Publications by authors named "Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte"

218 Publications

Neighborhood Walkability and Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of Women.

Epidemiology 2021 11;32(6):763-772

From the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: There is a paucity of prospective cohort studies evaluating neighborhood walkability in relation to the risk of death.

Methods: We geocoded baseline residential addresses of 13,832 women in the New York University Women's Health Study (NYUWHS) and estimated the Built Environment and Health Neighborhood Walkability Index (BEH-NWI) for each participant circa 1990. The participants were recruited from 1985 to 1991 in New York City and followed for an average of 27 years. We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between neighborhood walkability and risk of death from any cause, obesity-related diseases, cardiometabolic diseases, and obesity-related cancers.

Results: Residing in a neighborhood with a higher neighborhood walkability score was associated with a lower mortality rate. Comparing women in the top versus the lowest walkability tertile, the hazards ratios (and 95% CIs) were 0.96 (0.93, 0.99) for all-cause, 0.91 (0.86, 0.97) for obesity-related disease, and 0.72 (0.62, 0.85) for obesity-related cancer mortality, respectively, adjusting for potential confounders at both the individual and neighborhood level. We found no association between neighborhood walkability and risk of death from cardiometabolic diseases. Results were similar in analyses censoring participants who moved during follow-up, using multiple imputation for missing covariates, and using propensity scores matching women with high and low neighborhood walkability on potential confounders. Exploratory analyses indicate that outdoor walking and average BMI mediated the association between neighborhood walkability and mortality.

Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with a protective role of neighborhood walkability in obesity-related mortality in women, particularly obesity-related cancer mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001406DOI Listing
November 2021

Hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism genes and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 10;114(4):1408-1417

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC.

Methods: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs.

Results: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association.

Conclusions: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488877PMC
October 2021

Prolactin and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Sep 8;30(9):1652-1659. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Background: Prolactin is synthesized in the ovaries and may play a role in ovarian cancer etiology. One prior prospective study observed a suggestive positive association between prolactin levels and risk of ovarian cancer.

Methods: We conducted a pooled case-control study of 703 cases and 864 matched controls nested within five prospective cohorts. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk. We examined heterogeneity by menopausal status at blood collection, body mass index (BMI), age, and histotype.

Results: Among women with known menopausal status, we observed a positive trend in the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk ( = 0.045; OR, quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.97-1.85), but no significant association was observed for premenopausal or postmenopausal women individually (corresponding OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 0.74-2.58; = 0.32 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.93-2.13; = 0.08, respectively; = 0.91). In stratified analyses, we observed a positive association between prolactin and risk for women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m, but not BMI < 25 kg/m (corresponding OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.56-4.59; < 0.01 and OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.58-1.40; = 0.98, respectively; < 0.01). Associations did not vary by age, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, histotype, or time between blood draw and diagnosis.

Conclusions: We found a trend between higher prolactin levels and increased ovarian cancer risk, especially among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m.

Impact: This work supports a previous study linking higher prolactin with ovarian carcinogenesis in a high adiposity setting. Future work is needed to understand the mechanism underlying this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419083PMC
September 2021

Epidemiology of 40 blood biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation, and renal and endothelial function among cancer-free older adults.

Sci Rep 2021 07 5;11(1):13805. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Duke - NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93214-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257595PMC
July 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentration in Healthy Premenopausal Women.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct;106(11):e4542-e4553

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Context: We previously reported that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, is positively associated with breast cancer risk, consistent with other studies.

Objective: This study assessed whether risk factors for breast cancer are correlates of AMH concentration.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3831 healthy premenopausal women (aged 21-57, 87% aged 35-49) from 10 cohort studies among the general population.

Results: Adjusting for age and cohort, AMH positively associated with age at menarche (P < 0.0001) and parity (P = 0.0008) and inversely associated with hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy (P = 0.0008). Compared with women of normal weight, AMH was lower (relative geometric mean difference 27%, P < 0.0001) among women who were obese. Current oral contraceptive (OC) use and current/former smoking were associated with lower AMH concentration than never use (40% and 12% lower, respectively, P < 0.0001). We observed higher AMH concentrations among women who had had a benign breast biopsy (15% higher, P = 0.03), a surrogate for benign breast disease, an association that has not been reported. In analyses stratified by age (<40 vs ≥40), associations of AMH with body mass index and OCs were similar in younger and older women, while associations with the other factors (menarche, parity, hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy, smoking, and benign breast biopsy) were limited to women ≥40 (P-interaction < 0.05).

Conclusion: This is the largest study of AMH and breast cancer risk factors among women from the general population (not presenting with infertility), and it suggests that most associations are limited to women over 40, who are approaching menopause and whose AMH concentration is declining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530718PMC
October 2021

Nongenetic Determinants of Risk for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 20;5(3):pkab029. Epub 2021 May 20.

Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite.

Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite.

Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27;  = .04).

Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134523PMC
June 2021

Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 08;114(2):450-461

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models.

Results: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d).

Conclusion: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326053PMC
August 2021

Prediagnostic Antibody Responses to Proteins Are Not Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large U.S. Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 06 18;30(6):1279-1282. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The association between prediagnostic antibody responses to () and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer is not established.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 8,126 participants in a consortium of 10 prospective cohorts in the United States.

Results: Higher seroprevalence of any antibody was observed among non-White participants (51.1%) compared with White participants (31.2%). We did not find any statistically significant association between seropositivity to any of the eight proteins and colorectal cancer risk.

Conclusions: Prediagnostic antibody responses to proteins were not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

Impact: Future studies may consider a more specific detection of the immunoglobulin isotypes or focus on examining in stool or tissue samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172443PMC
June 2021

Smoking Modifies Pancreatic Cancer Risk Loci on 2q21.3.

Cancer Res 2021 06 11;81(11):3134-3143. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine whether there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and < 5 × 10 was considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region that included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 [per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95% CI, 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.40, = 3.08 × 10). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1818613 ( = 0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This large genome-wide interaction study identifies a susceptibility locus on 2q21.3 that significantly modified PDAC risk by smoking status, providing insight into smoking-associated PDAC, with implications for prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178175PMC
June 2021

Soy protein supplementation in men following radical prostatectomy: a 2-year randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 04;113(4):821-831

Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Many studies have addressed effects of dietary supplementation with soy protein, but most have been inconsistent and few have been long-term studies in men.

Objectives: This study was a secondary analysis of body weight, blood pressure, thyroid hormones, iron status, and clinical chemistry in a 2-y trial of soy protein supplementation in middle-aged to older men.

Methods: Data were analyzed as secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of dietary supplementation with 20 g/d soy protein isolate, providing 41 mg/d total isoflavones and 23 mg/d genistein, in 44- to 75-y-old men who were at risk of cancer recurrence following prostatectomy randomized to soy (n = 50) or a casein-based placebo (n  = 43). Weight, blood pressure, and blood samples were collected at baseline, every 2 mo in year 1, and every 3 mo in year 2.

Results: Compared with casein, soy supplementation did not affect body weight, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, and thyroid hormones. Serum ferritin concentrations doubled over 2 y in both groups (117-129%), whereas hemoglobin and hematocrit increased slightly. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of soy group data, weight increased in subjects producing equol but not in nonproducers. Blood pressure was reduced in nonequol producers but not in producers. Other endpoints were not affected by equol production status.

Conclusions: Soy protein supplementation for 2 y compared with a casein-based placebo did not affect body weight, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, iron status parameters, calcium, phosphorus, and thyroid hormones. Exploratory analysis suggests that equol production status of subjects on soy may modify effects of soy on body weight and possibly blood pressure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00765479.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024002PMC
April 2021

Association of Combined Sero-Positivity to and with Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 30;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Infections and Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Previously, we found that risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in individuals with serum antibody response to both (HP) Vacuolating Cytotoxin (VacA) toxin or (SGG) pilus protein Gallo2178. In the present analysis, we tested the hypothesis that combined seropositivity to both antigens is a better indicator of CRC risk than seropositivity to single antigens. We used multiplex serologic assays to analyze pre-diagnostic serum for antibody responses from 4063 incident CRC cases and 4063 matched controls from 10 US cohorts. To examine whether combined SGG Gallo2178 and HP VacA sero-status was associated with CRC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to dual sero-negative individuals, there was no increased risk for individuals sero-positive to SGG Gallo2178 only (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66-1.31) or to HP VacA only (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98-1.19). However, dual sero-positive individuals had a >50% increased odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04), suggesting an interaction between antibody responses to these two pathogens and CRC risk (p = 0.06). In conclusion, this study suggests that dual sero-positivity to HP VacA and SGG Gallo2178 is an indicator of increased risk of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693002PMC
October 2020

Body size and weight change over adulthood and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and hormone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jan 30;36(1):37-55. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00688-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847460PMC
January 2021

Pregnancy outcomes and risk of endometrial cancer: A pooled analysis of individual participant data in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.

Int J Cancer 2021 05 17;148(9):2068-2078. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy.

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969437PMC
May 2021

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 12 23;29(12):2735-2739. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome.

Methods: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data.

Results: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Impact: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710600PMC
December 2020

Racial Differences in CagA Sero-prevalence in a Consortium of Adult Cohorts in the United States.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 10 20;29(10):2084-2092. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Cancer Control and Population Health Sciences Program, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Prevalence of () infection, the main risk factor for gastric cancer, has been decreasing in the United States; however, there remains a substantial racial disparity. Moreover, the time-trends for prevalence of CagA-positive infection, the most virulent form, are unknown in the U.S.

Population: We sought to assess prevalence of CagA-positive infection over time by race in the United States.

Methods: We utilized multiplex serology to quantify antibody responses to antigens in 4,476 participants across five cohorts that sampled adults from 1985 to 2009. Using log-binomial regression models, we calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between -CagA sero-prevalence and birth year by race.

Results: African Americans were three times more likely to be -CagA sero-positive than Whites. After adjustment, -CagA sero-prevalence was lower with increasing birth year among Whites ( = 0.001), but remained stable for African Americans. When stratified by sex and education separately, the decline in -CagA sero-positivity among Whites remained only for females ( < 0.001) and was independent of educational attainment. Among African Americans, there was no difference by sex; furthermore, sero-prevalence increased with increasing birth year among those with a high school education or less ( = 0.006).

Conclusions: Among individuals in the United States born from the 1920s to 1960s, -CagA sero-prevalence has declined among Whites, but not among African Americans.

Impact: Our findings suggest a widening racial disparity in the prevalence of the most virulent form of , the main cause of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584346PMC
October 2020

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles in Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 30;17(15). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY 10016, USA.

The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess feasibility of studies among local community members to address the hypothesis that complex exposures to the World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes resulted in long-term epigenetic changes. We enrolled 18 WTC-exposed cancer-free women from the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) who agreed to donate blood samples during their standard clinical visits. As a reference WTC unexposed group, we randomly selected 24 age-matched cancer-free women from an existing prospective cohort who donated blood samples before 11 September 2001. The global DNA methylation analyses were performed using Illumina Infinium MethylationEpic arrays. Statistical analyses were performed using R Bioconductor package. Functional genomic analyses were done by mapping the top 5000 differentially expressed CpG sites to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway database. Among cancer-free subjects, we observed substantial methylation differences between WTC-exposed and unexposed women. The top 15 differentially methylated gene probes included BCAS2, OSGIN1, BMI1, EEF1A2, SPTBN5, CHD8, CDCA7L, AIDA, DDN, SNORD45C, ZFAND6, ARHGEF7, UBXN8, USF1, and USP12. Several cancer-related pathways were enriched in the WTC-exposed subjects, including endocytosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), viral carcinogenesis, as well as Ras-associated protein-1 (Rap1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The study provides preliminary data on substantial differences in DNA methylation between WTC-exposed and unexposed populations that require validation in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432006PMC
July 2020

Ovarian Cancer Risk Factor Associations by Primary Anatomic Site: The Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 10 30;29(10):2010-2018. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites.

Methods: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests.

Results: Most associations did not vary by tumor site ( ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy ( = 0.04), tubal ligation ( = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer ( = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases.

Conclusions: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site.

Impact: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541500PMC
October 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study Data Reveal Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Risk.

Cancer Res 2020 09 8;80(18):4004-4013. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC ( = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease ( = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis ( = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861352PMC
September 2020

Genome-Wide Gene-Diabetes and Gene-Obesity Interaction Scan in 8,255 Cases and 11,900 Controls from PanScan and PanC4 Consortia.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 09 16;29(9):1784-1791. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level.

Methods: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics.

Results: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold < 1.25 × 10) was observed in the meta-analysis ( = 1.2 ×10, = 4.2 ×10).

Conclusions: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans.

Impact: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483330PMC
September 2020

Generalized mean residual life models for case-cohort and nested case-control studies.

Lifetime Data Anal 2020 10 11;26(4):789-819. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Mean residual life (MRL) is the remaining life expectancy of a subject who has survived to a certain time point and can be used as an alternative to hazard function for characterizing the distribution of a time-to-event variable. Inference and application of MRL models have primarily focused on full-cohort studies. In practice, case-cohort and nested case-control designs have been commonly used within large cohorts that have long follow-up and study rare diseases, particularly when studying costly molecular biomarkers. They enable prospective inference as the full-cohort design with significant cost-saving benefits. In this paper, we study the modeling and inference of a family of generalized MRL models under case-cohort and nested case-control designs. Built upon the idea of inverse selection probability, the weighted estimating equations are constructed to estimate regression parameters and baseline MRL function. Asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established and finite-sample performance is evaluated by extensive numerical simulations. An application to the New York University Women's Health Study is presented to illustrate the proposed models and demonstrate a model diagnostic method to guide practical implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10985-020-09499-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487008PMC
October 2020

Exogenous hormone use, reproductive factors and risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma among women: results from cohort studies in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project and the UK Biobank.

Br J Cancer 2020 07 7;123(2):316-324. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -β, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC.

Methods: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases).

Results: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors.

Conclusions: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0835-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374167PMC
July 2020

Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2020 09 21;74(9):1306-1315. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 650 First Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background/objectives: Folates found in natural foods are thought to protect against cancer. However, folic acid (FA), a synthetic form of folate used in supplements and fortified foods, may increase breast cancer risk if present in unmetabolized form (UMFA) in the circulation. This study examined the associations of serum UMFA and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-mTHF), the predominant form of circulating folate, with breast cancer risk.

Subjects/methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in a prospective cohort. In total, 553 cases of invasive breast cancer, diagnosed before mandatory FA fortification of grain in the US in 1998, were individually-matched to 1059 controls. Serum UMFA and 5-mTHF were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in stored serum samples, and 5-mTHF was corrected for storage degradation.

Results: Serum UMFA was not associated with breast cancer risk: the percentage of women with detectable levels of UMFA was similar in cases and controls (18% and 20%, respectively; p = 0.46). Two tag-SNPs in the promoter region of the FA-metabolizing gene were also not associated with risk. There was a marginally significant inverse association of 5-mTHF with breast cancer risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.97; p = 0.08).

Conclusions: Circulating UMFA was not associated with breast cancer risk. These results apply to countries without mandatory FA food fortification. Studies are needed in countries with mandatory fortification, where levels of UMFA are much higher than in our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0615-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508257PMC
September 2020

Lipid Trait Variants and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 27;29(5):1074-1078. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

Methods: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated ( < 5 × 10) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, = 137), total cholesterol (TC, = 161), and triglycerides (TG, = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance ( < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes.

Impact: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196490PMC
May 2020

Adult weight change and premenopausal breast cancer risk: A prospective pooled analysis of data from 628,463 women.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 15;147(5):1306-1314. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365745PMC
September 2020

The Risk of Ovarian Cancer Increases with an Increase in the Lifetime Number of Ovulatory Cycles: An Analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).

Cancer Res 2020 03 13;80(5):1210-1218. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, University Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056529PMC
March 2020

A Transcriptome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Pancreatic Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 10;112(10):1003-1012

Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown.

Methods: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples).

Results: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.

Conclusions: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566474PMC
October 2020

Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 19;158(5):1274-1286.e12. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC.

Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants.

Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings.

Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103489PMC
April 2020

Sustained Weight Loss and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women 50 Years and Older: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Data.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 09;112(9):929-937

Department of Epidemiology.

Background: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk.

Methods: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up.

Results: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight.

Conclusions: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492760PMC
September 2020

Associations Between Prediagnostic Concentrations of Circulating Sex Steroid Hormones and Liver Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women.

Hepatology 2020 08;72(2):535-547

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Background And Aims: In almost all countries, incidence rates of liver cancer (LC) are 100%-200% higher in males than in females. However, this difference is predominantly driven by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75% of LC cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) accounts for 12% of cases and has rates only 30% higher in males. Hormones are hypothesized to underlie observed sex differences. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with LC risk, overall and by histology, by leveraging resources from five prospective cohorts.

Approach And Results: Seven sex steroid hormones and SHBG were quantitated using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, from baseline serum/plasma samples of 191 postmenopausal female LC cases (HCC, n = 83; ICC, n = 56) and 426 controls, matched on sex, cohort, age, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between a one-unit increase in log hormone value (approximate doubling of circulating concentration) and LC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. A doubling in the concentration of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) was associated with a 50% decreased LC risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.82), whereas SHBG was associated with a 31% increased risk (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.05-1.63). Examining histology, a doubling of estradiol was associated with a 40% increased risk of ICC (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), but not HCC (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.81-1.54).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that higher levels of 4-dione may be associated with lower, and SHBG with higher, LC risk in women. However, this study does not support the hypothesis that higher estrogen levels decrease LC risk. Indeed, estradiol may be associated with an increased ICC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391790PMC
August 2020
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