Publications by authors named "Anne Moreau"

131 Publications

Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients in the Era of Defibrotide: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 17;27(4):338.e1-338.e7. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Saint Louis Hospital, Paris, France.

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a life-threatening liver complication of high- dose chemotherapy. Defibrotide is the only available therapeutic option approved for SOS. The prognosis of SOS in patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to assess the outcome of SOS patients in ICU. This retrospective study was conducted between 2007 and 2019 in 13 French ICUs. Seventy-one critically ill adult patients with SOS defined according to European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation criteria and treated with defibrotide were included. The main reasons for ICU admission were respiratory failure and acute kidney injury. Mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy were required in 59%, 52%, and 49% of patients, respectively. Twenty-three percent of patients experienced a bleeding event during defibrotide treatment. Hospital mortality was 54%, mainly related to multiorgan failure. Older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.04), mechanical ventilation (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.99), renal replacement therapy (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.32 to 4.91) were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Defibrotide prophylaxis (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.92) was associated with better outcomes. Critically ill patients with SOS have a high mortality rate in the ICU, especially if organ support is required. Additional studies assessing the impact of defibrotide prophylaxis are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Spectrum of Kidney Involvement in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Mar 6;6(3):746-754. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by a high prevalence of associated autoimmune manifestations. Kidney involvement has been rarely reported in MDS patients. We report on the spectrum of kidney pathological findings in MDS patients.

Methods: We retrospectively identified MDS patients who had undergone a kidney biopsy between 2001 and 2019 in nine Swiss and French nephrology centres.

Results: Nineteen patients (median age 74 years [63-83]) were included. At the time of kidney biopsy, eleven (58%) patients had extra-renal auto-immune manifestations and sixteen (84%) presented with acute kidney injury. Median serum creatinine at diagnosis was 2.8 mg/dL [0.6-8.3] and median urinary protein to creatinine ratio was 1.2 g/g [0.2-11]. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN) was present in seven (37%) patients. Immunofluorescence study in one patient with acute TIN disclosed intense IgG deposits along the tubular basement membrane and Bowman's capsule. Other kidney pathological features included ANCA-negative pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis (n = 3), membranous nephropathy (n = 2), IgA nephropathy (n = 1), IgA vasculitis (n = 1), immunoglobulin-associated membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type I (n=1), crescentic C3 glomerulopathy (n = 1), fibrillary glomerulonephritis (n = 1) and minimal change disease (n = 1). Eleven (58%) patients received immunosuppressive treatments, among whom one developed a severe infectious complication. After a median follow-up of 7 month [1-96], nine (47%) patients had chronic kidney disease stage 3 (n = 6) or 4 (n = 3) and five (26%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease. Three patients died.

Conclusions: MDS are associated to several autoimmune kidney manifestations, predominantly acute TIN. MDS are to be listed among the potential causes of autoimmune TIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.12.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938072PMC
March 2021

Oxaliplatin before autologous transplantation in combination with high-dose cytarabine and rituximab provides longer disease control than cisplatin or carboplatin in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma: results from the LyMA prospective trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 3;56(7):1700-1709. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Clinical Hematology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France.

LyMA trial has demonstrated the benefit of rituximab maintenance after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in previously untreated mantle-cell lymphoma patients (MCL). Induction consisted of four courses of R-DHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and platinum derivative). The platinum derivative (PD) choice was free: R-DHA-cisplatin, R-DHA-carboplatin, or R-DHA-oxaliplatin. We investigated the prognostic impact of each PD. PFS and OS calculated from inclusion and investigated in an intention-to-treat (ITT) (= 298) and per-protocol analyses (PP) (n = 227). R-DHACis, R-DHACa, or R-DHAOx were used at first cycle in 184, 76, and 38 patients, respectively. Overall, 71 patients (59 in the R-DHACis) required a change in PD, mainly because of PD toxicity. In ITT-analysis, PFS in the R-DHACis and R-DHACa groups were similar (4-year PFS of 65%), while R-DHAOx had a better PFS (4-year PFS of 65% versus 86.5%, respectively, HR = 0.44, p = 0.02). The 4-year OS was 92% for R-DHAOx versus 75.9% for R-DHACis/DHACa (HR = 0.37, p = 0.03). Similar results were yielded in the PP analysis. Low MIPI and R-DHAOx were independent favorable prognostic markers for both PFS (HR = 0.44, p = 0.035) and OS (HR = 0.36, p = 0.045). In vitro and in silico analyses confirmed that oxaliplatin has an anti-MCL cytotoxic effect that differs from that of other PD. R-DHAOx before ASCT provides better outcome in transplantation eligible young MCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01198-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Nationwide incidence of sarcomas and connective tissue tumors of intermediate malignancy over four years using an expert pathology review network.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(2):e0246958. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biopathology, Institut Claudius Regaud et Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse-Oncopôle, Toulouse, France.

Background: Since 2010, nationwide networks of reference centers for sarcomas (RREPS/NETSARC/RESOS) collected and prospectively reviewed all cases of sarcomas and connective tumors of intermediate malignancy (TIM) in France.

Methods: The nationwide incidence of sarcoma or TIM (2013-2016) was measured using the 2013 WHO classification and confirmed by a second independent review by expert pathologists. Simple clinical characteristics, yearly variations and correlation of incidence with published clinical trials are presented and analyzed.

Results: Over 150 different histological subtypes are reported from the 25172 patients with sarcomas (n = 18712, 74,3%) or TIM (n = 6460, 25.7%), with n = 5838, n = 6153, n = 6654, and n = 6527 yearly cases from 2013 to 2016. Over these 4 years, the yearly incidence of sarcomas and TIM was therefore 70.7 and 24.4 respectively, with a combined incidence of 95.1/106/year, higher than previously reported. GIST, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcomas, undifferentiated sarcomas represented 13%, 13%, 11% and 11% of tumors. Only GIST, as a single entity had a yearly incidence above 10/106/year. There were respectively 30, 64 and 66 different histological subtypes of sarcomas or TIM with an incidence ranging from 10 to 1/106, 1-0.1/106, or < 0.1/106/year respectively. The 2 latter incidence groups represented 21% of the patients with 130 histotypes. Published phase III and phase II clinical trials (p<10-6) are significantly higher with sarcomas subtypes with an incidence above 1/106 per.

Conclusions: This nationwide registry of sarcoma patients, with exhaustive histology review by sarcoma experts, shows that the incidence of sarcoma and TIM is higher than reported, and that tumors with a very low incidence (1<106/year) are less likely to be included in clinical trials.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246958PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906477PMC
August 2021

ICU-acquired pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: A post-hoc analysis of a prospective international cohort study.

J Crit Care 2021 06 29;63:243-245. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, APHP, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Famirea Study Group, ECSTRA Team, and Clinical Epidemiology, UMR 1153, Center of Epidemiology, France.

Objective: Intensive Care Units (ICU) acquired Pneumonia (ICU-AP) is one of the most frequent nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Our aim was to determine the effects of having an ICU-AP in immunosuppressed patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Design: Post-hoc analysis of a multinational, prospective cohort study in 16 countries.

Settings: ICU.

Patients: Immunosuppressed patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Intervention: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The original cohort had 1611 and in this post-hoc analysis a total of 1512 patients with available data on hospital mortality and occurrence of ICU-AP were included. ICU-AP occurred in 158 patients (10.4%). Hospital mortality was higher in patients with ICU-AP (14.8% vs. 7.1% p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders and centre effect, use of vasopressors (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.22; 95%CI 1.46-3.39) and invasive mechanical ventilation at day 1 (OR 2.12 vs. high flow oxygen; 95%CI 1.07-4.20) were associated with increased risk of ICU-AP while female gender (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.43-94) and chronic kidney disease (OR 0.43; 95%CI 0.22-0.88) were associated with decreased risk of ICU-AP. After adjustment for confounders and centre effect, ICU-AP was independently associated with mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.48; 95%CI 14.-1.91; P = 0.003).

Conclusions: The attributable mortality of ICU-AP has been repetitively questioned in immunosuppressed patients with acute respiratory failure. This manuscript found that ICU-AP represents an independent risk factor for hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.09.027DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular response after obinutuzumab plus high-dose cytarabine induction for transplant-eligible patients with untreated mantle cell lymphoma (LyMa-101): a phase 2 trial of the LYSA group.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Nov 21;7(11):e798-e807. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Onco-Haematology, Université de Paris, Hôpital and Institut Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance-Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, INSERM U1151, Paris, France.

Background: Obinutuzumab monotherapy has shown promising efficacy in mantle cell lymphoma. We aimed to investigate the activity of obinutuzumab plus DHAP (dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin), measured by minimal residual disease quantitative (q)PCR status in the bone marrow after four cycles.

Methods: LyMa-101 was a prospective, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Participants were enrolled from 28 hospitals in France. Newly diagnosed patients with mantle cell lymphoma (aged 18 to <66 years) who were eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation received four cycles of obinutuzumab plus DHAP (obinutuzumab 1000 mg/m intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 at cycle 1 and day 1 at cycles 2, 3, and 4; dexamethasone 40 mg intravenously on days 1-4, cytarabine 2 g/m intravenously every 12 h on day 1, and according to local investigator, cisplatin 100 mg/m by continuous infusion over 24 h on day 1 or carboplatin area under the curve 5 or oxaliplatin 130 mg/m) every 21 days before transplantation, and 3 years of obinutuzumab (1000 mg/m every 2 months) maintenance followed by minimal residual disease-based obinutuzumab on-demand maintenance. The primary outcome was minimal residual disease negativity in the bone marrow after four cycles of obinutuzumab plus DHAP at the end of induction, measured in the efficacy set (all minimal residual disease-informative [bone marrow or peripheral blood] patients who received at least one dose of obinutuzumab). Obinutuzumab plus DHAP was considered effective if bone marrow minimal residual disease negativity was 70% or more by intention to treat. The trial is closed to recruitment and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02896582.

Findings: 86 patients were enrolled between Nov 29, 2016, and May 2, 2018. 81 patients completed induction, 73 underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation, and 69 started maintenance therapy. 55 (75%) of 73 patients in the efficacy set reached minimal residual disease negativity in bone marrow at end of induction. According to the protocol definition, 18 (25%) of 73 patients in the efficacy set were minimal residual disease-positive: 12 patients who were minimal residual disease-positive in the bone marrow, plus two patients who progressed during induction, and four patients who did not have minimal residual disease assessment. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (grade 3, 26 [31%] of 85 patients; grade 4, three [4%] of 85 patients) and neutropenia (grade 3, 13 [15%] of 85 patients; grade 4, 32 [38%] of 85 patients). 58 serious adverse events occurred during the induction phase. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Obinutuzumab plus DHAP is a well tolerated regimen and has good activity for inducing minimal residual disease negativity in the bone marrow of transplant-eligible patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Obinutuzumab plus DHAP has potential activity as induction chemotherapy, with bone marrow minimal residual disease negativity potentially predicting long-term disease control.

Funding: Roche SAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30291-XDOI Listing
November 2020

Etiologies and Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Failure in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Insight Into the EFRAIM Multicenter Cohort.

Transplant Proc 2020 Dec 1;52(10):2980-2987. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Saint-Louis, APHP.Nord-Université de Paris ECSTRA team, and Clinical Epidemiology, UMR 1153, Center of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CRESS, INSERM Paris Diderot Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: Respiratory complications of solid organ transplant (SOT) are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge when requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We aimed at describing this challenge in a prospective cohort of SOT recipients admitted in the ICU.

Methods: In this post hoc analysis of an international cohort of immunocompromised patients admitted in the ICU for an acute respiratory failure, we analyzed all SOT recipients and compared their severity, etiologic diagnosis, prognosis, and outcome according to the performance of an invasive diagnostic strategy (encompassing a fiber-optic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage), the type of transplanted organ, and the need of invasive ventilation at day 1.

Results: Among 1611 patients included in the primary study, 142 were SOT recipients (kidney, n = 73; 51.4%; lung, n = 33; 23.2%; liver, n = 29; 20.4%; heart, n = 7; 4.9%). Lung transplant recipients were younger than other SOT recipients, and severity did not differ across type of received organ. An invasive diagnostic strategy was more frequently performed in lung transplant recipients with a trend toward a higher rate of bacterial etiology in lung than kidney transplant recipients. Overall ICU survival of SOT recipients was 75.4%. Invasive diagnostic strategy, type of transplanted organ, and need of invasive mechanical ventilation at day 1 did not affect ICU prognosis.

Conclusions: ICU management of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in SOT recipients translated into a low ICU mortality rate, whatever the transplanted organ or the acute respiratory failure cause. The post-ICU burden of acute respiratory failure SOT recipients remains to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.02.170DOI Listing
December 2020

Whole genome copy number analysis in search of new prognostic biomarkers in first line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. A study by the LYSA group.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Oct 25;38(4):446-455. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) CCND1/IGH translocation. This lymphoma is however extremely heterogeneous in terms of molecular alterations. Moreover, the course of the disease can vary greatly between indolent forms with slow progression and aggressive conditions rapidly pejorative. The identification of early markers allowing to predict individual patients outcome has however been unsuccessful so far. The LyMa trial treated homogeneously a cohort of young MCL patients. This appeared as a good opportunity to search for biomarkers of response to therapy. DNA extracted from diagnostic paraffin-embedded lymph node biopsies from 100 patients with newly diagnosed MCL, homogeneously treated in this prospective clinical trial, were investigated for copy number alterations and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity using the Oncoscan SNP-array scanning the whole genome. An independent confirmatory cohort was used to strengthen the possibly relevant anomalies observed. Here we describe the recurrent anomalies identified with this technique. Deletions of 17p(TP53) and 9p(CDKN2A) were more frequent in refractory or early relapsing patients (10%), but had no significant impact in univariate analysis on progression-free (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Regardless of the presence of TP53 or CDKN2A deletions, gains in 7p22 (8,5%) were associated with better PFS in univariate but not in multivariate analysis including MCL International Prognostic Index and treatment. Gains of 11q(CCDN1), suggesting gains of the CCND1/IGH fusion, were associated with worse OS and PFS in univariate and multivariate analyses. This worse prognosis impact was confirmed by FISH in an independent confirmatory cohort. This work, using a whole genome approach, confirms the broad genomic landscape of MCL and shows that gains of the CCND1/IGH fusion can be considered as a new prognostic structural variant. Genomic abnormalities of prognostic impact could be useful to strengthen or de-escalate treatment schedules or choosing targeted therapies or CART-cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2750DOI Listing
October 2020

Progression of disease within 2 years (POD24) is a clinically relevant endpoint to identify high-risk follicular lymphoma patients in real life.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jul 16;99(7):1595-1604. Epub 2020 May 16.

Service d'hématologie clinique, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with heterogeneous outcomes. Progression or relapse of FL within 2 years (so-called POD24) after diagnosis is associated with a poor outcome for patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) in clinical trials. POD24 needs further validation before it can be used as a relevant endpoint to assess treatment efficacy. In the present retrospective monocentric study, we investigated the predictive value of POD24 in a cohort of grade 1, 2, or 3a FL patients treated in our institution (Nantes Medical University, France) and registered in our local database. We investigated the nature of treatment lines, patients' outcomes, and the prognostic value of POD24. Between 2007 and 2016, 317 patients were included. After first-line therapy, 60 patients relapsed within 2 years (POD24-pos cohort), and 254 patients did not relapse within 2 years (PO24-neg cohort). Thirty-three patients died, and 34 patients had an aggressive transformation. The median follow-up is 59.9 months (1.6-395.5). The median PFS is 59.9 months. Overall survival (OS) at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years is 98.4% [97.0-99.8], 95.1% [92.6-97.6], and 92.5% [89.3-95.9], respectively. The 5-year OS was statistically lower for POD24-pos patients (82% [71.9-93.5]) than for POD24-neg patients (93.3% [88.98-97.8]) (p = 10). In multivariate analyses, transformation was predictive of OS, and PS (≥ 1) was predictive of POD24. POD24 is predictive of a worse OS and may be recommended as a relevant endpoint in clinical trials and in real life in particular for patients with advanced disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04025-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Diagnosis and prognosis are supported by integrated assessment of next-generation sequencing in chronic myeloid malignancies. A real-life study.

Haematologica 2021 03 1;106(3):701-707. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Pathology Department, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is used to investigate the presence of somatic mutations. The utility of incorporating routine sequencing to guide diagnosis and therapeutic decisions remains unclear. We report the findings of an observational, multicenter study that aimed to assess the impact of somatic mutation testing by NGS in a reallife setting of chronic myeloid malignancies. A total of 177 patients were enrolled, partitioned into two overlapping groups. In group A (n=94), the indication was to search for clonal hematopoiesis, in a context of suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative neoplasia. In group B (n=95), the theranostic impact of somatic mutations was studied. A panel of 34 genes was used on DNA extracted from blood or bone marrow samples. Within group A, the detection of clonal hematopoiesis supported the diagnosis of chronic myeloid malignancies for 31 patients while the absence of clonal hematopoiesis ruled out the suspected diagnosis in 47 patients. Within group B, NGS identified prognostically relevant somatic mutations in 32 patients, which had a therapeutic impact in 18 cases. By determining the presence or absence of somatic mutations, the application of NGS in daily practice was found to be useful for an integrated final diagnosis in 83% of the patients. Moreover, the search for somatic mutations had a prognostic impact that led to treatment modification in 19% of the cases. This study outlines the fact that adequate implementation of new investigations may have a significant positive medico-economic impact by enabling appropriate management of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.242677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927891PMC
March 2021

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of relapsed follicular lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation in the rituximab era.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Apr 30;38(2):137-145. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Hematology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a therapeutic option for patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL). The clinical characteristics and outcomes of FL relapse after ASCT in the rituximab era have not yet been fully elucidated. We retrospectively reviewed 414 FL patients treated with ASCT between 2000 and 2014 in four hematology departments. All patients received rituximab as a first-line treatment. We specifically analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies at relapse, and outcomes of 95 patients (23%) who relapsed after ASCT. The patients (median age, 57 y) received a median of two lines of therapy (range, 2-6) prior to ASCT, with 92% in complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) before ASCT. Histological transformation at relapse after ASCT was observed in 20% of the patients. Treatment at relapse after ASCT consisted of chemotherapy with or without rituximab (n = 45/90, 50%), targeted agents (18%), rituximab monotherapy (14%), or consolidation allogeneic transplantation after induction chemotherapy (12%) and radiotherapy (6%). After relapse, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1 year (95% CI, 0.541-1.579) and 5.5 years (95% CI, 1.910-9.099), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, histological transformation (HT) was associated with OS (P = .044; HR 2.439; 95% CI, 1.025-5.806), and a high FLIPI score at relapse was associated with PFS (P = .028; HR 2.469; 95% CI, 1.104-5.521). This retrospective study showed that the period of PFS of patients who relapsed after ASCT is short. A biopsy should be performed for these patients to document the HT. Our results indicate that new treatment strategies will need to be developed for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2713DOI Listing
April 2020

Gene alterations in epigenetic modifiers and JAK-STAT signaling are frequent in breast implant-associated ALCL.

Blood 2020 01;135(5):360-370

Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, INSERM U955, Université Paris-Est, Créteil, France.

The oncogenic events involved in breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) remain elusive. To clarify this point, we have characterized the genomic landscape of 34 BI-ALCLs (15 tumor and 19 in situ subtypes) collected from 54 BI-ALCL patients diagnosed through the French Lymphopath network. Whole-exome sequencing (n = 22, with paired tumor/germline DNA) and/or targeted deep sequencing (n = 24) showed recurrent mutations of epigenetic modifiers in 74% of cases, involving notably KMT2C (26%), KMT2D (9%), CHD2 (15%), and CREBBP (15%). KMT2D and KMT2C mutations correlated with a loss of H3K4 mono- and trimethylation by immunohistochemistry. Twenty cases (59%) showed mutations in ≥1 member of the JAK/STAT pathway, including STAT3 (38%), JAK1 (18%), and STAT5B (3%), and in negative regulators, including SOCS3 (6%), SOCS1 (3%), and PTPN1 (3%). These mutations were more frequent in tumor-type samples than in situ samples (P = .038). All BI-ALCLs expressed pSTAT3, regardless of the mutational status of genes in the JAK/STAT pathway. Mutations in the EOMES gene (12%) involved in lymphocyte development, PI3K-AKT/mTOR (6%), and loss-of-function mutations in TP53 (12%) were also identified. Copy-number aberration (CNA) analysis identified recurrent alterations, including gains on chromosomes 2, 9p, 12p, and 21 and losses on 4q, 8p, 15, 16, and 20. Regions of CNA encompassed genes involved in the JAK/STAT pathway and epigenetic regulators. Our results show that the BI-ALCL genomic landscape is characterized by not only JAK/STAT activating mutations but also loss-of-function alterations of epigenetic modifiers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019001904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059458PMC
January 2020

A subset of epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas is associated with TFCP2 fusions and common ALK upregulation.

Mod Pathol 2020 03 5;33(3):404-419. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS 5286, INSERM U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon, Lyon, France.

Rhabdomyosarcomas with TFCP2 fusions represent an emerging subtype of tumors, initially discovered by RNA-sequencing. We report herein the clinicopathological, transcriptional, and genomic features of a series of 14 cases. Cases were retrospectively and prospectively recruited and studied by immunohistochemistry (MYF4, MYOD1, S100, AE1/E3, ALK), fluorescence in situ hybridization with TFCP2 break-apart probe (n = 10/14), array-comparative genomic hybridization (Agilent), whole RNA-sequencing (Truseq Exome, Illumina), or anchored multiplex PCR-based targeted next-generation sequencing (Archer® FusionPlex® Sarcoma kit). Patient's age ranged between 11 and 86 years, including 5 pediatric cases. Tumors were located in the bone (n = 12/14) and soft tissue (n = 2/14). Most bone tumors invaded surrounding soft tissue. Craniofacial bones were over-represented (n = 8/12). Median survival was 8 months and five patients are currently alive with a median follow-up of 20 months. Most tumors displayed a mixed spindle cell and epithelioid pattern with frequent vesicular nuclei. All tumors expressed keratins and showed a rhabdomyogenic phenotype (defined as expression of MYF4 and/or MYOD1). ALK was overexpressed in all but three cases without underlying ALK fusion on break-apart FISH (n = 5) nor next-generation sequencing (n = 14). ALK upregulation was frequently associated with an internal deletion at genomic level. TFCP2 was fused in 5' either to EWSR1 (n = 6) or FUS (n = 8). EWSR1 was involved in both soft tissue cases. FISH with TFCP2 break-apart probe was positive in all tested cases (n = 8), including one case with unbalanced signal. On array-CGH, all tested tumors displayed complex genetic profiles with genomic indexes ranging from 13 to 107.55 and recurrent CDKN2A deletions. FET-TFCP2 rhabdomyosarcomas clustered together and distinctly from other rhabdomyosarcomas subgroups. Altogether, our data confirm and expand the spectrum of the new family of FET-TFCP2 rhabdomyosarcomas, which are associated with a predilection for the craniofacial bones, an aggressive course, and recurrent pathological features. Their association with ALK overexpression might represent a therapeutic vulnerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0323-8DOI Listing
March 2020

First pancreatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) treated by mTOR inhibitor.

Pancreatology 2019 Jun 18;19(4):566-568. Epub 2019 May 18.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Background: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, an extremely rare mesenchymal tumor, could be ubiquitous but rarely arises from pancreas. Surgery is considered the most appropriate treatment. Nevertheless, activation of mTOR pathway seems to be a common pathogenic event in PEComas paving the way to chemotherapy by mTOR inhibitor.

Method: A 17 year-old man presented a hypervascular tumor of 55 mm, located in the head of pancreas without bile duct or pancreatic duct compression.

Results: Histopathology showed epithelioid cells with clear or focally granular eosinophilic cytoplasm with melanocytic (HMB-45, Melan-A) and myoid markers which confirmed diagnosis of PEComa. Given the absence of worrisome feature, we ruled out surgery and decided to initiate treatment with Sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor. After 3.5 years, we showed a significant reduction in size of the tumor.

Conclusion: This first case of pancreatic PEComa treated by mTOR inhibitor without surgery suggests a good efficiency of this therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2019.05.459DOI Listing
June 2019

Influenza and associated co-infections in critically ill immunosuppressed patients.

Crit Care 2019 05 2;23(1):152. Epub 2019 May 2.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Saint-Louis and Paris Diderot Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: It is unclear whether influenza infection and associated co-infection are associated with patient-important outcomes in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure.

Methods: Preplanned secondary analysis of EFRAIM, a prospective cohort study of 68 hospitals in 16 countries. We included 1611 patients aged 18 years or older with non-AIDS-related immunocompromise, who were admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The main exposure of interest was influenza infection status. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes ICU length of stay (LOS) and 90-day mortality.

Results: Influenza infection status was categorized into four groups: patients with influenza alone (n = 95, 5.8%), patients with influenza plus pulmonary co-infection (n = 58, 3.6%), patients with non-influenza pulmonary infection (n = 820, 50.9%), and patients without pulmonary infection (n = 638, 39.6%). Influenza infection status was associated with a requirement for intubation and with LOS in ICU (P < 0.001). Patients with influenza plus co-infection had the highest rates of intubation and longest ICU LOS. On crude analysis, influenza infection status was associated with ICU mortality (P < 0.001) but not hospital mortality (P = 0.09). Patients with influenza plus co-infection and patients with non-influenza infection alone had similar ICU mortality (41% and 37% respectively) that was higher than patients with influenza alone or those without infection (33% and 26% respectively). A propensity score-matched analysis did not show a difference in hospital mortality attributable to influenza infection (OR = 1.01, 95%CI 0.90-1.13, P = 0.85). Age, severity scores, ARDS, and performance status were all associated with ICU, hospital, and 90-day mortality.

Conclusions: Category of infectious etiology of respiratory failure (influenza, non-influenza, influenza plus co-infection, and non-infectious) was associated with ICU but not hospital mortality. In a propensity score-matched analysis, influenza infection was not associated with the primary outcome of hospital mortality. Overall, influenza infection alone may not be an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in immunosuppressed patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2425-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498695PMC
May 2019

CSF1R and BTK inhibitions as novel strategies to disrupt the dialog between mantle cell lymphoma and macrophages.

Leukemia 2019 10 2;33(10):2442-2453. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

The microenvironment strongly influences mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) survival, proliferation, and chemoresistance. However, little is known regarding the molecular characterization of lymphoma niches. Here, we focused on the interplay between MCL cells and the associated monocytes/macrophages. Using circulating MCL cells (n = 58), we showed that, through the secretion of CSF1 and, to a lesser extent, IL-10, MCL polarized monocytes into specific CD163 M2-like macrophages (MϕMCL). In turn, MϕMCL favored lymphoma survival and proliferation ex vivo. We next demonstrated that BTK inhibition abrogated CSF1 and IL-10 production in MCL cells, leading to the inhibition of macrophage polarization and consequently resulting in the suppression of microenvironment-dependent MCL expansion. In vivo, we showed that CSF1 and IL-10 plasma concentrations were higher in MCL patients than in healthy donors, and that monocytes from MCL patients overexpressed CD163. Further analyses of serial samples from ibrutinib-treated patients (n = 8) highlighted a rapid decrease of CSF1, IL-10, and CD163 in responsive patients. Finally, we showed that targeting the CSF1R abrogated MϕMCL-dependent MCL survival, irrespective of their sensitivity to ibrutinib. These data reinforced the role of the microenvironment in lymphoma and suggested that macrophages are a potential target for developing novel therapeutic strategies in MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0463-3DOI Listing
October 2019

Jaw osteosarcoma models in mice: first description.

J Transl Med 2019 02 27;17(1):56. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Laboratoire des sarcomes osseux et remodelage des tissus calcifiés (Phy.OS), UMR 1238, Faculté de médecine, 1 rue Gaston Veil, 44035, Nantes Cedex, France.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common cancer of bone. Jaw osteosarcoma (JOS) is rare and it differs from other OS in terms of the time of occurrence (two decades later) and better survival. The aim of our work was to develop and characterize specific mouse models of JOS.

Methods: Syngenic and xenogenic models of JOS were developed in mice using mouse (MOS-J) and human (HOS1544) osteosarcoma cell lines, respectively. An orthotopic patient-derived xenograft model (PDX) was also developed from a mandibular biopsy. These models were characterized at the histological and micro-CT imaging levels, as well as in terms of tumor growth and metastatic spread.

Results: Homogeneous tumor growth was observed in both the HOS1544 and the MOS-J JOS models by injection of 0.25 × 10 and 0.50 × 10 tumor cells, respectively, at perimandibular sites. Histological characterization of the tumors revealed features consistent with high grade conventional osteosarcoma, and the micro-CT analysis revealed both osteogenic and osteolytic lesions. Early metastasis was encountered at day 14 in the xenogenic model, while there were no metastatic lesions in the syngenic model and in the PDX models.

Conclusion: We describe the first animal model of JOS and its potential use for therapeutic applications. This model needs to be compared with the usual long-bone osteosarcoma models to investigate potential differences in the bone microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1807-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391788PMC
February 2019

Formation of β-Lactoglobulin Aggregates from Quite, Unfolded Conformations upon Heat Activation.

Langmuir 2019 01 2;35(2):446-452. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

INRA , 59000 Lille , France.

In presence of calcium ions, β-lactoglobulin (BLG) unfolds and subsequently aggregates after heating. This process has important pharmaceutical and agroalimentary applications. Nowadays, the molecular mechanism of unfolding and BLG aggregation, and the role of calcium in the mechanism, is poorly understood. Actually, in most studies, data have been acquired at room temperature, after heating and after aggregation, which makes it difficult to establish a clear causal-temporal relation between calcium binding, heat, and aggregation. Thus, the goal of the present study is to get accurate, nanoscale data about the molecular events leading to BLG unfolding and calcium-dependent aggregation. The molecular transformation of BLG during heating has been investigated, using the NMR pulse field gradient technique, operating in a high field (900 MHz). Thanks to this technique, the molecular conformation of newly formed unfolded BLG molecules can be distinguished in a large pool of native ones. The present work shows that BLG at neutral pH at 65 °C displays fast, cooperative-like unfolding, in which no long-lived intermediary state (as a molten globule one) is detected, before aggregation. These data also indicate that calcium ions bind unfolded BLG in specific sites which might be a necessary feature to form the aggregate. Finally, these data also provide an NMR-based methodology to monitor the rate of protein unfolding using NMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b03459DOI Listing
January 2019

A phase 2 study of rituximab, bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone for first-line treatment of older patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

Haematologica 2019 01 31;104(1):138-146. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Hematology Department, Catherine de Sienne Clinic, Nantes.

We present results of a prospective, multicenter, phase II study evaluating rituximab, bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone as first-line treatment for patients with mantle cell lymphoma aged 65 years or older. A total of 74 patients were enrolled (median age, 73 years). Patients received a maximum of six cycles of treatment at 28-day intervals. The primary objective was to achieve an 18-month progression-free survival rate of 65% or higher. Secondary objectives were to evaluate toxicity and the prognostic impact of mantle cell lymphoma prognostic index, Ki67 expression, [F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and molecular minimal residual disease, in peripheral blood or bone marrow. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 24-month progression-free survival rate was 70%, hence the primary objective was reached. After six cycles of treatment, 91% (54/59) of responding patients were analyzed for peripheral blood residual disease and 87% of these (47/54) were negative. Four-year overall survival rates of the patients who did not have or had detectable molecular residual disease in the blood at completion of treatment were 86.6% and 28.6%, respectively (<0.0001). Neither the mantle cell lymphoma index, nor fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography nor Ki67 positivity (cut off of ≥30%) showed a prognostic impact for survival. Hematologic grade 3-4 toxicities were mainly neutropenia (51%), thrombocytopenia (35%) and lymphopenia (65%). Grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities were mainly fatigue (18.5%), neuropathy (15%) and infections. In conclusion, the tested treatment regimen is active as frontline therapy in older patients with mantle cell lymphoma, with manageable toxicity. Minimal residual disease status after induction could serve as an early predictor of survival in mantle cell lymphoma. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.191429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312036PMC
January 2019

Histopathological Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection: Does a Threshold of 23 Neutrophils Do Better than Classification of the Periprosthetic Membrane in a Prospective Multicenter Study?

J Clin Microbiol 2018 09 27;56(9). Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Bacteriology, Poitiers University Hospital, Poitiers, France.

No gold standard exists for histopathological diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The historical criterion considers the presence of neutrophil infiltration upon examination of periprosthetic tissue. Morawietz et al. proposed a classification of periprosthetic membranes (Morawietz et al., Clin Pathol 59:591-597, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2005.027458) and a more recently described classification with a new cutoff value of 23 neutrophils in 10 high-power fields (Morawietz et al., Histopathology 54:847-853, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2559.2009.03313.x). We performed a multicenter prospective study, which compared both methods for the diagnosis of PJI. All suspicions of PJI ( = 264) between December 2010 and March 2012 in seven centers were prospectively included. Five perioperative specimens were collected per patient for cultures, and one was collected for histology. Diagnosis of PJI was made according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines. Histopathological analysis classified the patients according to the threshold of 23 neutrophils and according to the classification of Morawietz. Performances of both methods were compared by using clinical and/or bacteriological criteria as the gold standard. Among 264 patients with suspected PJI, a diagnosis of infection was confirmed in 215 and unconfirmed in 49 patients. Histopathological analysis was available for 150 confirmed PJI and 40 unconfirmed PJI cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 78.7%, 90.0%, 96.7%, 52.9%, and 81.1%, respectively, for the Morawietz classification, and 82.0%, 90.0%, 96.9%, 57.1%, and 83.7%, respectively, for the 23-neutrophil threshold. The new algorithm using a threshold of 23 neutrophils can be proposed as a new gold standard for the histopathological diagnosis of PJI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00536-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113493PMC
September 2018

Breakdown of Immune Tolerance in AIRE-Deficient Rats Induces a Severe Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy-like Autoimmune Disease.

J Immunol 2018 08 29;201(3):874-887. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie UMR 1064, INSERM Université de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France;

Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) deficiency in humans induces a life-threatening generalized autoimmune disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), and no curative treatments are available. Several models of AIRE-deficient mice have been generated, and although they have been useful in understanding the role of AIRE in central tolerance, they do not reproduce accurately the APECED symptoms, and thus there is still a need for an animal model displaying APECED-like disease. We assessed, in this study, the potential of the rat as an accurate model for APECED. In this study, we demonstrate that in rat, AIRE is expressed by MHC class II (MCH-II) and MHC-II medullary thymic epithelial cells in thymus and by CD4 conventional dendritic cells in periphery. To our knowledge, we generated the first AIRE-deficient rat model using zinc-finger nucleases and demonstrated that they display several of the key symptoms of APECED disease, including alopecia, skin depigmentation, and nail dystrophy, independently of the genetic background. We observed severe autoimmune lesions in a large spectrum of organs, in particular in the pancreas, and identified several autoantibodies in organs and cytokines such as type I IFNs and IL-17 at levels similar to APECED. Finally, we demonstrated a biased Ab response to IgG1, IgM, and IgA isotypes. Altogether, our data demonstrate that AIRE-deficient rat is a relevant APECED animal model, opening new opportunity to test curative therapeutic treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1701318DOI Listing
August 2018

Storage of Micellar Casein Powders with and without Lactose: Consequences on Color, Solubility, and Chemical Modifications.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 20;66(39):10274-10282. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , Université de Lille , F-59000 Lille , France.

During storage, a series of changes occur for dairy powders, such as protein lactosylation and the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), leading to powder browning and an increase of insoluble matter. The kinetics of protein lactosylation and MRP formation are influenced by the lactose content of the dairy powder. However, the influence of lactose in the formation of insoluble matter and its role in the underlying mechanisms is still a subject of speculation. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of lactose in the formation of insoluble matter in a more comprehensive way than the existing literature. For that, two casein powders with radically different lactose contents, standard micellar casein (MC) powder (MC1) and a lactose-free (less than 10 ppm) MC powder (MC2), were prepared and stored under controlled conditions for different periods of time. Powder browning index measurements and solubility tests on reconstituted powders were performed to study the evolution of the functional properties of MC powders during aging. Proteomic approaches [one-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)] and innovative label-free quantification methods were used to track and quantify the chemical modifications occurring during the storage of the powders. Reducing the amount of lactose limited the browning of MC powders but had no effect on the loss of solubility of proteins after storage, suggesting that the action of lactose, leading to the production of MRC, does not promotes the formation of insoluble matter. Electrophoresis analysis did not reveal any links between the formation of covalent bonds between caseins and loss in solubility, regardless of the lactose content. However, LC-MS analyses have shown that different levels of chemical modifications occur during the MC powder storage, depending upon the presence of lactose. An increase of protein lactosylation and acetylation was observed for the powder with a higher lactose content, while an increase of protein deamidation and dephosphorylation was observed for that containing lower lactose. The decrease of pH in the presence of lactose as a result of Maillard reaction (MR) may explain the difference in the chemical modifications of the two powders. In view of the present results, it is clear that lactose is not a key factor promoting insolubility and for the formation of cross-links between caseins during storage. This suggests that lactosylation is not the core reaction giving rise to loss in solubility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b06147DOI Listing
October 2018

Bone microenvironment has an influence on the histological response of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy: retrospective analysis and preclinical modeling.

Am J Cancer Res 2017 1;7(11):2333-2349. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Inserm UMR 1238Nantes, France.

Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant primary bone tumor, is currently treated with chemotherapy and surgery. The effectiveness of chemotherapy is evaluated by means of histological analysis of tumor necrosis, known as "the Huvos score". However, 25% of the patients initially considered good responders will relapse. In our practice, strong tissue heterogeneity around the residual viable cells of the osteosarcoma is observed, but this is not taken into account by the Huvos score, as it is only an average. The objective is to determine whether heterogeneity in the osteosarcoma's microenvironment can play a role in the histological response to chemotherapy. Two complementary approaches have been developed: (i) the therapeutic response to several monotherapies (ifosfamide, cisplatin, doxorubicin) has been compared to tumor growth and the necrosis levels in different preclinical syngeneic osteosarcoma models, mimicking various microenvironments by injecting the tumor cells into subcutaneous, intra-muscular paratibial, or intra-osseous sites; (ii) a retrospective analysis was performed on patients' osteoblastic osteosarcoma biopsies. Tissue localization mapping of residual live tumor cell colonies was evaluated for potential correlation with overall survival. The results of the preclinical studies showed a difference in tumor growth depending on the osteosarcoma model, with a higher rate in bone sites compared to subcutaneous tumors. For the therapeutic response, a higher response to doxorubicin was observed in the intra-osseous model compared to the intra-muscular model for tumor growth (P = 0.013) and necrosis (P = 0.007). These data strongly suggest that the microenvironment plays a role in how osteosarcoma responds to chemotherapy. The retrospective analysis showed no significant survival difference between residual cell sites, although the soft tissues may be seen as a potential negative factor.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5714759PMC
November 2017

Survival benefit of mantle cell lymphoma patients enrolled in clinical trials; a joint study from the LYSA group and French cancer registries.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Apr 11;144(4):629-635. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Registre des hémopathies malignes de Côte d'Or, Faculté des Sciences de Santé, Inserm UMR 1231, Université de Bourgogne F-Comté, 7 Bd Jeanne d'Arc, 21079, Dijon Cedex, France.

Purpose: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma entity with a poor prognosis. Therapeutic advances have improved the survival of patients enrolled in clinical trials; however, their impact on patients outside clinical trials remains unclear. In this work, we compared patient outcome inside and outside clinical trials.

Methods: We identified MCL patients recorded in six French population-based registries between 2008 and 2012 to perform a comparison with patients enrolled in two prospective multicenter MCL clinical trials conducted by the LYSA group during the same period. Variables associated with inclusion in a clinical trial were identified using a logistic regression. Pohar-Perme estimator and Nelson et al. flexible parametric model was used to estimate net survival probabilities and prognosis factors on excess mortality.

Results: A total of 312 registry patients were compared to the 372 patients enrolled in LYSA clinical trials. Patients included in clinical trials were younger (median age 60 vs 74, p < 0.001). Age and Ann Arbor stage IV were independently associated with enrollment [OR = 0.09 (0.06-0.12) and OR = 1.61 (1.11-2.34), respectively]. The 4 year net survival was better in clinical trials [79.9% (75.9-84.7) vs 60.3% (53.6-67.0)]. This result was confirmed in multivariate analysis in patients older than 65 years with a lower excess mortality rate [0.33 (0.17-0.66)].

Conclusions: MCL included in trials are highly selected patients who are not representative of MCL patients who are encountered in everyday practice. With widened inclusion criteria, clinical trial patients could be more representative of the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-017-2529-9DOI Listing
April 2018

Rituximab after Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Mantle-Cell Lymphoma.

N Engl J Med 2017 09;377(13):1250-1260

From Service d'Hématologie Clinique (S.L.G., T.G.), Service d'Anatomopathologie (A.M.), and Service d'Hématologie Biologique (M.C.B.), Hôtel-Dieu Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Nantes, and Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie et Immunologie (S.L.G., M.C.B.) and Faculté de Médecine (S.L.G.), Université de Nantes, Nantes, Hemato-Oncologie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Hôpital Saint-Louis, Université Diderot Sorbonne Paris-Cité (C.T.), Université Descartes (C.T.), Département d'Hématologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud (V.R.), Département d'Anatomopathologie (D.C.) and Département d'Hématologie (O.H.), Necker Hospital, APHP, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, and INSERM Unité 1163 et Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Équipe de Recherche Labellisée 8654, Imagine Institute (O.H.), Paris, Département d'Hématologie, Institut Universitaire du Cancer-Oncopole de Toulouse, Toulouse (L.O.), Service d'Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (K.B.), Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, CHU de Tours, Tours (C.D.), Service d'Hématologie, CHU d'Amiens, Amiens (G.D.), INSERM, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (V.R.), Département d'Hématologie, CHU de Nancy, Nancy (P.F.), INSERM Unité 954, Vandoeuvre (P.F.), Service d'Hématologie Clinique, CHU de Dijon, and INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche 1231, Dijon (O.C.), Service d'Hématologie, Centre Hospitalier d'Avignon, Avignon (H.Z.), Lymphoid Malignancies Unit, Hôpital Henri Mondor, APHP, Créteil (C.H.), Service d'Hématologie du Centre Hospitalier de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon (H.M.), Service Hématologie Clinique (R.H.) and Département d'Hématologie (T.L.), CHU de Rennes, INSERM Unité 917 (R.H.), and INSERM Unité 1236 (T.L.), Rennes, Département d'Hematology, Centre Henri-Becquerel et Université de Normandie Unité 1245, Rouen (F.J., H.T.), Service d'Hématologie Clinique Adulte et de Thérapie Cellulaire, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand et Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (O.T.), Service d'Hématologie, Clinique Victor Hugo, Le Mans (K.L.D.), Department of Hematology, Université de Lille, Groupe de Recherche sur les Formes Injectables et les Technologies Associées, and CHU de Lille, Lille (F.M.), Département d'Hématologie Clinique, CHU de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5235, Montpellier (G.C.), Service d'Oncologie et d'Hématologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (L.-M.F.), INSERM 1209, CNRS UMR 5309, Faculté de Médecine, Université Grenoble Alpes (M.C., R.G.), Institute for Advanced Biosciences (M.C.), and Laboratoire de Génétique Onco-hématologie (M.C.) and Faculté de Médecine (R.G.), CHU de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, Service d'Hématologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Bénite (G.S.), and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and Cancer Research Center of Lyon, INSERM 1052 CNRS 5286 Lyon, Lyon (G.S.) - all in France; and Département d'Hématologie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc-Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (E.V.D.N.).

Background: Mantle-cell lymphoma is generally incurable. Despite high rates of complete response after initial immunochemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation, patients have relapses. We investigated whether rituximab maintenance therapy at a dose of 375 mg per square meter of body-surface area administered every 2 months for 3 years after transplantation would prolong the duration of response.

Methods: In a phase 3 trial involving 299 patients who were younger than 66 years of age at diagnosis, we randomly assigned 240 patients to receive rituximab maintenance therapy or to undergo observation after autologous stem-cell transplantation (120 patients per group); 59 patients did not undergo randomization. The primary end point was event-free survival (with an event defined as disease progression, relapse, death, allergy to rituximab, or severe infection) after transplantation among patients who underwent randomization.

Results: After four courses of immunochemotherapy induction (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and a platinum derivative [R-DHAP]), the overall response rate was 89%, and the complete response rate 77%. Transplantation was performed in 257 patients. The median follow-up from randomization after transplantation was 50.2 months (range, 46.4 to 54.2). Starting from randomization, the rate of event-free survival at 4 years was 79% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 86) in the rituximab group versus 61% (95% CI, 51 to 70) in the observation group (P=0.001). The rate of progression-free survival at 4 years was 83% (95% CI, 73 to 88) in the rituximab group versus 64% (95% CI, 55 to 73) in the observation group (P<0.001). The rate of overall survival was 89% (95% CI, 81 to 94) in the rituximab group versus 80% (95% CI, 72 to 88) in the observation group (P=0.04). According to a Cox regression unadjusted analysis, the rate of overall survival at 4 years was higher in the rituximab group than in the observation group (hazard ratio for death, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.99; P=0.04).

Conclusions: Rituximab maintenance therapy after transplantation prolonged event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival among patients with mantle-cell lymphoma who were younger than 66 years of age at diagnosis. (Funded by Roche and Amgen; LyMa ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00921414 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1701769DOI Listing
September 2017

Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients: the Efraim multinational prospective cohort study.

Intensive Care Med 2017 Dec 25;43(12):1808-1819. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, EA-3830, Department of Medical Intensive Care, Rouen University Hospital, 76000, Rouen, France.

Background: In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV).

Methods: To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational prospective cohort study in 16 countries (68 centers).

Results: A total of 1611 patients were enrolled (hematological malignancies 51.9%, solid tumors 35.2%, systemic diseases 17.3%, and solid organ transplantation 8.8%). The main ARF etiologies were bacterial (29.5%), viral (15.4%), and fungal infections (14.7%), or undetermined (13.2%). On admission, 915 (56.8%) patients were not intubated. They received standard oxygen (N = 496, 53.9%), high-flow oxygen (HFNC, N = 187, 20.3%), noninvasive ventilation (NIV, N = 153, 17.2%), and NIV + HFNC (N = 79, 8.6%). Factors associated with IMV included age (hazard ratio = 0.92/year, 95% CI 0.86-0.99), day-1 SOFA (1.09/point, 1.06-1.13), day-1 PaO/FiO (1.47, 1.05-2.07), ARF etiology (Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (2.11, 1.42-3.14), invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (1.85, 1.21-2.85), and undetermined cause (1.46, 1.09-1.98). After propensity score matching, HFNC, but not NIV, had an effect on IMV rate (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-1.00, p = 0.05). ICU, hospital, and day-90 mortality rates were 32.4, 44.1, and 56.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with hospital mortality included age (odds ratio = 1.18/year, 1.09-1.27), direct admission to the ICU (0.69, 0.54-0.87), day-1 SOFA excluding respiratory score (1.12/point, 1.08-1.16), PaO/FiO < 100 (1.60, 1.03-2.48), and undetermined ARF etiology (1.43, 1.04-1.97). Initial oxygenation strategy did not affect mortality; however, IMV was associated with mortality, the odds ratio depending on IMV conditions: NIV + HFNC failure (2.31, 1.09-4.91), first-line IMV (2.55, 1.94-3.29), NIV failure (3.65, 2.05-6.53), standard oxygen failure (4.16, 2.91-5.93), and HFNC failure (5.54, 3.27-9.38).

Conclusion: HFNC has an effect on intubation but not on mortality rates. Failure to identify ARF etiology is associated with higher rates of both intubation and mortality. This suggests that in addition to selecting the appropriate oxygenation device, clinicians should strive to identify the etiology of ARF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-017-4947-1DOI Listing
December 2017

Prognostic value of FDG-PET indices for the assessment of histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and outcome in pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma.

PLoS One 2017 25;12(8):e0183841. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Nuclear Medicine Department, University Hospital, Nantes, France.

Purpose: The objective of this retrospective work was to evaluate the prognostic value on histological response and survival of quantitative indices derived from FDG-PET performed before and after chemotherapy (CHT), in a homogeneous pediatric Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and Osteosarcoma (OST) population.

Methods: Thirty-one patients with EWS and 31 with OST were included. All patients were treated with neoadjuvant CHT, and underwent surgery for local control. All patients had FDG-PET at diagnosis and after CHT, prior to surgery. Several parameters were evaluated: SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, 7 textural features and 3 shape features (SF). The segmentation was performed using an adaptive approach. Results were compared to histopathological regression of the resected tumor and to clinical follow-up for survival evaluation.

Results: For EWS, univariate analysis did not highlight any prognostic value on histological response, or survival regardless of all the considered metrics. For OST, only one of the SF, namely elongation, was significantly associated with PFS and OS on both univariate and multivariate analysis (PFS: p = 0.019, HR = 5.583; OS: p = 0.0062, HR = 7.113).

Conclusion: Only elongation determined on initial FDG-PET has a potential interest as a prognostic factor of PFS and OS in pediatric OST patients. Unlike recent studies of the literature realized in adult population, all the metrics reveal limited additional prognostic value in pediatric EWS patients. This seems to reinforce the question of whether children experience different subtypes of the same pathologies than older patients, with different outcomes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183841PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5571925PMC
October 2017
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