Publications by authors named "Anne X Nguyen"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gender Gap in Neurology Research Authorship (1946-2020).

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:715428. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Gender disparity in the field of neurology impedes scientific advancements and innovations. In 2018, 45.0% of neurology and neurological subspecialty residents were women. Despite a notable rise in the proportion of women neurologists over the past decades, inequalities regarding publication proportions between men and women persist in the field. This cohort study examines authorship trends in articles published in 155 international neurology journals, identified as those listed in the annual Journal Citation Reports' "Clinical Neurology" section. Authors' names, authorship positions and countries of affiliation were extracted from PubMed for indexed articles published from 1946 to 2020. Gender-API (a validated and highly accurate application program interface) assigned binary genders to authors. Author gender proportions were compared across subspecialties, authorship position and years. In 303,385 unique articles, 1,663,036 total authors were identified of which 34.1% were women. Neuroradiology demonstrated the lowest proportion of women authors (21.3%), while neurogenetics displayed the highest (44.5%). In articles with multiple authors, both men and women last authors were more likely to publish with a male first author, though this was significantly more pronounced for men last authors (1.86 vs. 1.08; < 0.001). From 2002 to 2020, women remained in the minority of last (24.6%), first (36.2%), and middle author positions (35.8%). The authorship gender distribution in neurological journals neither reflects the gender proportion of neurologists in the field overall nor in any subspecialty examined. We also find a tendency for senior and junior authors of the same gender to publish together which perpetuates authorship inequity. Further work is needed to identify underlying causes so that interventions might be developed to improve authorship diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.715428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419229PMC
August 2021

Gender Authorship Trends in the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Literature.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.

Purpose: Despite increasing numbers of women oculoplastic surgeons, they remain underrepresented within the subspecialty. The purpose of this study was to analyze trends in gender authorship within the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Methods: This retrospective observational study sampled articles published in Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS) and Orbit during the years 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, and 2020. Data reviewed included article type, total number of authors, and the gender of each article's first and senior author.

Results: Nine hundred ninety-nine articles were analyzed, including 701 in OPRS and 298 in Orbit. Of 3,716 total authors, 1,151 (31%) were women, including 297 (29.7%) first authors, and 191 (21.5%) senior authors. Women authorship in OPRS in 1985 (first, 3.9%; senior, 3.3%; all, 3.2%) significantly increased by 2020 (first, 44.6%; senior, 27.9%; all, 42%). Women authorship in Orbit in 1985 (first, 0%; senior, 4.5%; all, 7.4%) also significantly increased by 2020 (first, 43.3%; senior, 34%; all, 42.9%). In a subanalysis of OPRS original investigations alone, women first authorship increased from 3.1% in 1985 to 35.8% in 2020 (p < 0.001) and women senior authorship increased from 4.3% in 1985 to 25% in 2020 (p = 0.001). In a subanalysis of Orbit original investigations alone, women first authorship increased from 0% in 1985 to 65.4% in 2020 (p < 0.001) and women senior authorship increased from 5.3% in 1985 to 42.3% in 2020 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Despite a significant increase in women authorship over the past several decades, women remain underrepresented within the oculoplastic literature, particularly in regard to senior authorship. When considering original investigations alone, there has been a significant increase in women first and senior authorship in both OPRS and Orbit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000002013DOI Listing
July 2021

The Lens: Can a Weekly Newsletter Improve Medical Student Knowledge of the Ophthalmology Literature?

J Surg Educ 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Medical trainees often report barriers to their active engagement with academic medical literature. We assessed whether subscription to The Lens, a weekly newsletter summarizing recent ophthalmology literature, improved readers' knowledge of the literature.

Design: The implementation, uptake, and feasibility of The Lens are described. To assess newsletter efficacy, a 14 question multiple-choice quiz was designed with seven questions based on research articles featured in The Lens and seven based on articles published in high impact ophthalmology journals that were not featured in The Lens. The quiz was statistically validated in a sub-sample of non-subscribers to confirm similar difficulty between Lens and non-Lens quiz items. Among subscribers, within-participant scores on each subsection were compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to determine if participation-adjusted subscription length was associated with quiz scores, after covariate adjustment.

Setting And Participants: Medical student subscribers of The Lens.

Results: Over 12 months, The Lens attained 352 subscribers and summarized 410 research articles in 40 newsletters, at a monetary cost of <$5 per issue. The survey sample comprises 59 medical students who subscribed to The Lens. Subjectively, 83.1% of subscribers reported that The Lens helped them learn about the ophthalmology literature. Among non-subscribers, scores on the Lens and non-Lens quiz subsections were similar (median paired difference = 0%), indicating that subsections were similar in difficulty. Lens subscribers correctly answered 51.1% of Lens items, compared to 42.9% of non-Lens items (mean paired difference, 8.2%; p=0.022), indicating that readers retained information presented in The Lens. In an adjusted linear regression model, each additional participation-adjusted month of subscription to The Lens was associated with a 2.7% improvement in Lens item quiz score (p=0.022).

Conclusion: Weekly newsletters can help trainees across medical specialties overcome barriers to engagement with the academic literature and improve their knowledge of recently published studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.04.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of COVID-19 on longitudinal ophthalmology authorship gender trends.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 3;259(3):733-744. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2370 Watson Court, Suite 200, Palo Alto, CA, 94303, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the gender gap in academic publishing. This study assesses COVID-19's impact on ophthalmology gender authorship distribution and compares the gender authorship proportion of COVID-19 ophthalmology-related articles to previous ophthalmology articles.

Methods: This cohort study includes authors listed in all publications related to ophthalmology in the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset and CDC COVID-19 research database. Articles from 65 ophthalmology journals from January to July 2020 were selected. All previous articles published in the same journals were extracted from PubMed. Gender-API determined authors' gender.

Results: Out of 119,457 COVID-19-related articles, we analyzed 528 ophthalmology-related articles written by 2518 authors. Women did not exceed 40% in any authorship positions and were most likely to be middle, first, and finally, last authors. The proportions of women in all authorship positions from the 2020 COVID-19 group (29.6% first, 31.5% middle, 22.1% last) are significantly lower compared to the predicted 2020 data points (37.4% first, 37.0% middle, 27.6% last) (p < .01). The gap between the proportion of female authors in COVID-19 ophthalmology research and the 2020 ophthalmology-predicted proportion (based on 2002-2019 data) is 6.1% for overall authors, 7.8% for first authors, and 5.5% for last and middle authors. The 2020 COVID-19 authorship group (1925 authors) was also compared to the 2019 group (33,049 authors) based on journal category (clinical/basic science research, general/subspecialty ophthalmology, journal impact factor).

Conclusions: COVID-19 amplified the authorship gender gap in ophthalmology. When compared to previous years, there was a greater decrease in women's than men's academic productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05085-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857347PMC
March 2021

Reply re: "COVID-19 Recommendations From Ophthalmic and Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Societies Worldwide".

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Nov/Dec;36(6):624-625

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000001856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204576PMC
November 2020

COVID-19 Recommendations From Ophthalmic and Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Societies Worldwide.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Jul/Aug;36(4):334-345

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, U.S.A.

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges for oculoplastic surgeons worldwide, in terms of care delivery, medical equipment and at-risk patient management. To date, there are no centralized or compiled international COVID-19 guidelines for oculoplastic surgeons.

Methods: We examined COVID-19 guidelines published by oculoplastic societies worldwide. All countries around the world were initially considered in this study, but only 9 oculoplastic societies met the inclusion criteria: (1) publicly available guidelines displayed on the oculoplastic society's website, or (2) guidelines received from the oculoplastic society after contacting them twice using the contact information on their website.

Results: The 9 oculoplastic societies examined include: the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the British Oculoplastic Surgery Society, the Canadian Society of Oculoplastic Surgery, the European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Plástica Ocular y Orbitaria, la Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Plastica Ocular, the Asia Pacific Society of Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, the Oculoplastics Association of India, and the Philippine Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. They all agree that urgent procedures should not be delayed, while non-necessary procedures (including all elective clinic services) should be postponed. When adequate protective equipment is available, oculoplastic surgeons must treat urgent cases. Eight out of 9 societies have provided recommendations on personal protective equipment use in order to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and to adequately protect mucous membranes. Other recommendations provided by certain societies are related to shelter in place measures, hand hygiene and surface disinfection protocols, patient triage, and thyroid eye disease management.

Conclusions: All 9 societies with published recommendations have provided valuable recommendations to their members, regarding urgency of care and infection control solutions (personal protective equipment, hand hygiene, telemedicine, and social isolation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000001776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437421PMC
July 2020

Differences in SARS-CoV-2 recommendations from major ophthalmology societies worldwide.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2020 7;5(1):e000525. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Objective: Since the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a public health emergency, medical societies around the world published COVID-19 recommendations to physicians to ensure patient care and physician safety. During this pandemic, ophthalmologists around the world adapted their clinical and surgical practice following such guidelines. This original research examines all publicly available COVID-19 recommendations from twelve major ophthalmology societies around the world.

Methods And Analysis: Twelve ophthalmology societies recognised by the International Council of Ophthalmology were included in this study. One society per each WHO region was included: the society selected was the one who had the highest number of national COVID-19 confirmed cases on 11 May 2020. In addition to these countries, the major ophthalmology society in each G7 country was included.

Results: Ten out of 12 major international ophthalmology societies from countries covering all six WHO regions have given recommendations regarding urgent patient care, social distancing, telemedicine and personal protective equipment when caring for ophthalmic patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. While all guidelines emphasise the importance of postponing non-urgent care and taking necessary safety measures, specific recommendations differ between countries.

Conclusions: As there is no clear consensus on ophthalmology guidelines across countries, this paper highlights the differences in international ophthalmic care recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Knowledge of the differences in ophthalmic management plans will allow ophthalmologists and all eye care providers to consider the variety of international approaches and apply best practices following evidence-based recommendations during pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2020-000525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342824PMC
July 2020

Cannabis and the Cornea.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 Mar 11:1-6. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

: While cannabis has the potential to reduce corneal pain, cannabinoids might induce side effects. This review article examines the effects of cannabinoids on the cornea. As more states and countries consider the legalization of adult cannabis use, health-care providers will need to identify ocular effects of cannabis consumption.: Studies included in this review examined the connection between cannabis and the cornea, more specifically anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of cannabinoids. NCBI Databases from 1781 up to December 2019 were consulted.: Five studies examined corneal dysfunctions caused by cannabis consumption (opacification, decreased endothelial cell density). Twelve studies observed a reduction in corneal pain and inflammation (less lymphocytes, decreased corneal neovascularization, increased cell proliferation and migration).: More than half of the studies examined the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids on the cornea. As the field is still young, more studies should be conducted to develop safe cannabinoid treatments for corneal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1726969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262682PMC
March 2020

Association between cannabis and the eyelids: A comprehensive review.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 03 6;48(2):230-239. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Cannabis is the most consumed illicit drug worldwide. As more countries consider bills that would legalize adult use of cannabis, health care providers, including eye care professionals (ophthalmologists, optometrists), will need to recognize ocular effects of cannabis consumption in patients. There are only 20 studies on the eyelid effects of cannabis usage as a medical treatment or a recreational drug. These include ptosis induction, an "eyelid tremor" appearance and blepharospasm attenuation. Six articles describe how adequately dosed cannabis regimens could be promising medical treatments for blepharospasm induced by psychogenic factors. Fourteen articles report eyelid tremors in intoxicated drivers and ptosis as a secondary effect in cannabinoid animal experimental models. The exact mechanism of cannabinoids connecting cannabis to the eyelids is unclear. Further studies should be conducted to better understand the cannabinoid system in relation to the eyelid and eventually develop new, effective and safe therapeutic targets derived from cannabis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ceo.13687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328051PMC
March 2020
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