Publications by authors named "Anne M L Jansen"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The complexity of screening PMS2 in DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 03 15;28(3):333-338. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Germline variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene PMS2 cause 1-14% of all Lynch Syndrome cancers. Correct variant analysis of PMS2 is complex due to the presence of multiple pseudogenes and the occurrence of gene conversion. The analysis complexity increases in highly fragmented DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Here we describe a reliable approach to detect true PMS2 variants in fragmented DNA. A custom NGS panel designed for FFPE tissue was used targeting four MMR genes, POLE and POLD1. Amplicon design for PMS2 was based on the position of paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) that distinguish PMS2 from its pseudogenes. PMS2 variants in exons 1-11 can be correctly curated based on this information. For exons 12-15 this is less reliable as these undergo gene conversion. Using this method, we screened PMS2 variants in 125 MMR-deficient tumors. Of the 125 tumors tested, six were unexplained MMR-deficient tumors with solitary PMS2 protein expression loss. In these six tumors two unclassified variants (class 3) and five variants likely affecting function (class 4/5) were detected in PMS2. One microsatellite unstable tumor with positive staining for all MMR proteins was found to carry a frameshift PMS2 variant (class 5). No class 4 or class 5 PMS2 variants were detected in tumors with other patterns of MMR protein expression loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0527-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028990PMC
March 2020

Novel candidates in early-onset familial colorectal cancer.

Fam Cancer 2020 01 25;19(1):1-10. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Center for Gastrointestinal Research, Center for Translational Genomics and Oncology, Baylor Scott & White Research Institute and Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

In 20-30% of patients suspected of a familial colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome, no underlying genetic cause is detected. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing have generated evidence for new CRC-susceptibility genes including POLE, POLD1 and NTHL1¸ but many patients remain unexplained. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA from nine patients from five different families with familial clusters of CRC in which traditional genetic testing failed to yield a diagnosis. Variants were filtered by minor allele frequencies, followed by prioritization based on in silico prediction tools, and the presence in cancer susceptibility genes or genes in cancer-associated pathways. Effects of frameshift variants on protein structure were modeled using I-Tasser. One known pathogenic variant in POLD1 was detected (p.S478N), together with variants in 17 candidate genes not previously associated with CRC. Additional in silico analysis using SIFT, PROVEAN and PolyPhen on the 14 missense variants indicated a possible damaging effect in nine of 14 variants. Modeling of the insertions/deletions showed a damaging effect of two variants in NOTCH2 and CYP1B1. One family was explained by a mutation in a known familial CRC gene. In the remaining four families, the most promising candidates found are a frameshift NOTCH2 and a missense RAB25 variant. This study provides potential novel candidate variants in unexplained familial CRC patients, however, functional validation is imperative to confirm the role of these variants in CRC tumorigenesis. Additionally, while whole exome sequencing enables detection of variants throughout the exome, other causes explaining the familial phenotype such as multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulating to a polygenic risk or epigenetic events, might be missed with this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-019-00145-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241873PMC
January 2020

Molecular Background of Colorectal Tumors From Patients With Lynch Syndrome Associated With Germline Variants in PMS2.

Gastroenterology 2018 09 29;155(3):844-851. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Germline variants in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 (EPCAM), MSH6, or PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome. Patients with these variants have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancers (CRCs) that differ from sporadic CRCs in genetic and histologic features. It has been a challenge to study CRCs associated with PMS2 variants (PMS2-associated CRCs) because these develop less frequently and in older patients than CRCs with variants in other mismatch repair genes.

Methods: We analyzed 20 CRCs associated with germline variants in PMS2, 22 sporadic CRCs, 18 CRCs with germline variants in MSH2, and 24 CRCs from patients with germline variants in MLH1. Tumor tissue blocks were collected from Dutch pathology departments in 2017. After extraction of tumor DNA, we used a platform designed to detect approximately 3,000 somatic hotspot variants in 55 genes (including KRAS, APC, CTNNB1, and TP53). Somatic variant frequencies were compared using the Fisher exact test.

Results: None of the PMS2-associated CRCs contained any somatic variants in the catenin-β gene (CTNNB1), which encodes β-catenin, whereas 14 of 24 MLH1-associated CRCs (58%) contained variants in CTNNB1. Half the PMS2-associated CRCs contained KRAS variants, but only 20% of these were in hotspots that encoded G12D or G13D. These hotspot variants occurred more frequently in CRCs associated with variants in MLH1 (37.5%; P = .44) and MSH2 (71.4%; P = .035) than in those associated with variants in PMS2.

Conclusions: In a genetic analysis of 84 colorectal tumors, we found tumors from patients with PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome to be distinct from colorectal tumors associated with defects in other mismatch repair genes. This might account for differences in development and less frequent occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.05.020DOI Listing
September 2018

Excluding Lynch syndrome in a female patient with metachronous DNA mismatch repair deficient colon- and ovarian cancer.

Fam Cancer 2018 07;17(3):415-420

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Patients synchronously or metachronously presenting with ovarian and colon cancer can pose diagnostic challenges. A primary colon carcinoma can metastasize to one or both ovaries, two independent primary tumors can arise or an ovarian carcinoma can metastasize to the colon. Clinical and immunohistochemical characterization can aid the diagnosis. Recently, we reported that in difficult cases finding pathogenic APC variants supports a colonic origin.In this case report we describe the clinical history of a female patient suspected for Lynch syndrome. She was diagnosed with a bilateral ovarian cancer at age 44, followed by the detection of a colon carcinoma 12.5 months later. Lesions of both sites showed a DNA mismatch repair deficiency with immunohistochemical loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression without MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. In absence of germline MMR gene variants identical somatic MLH1 and CTNNB1 gene variants were found, indicating a clonal relation. MMR germline mosaicism was made unlikely by ultra deep sequencing of the MLH1 variant in DNA isolated from normal mucosa, blood, urine and saliva. Although initially being suspect for Lynch syndrome it was eventually concluded that a metachronously diagnosed colon carcinoma that metastasized to both ovaries was most likely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-017-0055-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999177PMC
July 2018

Distinct Patterns of Somatic Mosaicism in the APC Gene in Neoplasms From Patients With Unexplained Adenomatous Polyposis.

Gastroenterology 2017 02 2;152(3):546-549.e3. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

We investigated the presence and patterns of mosaicism in the APC gene in patients with colon neoplasms not associated with any other genetic variants; we performed deep sequence analysis of APC in at least 2 adenomas or carcinomas per patient. We identified mosaic variants in APC in adenomas from 9 of the 18 patients with 21 to approximately 100 adenomas. Mosaic variants of APC were variably detected in leukocyte DNA and/or non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa of these patients. In a comprehensive sequence analysis of 1 patient, we found no evidence for mosaicism in APC in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa. One patient was found to carry a mosaic c.4666dupA APC variant in only 10 of 16 adenomas, indicating the importance of screening 2 or more adenomas for genetic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.10.040DOI Listing
February 2017

Whole Gene Capture Analysis of 15 CRC Susceptibility Genes in Suspected Lynch Syndrome Patients.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(6):e0157381. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Lynch Syndrome (LS) is caused by pathogenic germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, up to 60% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cases are categorized as suspected Lynch Syndrome (sLS) because no pathogenic MMR germline variant can be identified, which leads to difficulties in clinical management. We therefore analyzed the genomic regions of 15 CRC susceptibility genes in leukocyte DNA of 34 unrelated sLS patients and 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors with a clear family history.

Methods: Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the entire non-repetitive genomic sequence, including intronic and regulatory sequences, of 15 CRC susceptibility genes. In addition, tumor DNA from 28 sLS patients was analyzed for somatic MMR variants.

Results: Of 1979 germline variants found in the leukocyte DNA of 34 sLS patients, one was a pathogenic variant (MLH1 c.1667+1delG). Leukocyte DNA of 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors was negative for pathogenic germline variants in the tested CRC susceptibility genes and for germline MLH1 hypermethylation. Somatic DNA analysis of 28 sLS tumors identified eight (29%) cases with two pathogenic somatic variants, one with a VUS predicted to pathogenic and LOH, and nine cases (32%) with one pathogenic somatic variant (n = 8) or one VUS predicted to be pathogenic (n = 1).

Conclusions: This is the first study in sLS patients to include the entire genomic sequence of CRC susceptibility genes. An underlying somatic or germline MMR gene defect was identified in ten of 34 sLS patients (29%). In the remaining sLS patients, the underlying genetic defect explaining the MMRdeficiency in their tumors might be found outside the genomic regions harboring the MMR and other known CRC susceptibility genes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157381PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4907507PMC
July 2017

Splicing analysis for exonic and intronic mismatch repair gene variants associated with Lynch syndrome confirms high concordance between minigene assays and patient RNA analyses.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2015 Jul 23;3(4):327-45. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center Leiden, The Netherlands ; Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center Leiden, The Netherlands.

A subset of DNA variants causes genetic disease through aberrant splicing. Experimental splicing assays, either RT-PCR analyses of patient RNA or functional splicing reporter minigene assays, are required to evaluate the molecular nature of the splice defect. Here, we present minigene assays performed for 17 variants in the consensus splice site regions, 14 exonic variants outside these regions, and two deep intronic variants, all in the DNA mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, associated with Lynch syndrome. We also included two deep intronic variants in APC and PKD2. For one variant (MLH1 c.122A>G), our minigene assay and patient RNA analysis could not confirm the previously reported aberrant splicing. The aim of our study was to further investigate the concordance between minigene splicing assays and patient RNA analyses. For 30 variants results from patient RNA analyses were available, either performed by our laboratory or presented in literature. Some variants were deliberately included in this study because they resulted in multiple aberrant transcripts in patient RNA analysis, or caused a splice effect other than the prevalent exon skip. While both methods were completely concordant in the assessment of splice effects, four variants exhibited major differences in aberrant splice patterns. Based on the present and earlier studies, together showing an almost 100% concordance of minigene assays with patient RNA analyses, we discuss the weight given to minigene splicing assays in the current criteria proposed by InSiGHT for clinical classification of MMR variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521968PMC
July 2015