Publications by authors named "Anne Katrin Hilbert"

9 Publications

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A randomised, single-blind, dose-range study to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a cell-culture-derived A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in adult and elderly populations.

Vaccine 2012 Jul 22;30(32):4820-7. Epub 2012 May 22.

Division of Communicable Diseases, Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Modern cell-culture production techniques and the use of adjuvants helps to ensure that the global demand for pandemic influenza vaccine can be met. This study aimed to assess the immunogenicty and safety profiles of various cell-culture-derived A/H1N1 pandemic vaccine formulations in healthy adult and elderly subjects.

Methods: Adult (18-60 years) subjects (n=544) received vaccine either containing 3.75 μg of antigen with half the standard dose of MF59 (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) adjuvant, 7.5 μg antigen with a full dose of MF59, or a non-adjuvanted vaccine containing 15 μg of antigen. Elderly (≥ 61 years) subjects (n=268) received either the 3.75 μg or 7.5 μg adjuvanted formulations. Two priming vaccine doses were administered 3 weeks apart, followed by a single booster dose of seasonal influenza vaccine 1 year later. Immunogenicity was assessed 3 weeks after each vaccination. The safety profile of each formulation was evaluated throughout the study.

Results: A single primary dose of each A/H1N1 vaccine formulation was sufficient to meet all three European (CHMP) licensure criteria for pandemic influenza vaccines in adult subjects. Two licensure criteria were met after one vaccine dose in elderly subjects; two primary doses were required to meet all three criteria in this age group. The highest antibody titres were observed in response to the 7.5 μg vaccine containing a full dose of MF59 adjuvant. All subjects rapidly generated seroprotective antibody titres in response to booster vaccination.

Conclusion: This study identified one 3.75 μg vaccine dose containing half the standard dose of MF59 adjuvant as optimal for adults, two doses were optimal for elderly subjects. The antigen-sparing properties of MF59, and rapid, modern, cell-culture production techniques represent significant steps towards meeting the global demand for influenza vaccine.
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July 2012

Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a mammalian cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy children and adolescents three to seventeen years of age.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012 May;31(5):494-500

University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland. .

Background: The safety and immunogenicity of the cell-culture-derived seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine ([CCIV]; Optaflu) has been reported previously in adults and the elderly. In this study, we compared the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of CCIV with a conventional egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in a healthy pediatric population.

Methods: A total of 3604 subjects were randomized to receive 2 doses of CCIV or TIV (3-8 years, n = 2630) at a 28-day interval or a single vaccination (9-17 years, n = 974). Antibody levels on days 1, 29 and 50 were measured by hemaglutination inhibition assay using egg-derived and cell-derived test antigens. Adverse reactions were solicited via memory aids for 7 days after each injection, and unsolicited adverse events/serious adverse events were collected for 6 months postvaccination.

Results: Noninferiority of CCIV versus TIV was demonstrated for most immunogenicity measures, particularly by using cell-derived antigen in the hemaglutination inhibition assay. In 3- to 8-year-olds (the primary objective), both CCIV and TIV met all 3 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use immunogenicity criteria for A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains. Lower immune responses were observed against the B strain, fulfilling Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria only for geometric mean ratio (TIV, CCIV) and seroconversion rate (TIV, CCIV [cell-derived antigen]). Both CCIV and TIV were safe and well tolerated, with no differences in local and systemic solicited reactions or in unsolicited adverse events/serious adverse events.

Conclusion: CCIV produced in mammalian cell culture is a safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic alternative to conventional egg-derived influenza vaccines for children and adolescents.
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May 2012

Safety, immunogenicity and dose ranging of a new Vi-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: randomized clinical testing in healthy adults.

PLoS One 2011 30;6(9):e25398. Epub 2011 Sep 30.

Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM₁₉₇) for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ in European adults.

Methodology: Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM₁₉₇ or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen), a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen) with the polysaccharide vaccine.

Principal Findings: All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM₁₉₇ induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM₁₉₇ formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship.

Conclusions: Vi-CRM₁₉₇ did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia.

Trial Registration: NCT01123941 NCT01193907.
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January 2012

MF59 adjuvant enhances diversity and affinity of antibody-mediated immune response to pandemic influenza vaccines.

Sci Transl Med 2011 Jun;3(85):85ra48

Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Oil-in-water adjuvants have been shown to improve immune responses against pandemic influenza vaccines as well as reduce the effective vaccine dose, increasing the number of doses available to meet global vaccine demand. Here, we use genome fragment phage display libraries and surface plasmon resonance to elucidate the effects of MF59 on the quantity, diversity, specificity, and affinity maturation of human antibody responses to the swine-origin H1N1 vaccine in different age groups. In adults and children, MF59 selectively enhanced antibody responses to the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) globular head relative to the more conserved HA2 domain in terms of increased antibody titers as well as a more diverse antibody epitope repertoire. Antibody affinity, as inferred by greatly diminished (≥10-fold) off-rate constants, was significantly increased in toddlers and children who received the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine. Moreover, MF59 also improved antibody affinity maturation after each sequential vaccination against avian H5N1 in adults. For both pandemic influenza vaccines, there was a close correlation between serum antibody affinity and virus-neutralizing capacity. Thus, MF59 quantitatively and qualitatively enhances functional antibody responses to HA-based vaccines by improving both epitope breadth and binding affinity, demonstrating the added value of such adjuvants for influenza vaccines.
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June 2011

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined fully liquid DTPw-HepB-Hib pentavalent vaccine in healthy infants: no clinically relevant impact of a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

Int J Infect Dis 2011 Jan 18;15(1):e24-9. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutierrez, Epidemiología, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: In this open-label, non-randomized phase II study, the safety and immunogenicity of a fully liquid diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HepB-Hib) combination vaccine (Quinvaxem(®)) were assessed in infants who had or had not received a birth dose of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine.

Study Design: Two groups of infants, 'HepB at birth' (n=110) and 'no HepB at birth' (n=108), were enrolled and received a primary vaccination course using a 2-4-6 months schedule.

Results: Seroprotection/seroconversion rates of >95% were achieved against all antigens included in the combination vaccine for both study groups. Although significantly higher anti-hepatitis B virus (p<0.001) and anti-tetanus (p=0.031) antibody titers were achieved in group 'HepB at birth' when compared with group 'no HepB at birth', the proportion of 'no HepB at birth' subjects achieving protective titers was non-inferior to the proportion of subjects in group 'HepB at birth'. The birth dose of HepB vaccine did not seem to influence the safety pattern of the DTPw-HepB-Hib combination vaccine.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the fully liquid DTPw-HepB-Hib vaccine was safe and immunogenic when administered using a 2-4-6 months immunization schedule, regardless of whether or not infants had received a dose of HepB vaccine at birth.
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January 2011

A fully liquid DTPw-HepB-Hib combination vaccine for booster vaccination of toddlers in El Salvador.

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2010 Feb;27(2):117-24

Universidad de El Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador.

Objectives: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a fully liquid diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HepB-Hib) vaccine to the separate administration of commercially available DTPw and Hib vaccines in healthy toddlers.

Methods: An open-label, randomized, parallel-group, Phase III study conducted at six centers in San Salvador, El Salvador, during February-June 2006. Toddlers (15-24 months of age) were eligible to participate if they had received primary immunization at 2, 4, and 6 months of age with a commercial DTPw-HepB/Hib vaccine requiring reconstitution. Participants received either one booster dose of DTPw-HepB-Hib fully liquid vaccine or DTPw and Hib vaccines administered separately. Blood samples were taken immediately prior to and at 1 month post-vaccination. For a 5-day period following vaccination, solicited adverse events were collected in subject diaries and assessed.

Results: The combined DTPw-HepB-Hib fully liquid vaccine was non-inferior to the separately administered DTPw and Hib vaccines, in terms of seroprotection/seroconversion rates for all antigens evaluated. The combination vaccine elicited a strong booster response as demonstrated by a large increase in antibodies against all vaccine antigens. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of all antibodies in the DTPw-HepB-Hib group exceeded the seroprotection/seroconversion thresholds by very large margins, although for some antigens they were somewhat lower than the corresponding titers in the comparator group. With the combination vaccine, considerably fewer solicited local and systemic adverse events, such as fever and irritability, were reported than with the comparator vaccines.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the fully liquid combined DTPw-HepB-Hib vaccine is highly immunogenic and has a favorable safety profile when given as a booster vaccination to toddlers who have received a primary vaccination course with a different pentavalent vaccine that requires reconstitution.
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February 2010

Dose ranging of adjuvant and antigen in a cell culture H5N1 influenza vaccine: safety and immunogenicity of a phase 1/2 clinical trial.

Vaccine 2010 Jan 14;28(3):840-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Dose-sparing strategies and new production technologies will be necessary to produce adequate supplies of vaccines for pandemic influenza. One approach is to include adjuvant, which can reduce the amount of antigen required for immunization and stimulate cross-reactive responses to drifted variants of novel viruses. Dose-sparing studies of adjuvant, itself a finite resource, have not previously been reported for H5N1 vaccine development.

Methodology/principal Findings: A total of 753 healthy 18-40-year-old adults were randomized to one of 12 groups (N approximately 60/group) to receive two intramuscular doses, 21 days apart, of 3.75, 7.5 or 15 microg of cell culture grown influenza A/H5N1 hemagglutinin (A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1)/PR-8-IBCDC-RG2), each dose level formulated with 0%, 25%, 50% or 100% of the MF59 dose contained in licensed influenza vaccine. 752 subjects actually received one dose, and 695 a second dose. Serum hemagglutination inhibition and neutralizing antibody levels, were determined before and 21 days after each dose. Safety and reactogenicity were assessed by self-completed diary cards. Nonadjuvanted H5N1 formulations were poorly immunogenic, but antibody responses were significantly enhanced by all doses of MF59 for each antigen level. The 3.75 microg H5N1 containing 50% MF59 satisfied the European criteria for pandemic vaccine licensure. All formulations were well tolerated, although MF59 dose-dependent increases in the frequency of injection site pain were observed. The frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions were lower after receipt of the second dose of vaccine. No vaccine-related SAE was reported.

Conclusions: Dose-sparing of both antigen and adjuvant is possible without compromising immunogenicity, while improving reactogenicity and is a promising strategy that will expand the availability of vaccines for global control of pandemic influenza.
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January 2010

Safety and immunogenicity of a new fully liquid DTPw-HepB-Hib combination vaccine in infants.

Hum Vaccin 2006 Jul-Aug;2(4):155-60. Epub 2006 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Medical Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a fully liquid, DTPw-HepB-Hib combination vaccine (Quinvaxem) in comparison with separately administered DTPw-Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Infants participating in this open-label, randomized, phase II study received a primary vaccination course using a 2-3-4 month schedule. Blood samples were taken immediately prior to the first and one month after the third vaccination. Adverse events were assessed over a 7-day post-vaccination period using subject diaries. After completion of the primary vaccination course, 94.7% [95% CI: 89.8-97.7%] of infants receiving the combination vaccine achieved protective anti-HBs antibody titers (> or = 10 mIU/mL) with a mean 39-fold increase in GMTs in comparison with 99.3% [95% CI: 96.3-100%] seroprotection and a mean 29-fold GMT increase in the comparator group. Diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) seroprotection rates and pertussis seroconversion rates were also similar between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in GMTs for diphtheria between the two groups, but significant differences were shown for tetanus, Hib, and pertussis with higher GMTs for each antigen observed in the comparator group. The combination vaccine was well tolerated, with fever (body temperature > or = 38 degrees C) being the most frequently reported adverse event in both the DTPw-HepB-Hib (12.5% [95% CI: 7.7-18.8%]) and comparator (12.6% [95% CI: 7.7-19.0%]) groups. This study demonstrated that the fully liquid DTPw-HepB-Hib combination vaccine has safety and immunogenicity profiles similar to the DTPw-Hib and hepatitis B vaccines when administered separately.
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October 2006

An MF59-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Panama/1999 (H3N2) induced broader serological protection against heterovariant influenza virus strain A/Fujian/2002 than a subunit and a split influenza vaccine.

Vaccine 2006 Apr 19;24(16):3063-5. Epub 2006 Jan 19.

Chiron Vaccines, Research Center and Clinical Research, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.

To test whether inactivated influenza vaccines distributed during the 2003-2004 influenza season in the northern hemisphere were able to confer protection against the mismatched variant A/Fujian/411/2002 virus strain, we measured haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies in elderly subjects vaccinated with three inactivated vaccines against the homologous A/H3N2 vaccine strain (A/Panama) and against the mismatched A/Fujian strain. The results showed that, while 76 to 80% of elder people vaccinated with conventional vaccines had protected levels of antibodies against the A/Fujian heterovariant strain, those vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine have protective levels of antibodies in >98% of the cases. We conclude that MF59-adjuvanted vaccines confer protection also against influenza virus strains which are not fully matched with those included in the vaccine.
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April 2006