Publications by authors named "Anne Sophie Grosch"

5 Publications

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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14: refining clinicogenetic diagnosis in a rare adult-onset disorder.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Apr 19;8(4):774-789. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany.

Objectives: Genetic variant classification is a challenge in rare adult-onset disorders as in SCA-PRKCG (prior spinocerebellar ataxia type 14) with mostly private conventional mutations and nonspecific phenotype. We here propose a refined approach for clinicogenetic diagnosis by including protein modeling and provide for confirmed SCA-PRKCG a comprehensive phenotype description from a German multi-center cohort, including standardized 3D MR imaging.

Methods: This cross-sectional study prospectively obtained neurological, neuropsychological, and brain imaging data in 33 PRKCG variant carriers. Protein modeling was added as a classification criterion in variants of uncertain significance (VUS).

Results: Our sample included 25 cases confirmed as SCA-PRKCG (14 variants, thereof seven novel variants) and eight carriers of variants assigned as VUS (four variants) or benign/likely benign (two variants). Phenotype in SCA-PRKCG included slowly progressive ataxia (onset at 4-50 years), preceded in some by early-onset nonprogressive symptoms. Ataxia was often combined with action myoclonus, dystonia, or mild cognitive-affective disturbance. Inspection of brain MRI revealed nonprogressive cerebellar atrophy. As a novel finding, a previously not described T2 hyperintense dentate nucleus was seen in all SCA-PRKCG cases but in none of the controls.

Interpretation: In this largest cohort to date, SCA-PRKCG was characterized as a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome with some clinical and imaging features suggestive of a developmental disorder. The observed non-ataxia movement disorders and cognitive-affective disturbance may well be attributed to cerebellar pathology. Protein modeling emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool for variant classification and the newly described T2 hyperintense dentate sign could serve as a supportive diagnostic marker of SCA-PRKCG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045942PMC
April 2021

Extent of FLAIR Hyperintense Vessels May Modify Treatment Effect of Thrombolysis: A Analysis of the WAKE-UP Trial.

Front Neurol 2020 4;11:623881. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintense vessels (FHVs) on MRI are a radiological marker of vessel occlusion and indirect sign of collateral circulation. However, the clinical relevance is uncertain. We explored whether the extent of FHVs is associated with outcome and how FHVs modify treatment effect of thrombolysis in a subgroup of patients with confirmed unilateral vessel occlusion from the randomized controlled WAKE-UP trial. One hundred sixty-five patients were analyzed. Two blinded raters independently assessed the presence and extent of FHVs (defined as the number of slices with visible FHV multiplied by FLAIR slice thickness). Patients were then separated into two groups to distinguish between few and extensive FHVs (dichotomization at the median <30 or ≥30). Here, 85% of all patients ( = 140) and 95% of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion patients ( = 127) showed FHVs at baseline. Between MCA occlusion patients with few and extensive FHVs, no differences were identified in relative lesion growth ( = 0.971) and short-term [follow-up National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score; = 0.342] or long-term functional recovery [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) <2 at 90 days poststroke; = 0.607]. In linear regression analysis, baseline extent of FHV (defined as a continuous variable) was highly associated with volume of hypoperfused tissue (β = 2.161; 95% CI 0.96-3.36; = 0.001). In multivariable regression analysis adjusted for treatment group, stroke severity, lesion volume, occlusion site, and recanalization, FHV did not modify functional recovery. However, in patients with few FHVs, the odds for good functional outcome (mRS) were increased in recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) patients compared to those who received placebo [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% CI 1.2-24.0], whereas no apparent benefit was observed in patients with extensive FHVs (OR = 1.1; 95% CI 0.3-3.8), -value for interaction was 0.11. While the extent of FHVs on baseline did not alter the evolution of stroke in terms of lesion progression or functional recovery, it may modify treatment effect and should therefore be considered relevant additional information in those patients who are eligible for intravenous thrombolysis. Main trial (WAKE-UP): ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01525290; and EudraCT, 2011-005906-32. Registered February 2, 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.623881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890254PMC
February 2021

Neurochemical Differences in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 14 and 1.

Cerebellum 2021 Apr 15;20(2):169-178. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Neurology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive ataxia. Here, we report on neurometabolic alterations in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1; SCA-ATXN1) and 14 (SCA14; SCA-PRKCG) assessed by non-invasive H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three Tesla H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 17 SCA14, 14 SCA1 patients, and in 31 healthy volunteers. We assessed metabolites in the cerebellar vermis, right cerebellar hemisphere, pons, prefrontal, and motor cortex. Additionally, clinical characteristics were obtained for each patient to correlate them with metabolites. In SCA14, metabolic changes were restricted to the cerebellar vermis compared with widespread neurochemical alterations in SCA1. In SCA14, total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) was reduced in the vermis by 34%. In SCA1, tNAA was reduced in the vermis (24%), cerebellar hemisphere (26%), and pons (25%). SCA14 patients showed 24% lower glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and 46% lower γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the vermis, while SCA1 patients showed no alterations in Glx and GABA. SCA1 revealed a decrease of aspartate (Asp) in the vermis (62%) and an elevation in the prefrontal cortex (130%) as well as an elevation of myo-inositol (Ins) in the cerebellar hemisphere (51%) and pons (46%). No changes of Asp and Ins were detected in SCA14. Beyond, glucose (Glc) was increased in the vermis of both SCA14 (155%) and SCA1 (247%). H magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed differing neurochemical profiles in SCA1 and SCA14 and confirmed metabolic changes that may be indicative for neuronal loss and dysfunctional energy metabolism. Therefore, H magnetic resonance spectroscopy represents a helpful tool for in-vivo tracking of disease-specific pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-020-01201-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004522PMC
April 2021

Functionally Relevant Maculopathy and Optic Atrophy in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2020 Jul 6;7(5):502-508. Epub 2020 May 6.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin and Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health Berlin Germany.

Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA-ATXN1) is an inherited progressive ataxia disorder characterized by an adult-onset cerebellar syndrome combined with nonataxia signs. Retinal or optic nerve affection are not systematically described.

Objectives: To describe a retinal phenotype and its functional relevance in SCA-ATXN1.

Methods: We applied optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 20 index cases with SCA-ATXN1 and 22 healthy controls (HCs), investigating qualitative changes and quantifying the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIP) volume as markers of optic atrophy and outer retinal layers as markers of maculopathy. Visual function was assessed by high- (HC-VA) and low-contrast visual acuity (LC-VA) and the Hardy-Rand-Rittler pseudoisochromatic test for color vision.

Results: Five patients (25%) showed distinct maculopathies in the ellipsoid zone (EZ). Furthermore, pRNFL ( < 0.001) and GCIP ( = 0.002) were reduced in patients (pRNFL, 80.86 ± 9.49 μm; GCIP, 1.84 ± 0.16 mm) compared with HCs (pRNFL, 97.02 ± 8.34 μm; GCIP, 1.98 ± 0.12 mm). Outer macular layers were similar between groups, but reduced in patients with maculopathies. HC-VA ( = 0.002) and LC-VA ( < 0.001) were reduced in patients (HC-VA [logMAR]: 0.01 ± 010; LC-VA [logMAR]: 0.44 ± 0.16) compared with HCs (HC-VA [logMAR]: -0.12 ± 0.08; LC-VA [logMAR]: 0.25 ± 0.05). Color vision was abnormal in 2 patients with maculopathies.

Conclusions: A distinct maculopathy, termed EZ disruption, as well as optic atrophy add to the known nonataxia features in SCA-ATXN1. Whereas optic atrophy may be understood as part of a widespread neurodegeneration, EZ disruption may be explained by effects of ataxin-1 gene or protein on photoreceptors. Our findings extend the spectrum of nonataxia signs in SCA-ATXN1 with potential relevance for diagnosis and monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328427PMC
July 2020

Development and initial evaluation of a novel simulation model for comprehensive brain tumor surgery training.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 08 8;162(8):1957-1965. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Increasing technico-manual complexity of procedures and time constraints necessitates effective neurosurgical training. For this purpose, both screen- and model-based simulations are under investigation. Approaches including 3D printed brains, gelatin composite models, and virtual environments have already been published. However, quality of brain surgery simulation is limited due to discrepancies in visual and haptic experience. Similarly, virtual training scenarios are still lacking sufficient real-world resemblance. In this study, we introduce a novel simulator for realistic neurosurgical training that combines real brain tissue with 3D printing and augmented reality.

Methods: Based on a human CT scan, a skull base and skullcap were 3D printed and equipped with an artificial dura mater. The cerebral hemispheres of a calf's brain were placed in the convexity of the skullcap and tumor masses composed of aspic, water, and fluorescein were injected in the brain. The skullcap and skull base were placed on each other, glued together, and filled up with an aspic water solution for brain fixation. Then, four surgical scenarios were performed in the operating room as follows: (1) simple tumor resection, (2) complex tumor resection, (3) navigated biopsy via burr hole trepanation, and (4) retrosigmoidal craniotomy. Neuronavigation, augmented reality, fluorescence, and ocular-as well as screen-based (exoscopic)-surgery were available for the simulator training. A total of 29 participants performed at least one training scenario of the simulator and completed a 5-item Likert-like questionnaire as well as qualitative interviews. The questionnaire assessed the realism of the tumor model, skull, and brain tissue as well as the capability for training purposes.

Results: Visual and sensory realism of the skull and brain tissue were rated,"very good," while the sensory and visual realism of the tumor model were rated "good." Both overall satisfaction with the model and eligibility of the microscope and neurosurgical instruments for training purposes were rated with "very good." However, small size of the calf's brain, its limited shelf life, and the inability to simulate bleedings due to the lack of perfusion were significant drawbacks.

Conclusion: The combination of 3D printing and real brain tissue provided surgical scenarios with very good real-life resemblance. This novel neurosurgical model features a versatile setup for surgical skill training and allows for efficient training of technological support like image and fluorescence guidance, exoscopic surgery, and robotic technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04359-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360639PMC
August 2020