelial cells expressed both CYPs involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) production and the nuclear receptor implicated in cytochrome P450 regulation. Treatment of endothelial cells with lovastatin increased CYP2C9 expression. After 96 hours of treatment, fluvastatin and lovastatin clearly increased CYP2C9 protein level. CAR but not PXR was expressed in endothelial cells, indicating that the upregulating effect of statins on CYP2C9 in endothelial cells could be mediated through CAR only due to the lack of expression of PXR in these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e31803e8756DOI Listing
May 2007

Interaction between CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms according to smoking status on blood pressure in the Stanislas cohort.

J Hypertens 2006 Nov;24(11):2199-205

INSERM U525, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy 1, Nancy, France.

Background: CYP1A1, one of the key enzymes in detoxifying toxic components produced during cigarette smoking, is regulated by aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism, associated with a higher CYP1A1 inducibility and enhanced catalytic activity, has been linked to stroke, triple vessel disease and may, therefore, be associated with blood pressure (BP). The relation of the widely studied G1661A polymorphism of the human AHR gene with BP is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the genetic influence of CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms on BP in relation to tobacco consumption.

Design And Participants: Study participants were selected from a French longitudinal cohort of volunteers for a free health check-up. These individuals (302 men and 311 women) were not taking medication that can affect blood pressure. Information about active smoking status was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: After multiple regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ significantly according to their tobacco status excepted for DBP in men. In addition, neither CYP1A1 T3801C nor AHR G1661A polymorphism was linked to blood pressure. However, systolic and diastolic blood pressures differed significantly according to CYP1A1 T3801C genotype between ex-smokers and smokers. Finally, the interaction between CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms explained a significant difference of SBP and DBP between carriers of both CYP1A1-C3801 and AHR-A1661 alleles.

Conclusion: This study is the first to show an interaction between the CYP1A1 T3801C and AHR G1661A polymorphisms. This interaction could explain the difference in blood pressure level between smokers and non-smokers/ex-smokers but needs to be confirmed in a large sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000249697.26983.aaDOI Listing
November 2006

Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular drugs: need for integrated biological system with phenotypes and proteomic markers.

Eur J Pharmacol 2005 Dec 28;527(1-3):1-22. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Inserm U525 Equipe 4, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I, 30 rue Lionnois Faculté de Pharmacie, 54000 Nancy, France.

Personalized medicine is based on a better knowledge of biological variability, considering the important part due to genetics. When trying to identify involved genes and their products in differential cardiovascular drug responses, a five-step strategy is to be followed: 1) Pharmacokinetic-related genes and phenotypes (2) Pharmacodynamic targets, genes and products (3) Cardiovascular diseases and risks depending on specific or large metabolic cycles (4) Physiological variations of previously identified genes and proteins (5) Environment influences on them. After summarizing the most well-known genes involved in drug metabolism, we will take as example of drugs, the statins, considered as very important drugs from a Public-Health standpoint, but also for economical reasons. These drugs respond differently in human depending on multiple polymorphisms. We will give examples with common ApoE polymorphisms influencing the hypolipemic effects of statins. These drugs also have pleiotropic effects and decrease inflammatory markers. This illustrates the need to separate clinical diseases phenotypes in specific metabolic pathways, which could propose other classifications, of diseases and related genes. Hypertension is also a good example of clinical phenotype which should be followed after various therapeutic approaches by genes polymorphisms and proteins markers. Gene products are under clear environmental expression variations such as age, body mass index and obesity, alcohol, tobacco and dietary interventions which are the first therapeutical actions taken in cardiovascular diseases. But at each of the five steps, within a pharmacoproteomic strategy, we also need to use available information from peptides, proteins and metabolites, which usually are the gene products. A profiling approach, i.e., dealing with genomics, but now also with proteomics, is to be used. In conclusion, the profiling, as well as the large amount of data, will more than before render necessary an organized interpretation of DNA, RNA as well as proteins variations, both at individual and population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.011DOI Listing
December 2005

Effect of acute and chronic psychostimulant drugs on redox status, AP-1 activation and pro-enkephalin mRNA in the human astrocyte-like U373 MG cells.

Neuropharmacology 2005 Apr;48(5):673-84

INSERM U525, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincaré-Nancy I, France.

In order to approach the astroglial implication of addictive and neurotoxic processes associated with psychostimulant drug abuse, the effects of amphetamine or cocaine (1-100 microM) on redox status, AP-1 transcription factor and pro-enkephalin, an AP-1 target gene, were investigated in the human astrocyte-like U373 MG cells. We demonstrated an early increase in the generation of radical oxygen species and in the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducts reflecting the pro-oxidant action of both substances. After 1 h or 96 h of treatment, Fos and Jun protein levels were altered and the DNA-binding activity of AP-1 was increased in response to both substances. Using supershift experiments, we observed that the composition of AP-1 dimer differed according to the substance and the duration of treatment. FRA-2 protein represented the main component of the chronic amphetamine- or cocaine-activated complexes, which suggests its relevance in the long-term effects of psychostimulant drugs. Concomitantly, the pro-enkephalin gene was differently regulated by either 6 h or 96 h of treatment. Because astrocytes interact extensively with the neurons in the brain, our data led us to conclude that oxidation-regulated AP-1 target genes may represent one of the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal adaptation associated with psychostimulant dependence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.12.010DOI Listing
April 2005

[Dyslipidaemia and its management after immunosuppressive treatment].

Therapie 2004 Jul-Aug;59(4):463-9

INSERM U525, Université Henri Poincaré--Nancy 1, Nancy, France.

This article summarises the mechanisms responsible for the hyperlipidaemia observed after immunosuppressive treatment. Much progress has been achieved in the treatment of organ transplantation over the last 10 years, in particular because of the use of new immunosuppressive drugs with less nephrotoxicity. However, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia persist among many patients, who are thus more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases. We first reviewed the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on biliary acid biosynthesis, which is the main pathway of cholesterol degradation. The inhibition of this biosynthesis pathway, and especially of some key cytochrome P450s (CYP) such as CYP27A1, could contribute to the increased cholesterolaemia. Immunosuppressive drugs may also modify the activity of lipoprotein receptors or the expression of different apolipoproteins involved in cholesterol and triglyceride transport by lipoproteins. Finally, the fact that hypertriglyceridaemia is more frequently observed after certain immunosuppressive treatments may be partly caused by changes in the synthesis and elimination of triglycerides involving lipoprotein lipase or some apolipoproteins which serve as its cofactors (apoCII or apoCIII).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie:2004078DOI Listing
March 2005

Cytochromes P450 are differently expressed in normal and varicose human saphenous veins: linkage with varicosis.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004 May-Jun;31(5-6):295-301

INSERM U525, 30 rue Lionnois, F-54000 Nancy, France.

The expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and cyclo-oxygenases (COX) was investigated in human saphenous veins by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Non-varicose veins were obtained from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass grafting, whereas varicose veins were obtained from patients undergoing stripping removal of varicose saphenous veins. In non-varicose veins, CYP1B1, CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP4A11 were detected, whereas CYP2J2, CYP3A5, COX-1 and COX-2 were detected almost exclusively in varicose veins. CYP4F2 was not detectable. Except for CYP4A11, the levels of individual CYP mRNA were higher in varicose veins than in control veins. Smooth muscle cell volume, determined by a colour image-analysis system, was increased approximately 1.5-fold in varicose veins. Because CYPs and COXs produce various vasoactive compounds, increased expression of these enzymes could be involved in the impairment of vascular tone and may contribute to varicose pathology. Then, CYP or COX modulators may be potentially active in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.03996.xDOI Listing
January 2005

Pharmacogenomics of drugs affecting the cardiovascular system.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2003 Apr;41(4):590-9

INSERM U 525, Centre du Médicament, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I, Nancy, France.

The variability in drug response originates partly from genetics, with possible consequences for drug efficacy, adverse effects, and toxicity. Until now, pharmacogenetics mainly indicated the best known source of variability, that is, the variability caused by drug metabolism. However, simultaneous progress in the knowledge of biochemical targets of drugs and of the human genome, together with the development of new technologies, revealed many new sources of human genetic variation, e.g., in receptors or transporters. Drugs are metabolized by various polymorphic phase I enzymes, including cytochromes P450 (CYP). Among them, the most relevant for the metabolism of cardiovascular drugs are CYP3A4, CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. The role of phase II enzymes is limited with regard to cardiovascular drugs biotransformation, but some polymorphisms (glutathion-S-transferase; GSH-T) are linked to cardiovascular risk. Phase III proteins or transporters, especially from the ABC family, must also be considered, as their polymorphisms affect cholesterol and other sterols transport. Among pharmacological targets, some proteins were identified as involved in interindividual variations in the response to cardiovascular drugs. Some examples are apolipoprotein E, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and the beta-adrenergic receptor. From the risk concept emphasizing impaired metabolism and adverse effects, we now moved to an approach, which is a personalized, genotype-dependent adaptation of therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2003.089DOI Listing
April 2003