Publications by authors named "Anne Floquet"

58 Publications

Molecular Characterization of Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor (OYST).

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 9;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Centre Léon Berard (CLB), 69008 Lyon, France.

Most patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGTCs) have a very good prognosis and chemotherapy provides curative treatment; however, patients with yolk sac tumors (OYSTs) have a significantly worse prognosis. OYSTs are rare tumors and promising results are expected with the use of specific therapeutic strategies after the failure of platinum-based first-line and salvage regimens. We initiated a project in collaboration with EORTC SPECTA, to explore the molecular characteristics of OYSTs. The pilot project used retrospective samples from ten OYST relapsed and disease-free patients. Each patient had a molecular analysis performed with FoundationOne CDx describing the following variables according to the Foundation Medicine Incorporation (FMI): alteration type (SNV, deletion), actionable gene alteration, therapies approved in EU (for patient's tumor type and other tumor types), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A total of 10 patients with OYST diagnosed between 2007 and 2017 had a molecular analysis. A molecular alteration was identified in four patients (40%). A subset of three patients (33.3% of all patients) harbored targetable oncogenic mutations in , , . Two patients at relapse harbored a targetable mutation. This retrospective study identifies clinically relevant molecular alterations for all relapsed patients with molecular analysis. Dedicated studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of specific therapeutic strategies after the failure of platinum-based first-line and salvage regimens and to explore the potential relationship of a molecular alteration and patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826864PMC
January 2021

Gene- and pathway-level analyses of iCOGS variants highlight novel signaling pathways underlying familial breast cancer susceptibility.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 9;148(8):1895-1909. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Inserm, U900, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in over 180 loci have been associated with breast cancer (BC) through genome-wide association studies involving mostly unselected population-based case-control series. Some of them modify BC risk of women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation and may also explain BC risk variability in BC-prone families with no BRCA1/2 mutation. Here, we assessed the contribution of SNPs of the iCOGS array in GENESIS consisting of BC cases with no BRCA1/2 mutation and a sister with BC, and population controls. Genotyping data were available for 1281 index cases, 731 sisters with BC, 457 unaffected sisters and 1272 controls. In addition to the standard SNP-level analysis using index cases and controls, we performed pedigree-based association tests to capture transmission information in the sibships. We also performed gene- and pathway-level analyses to maximize the power to detect associations with lower-frequency SNPs or those with modest effect sizes. While SNP-level analyses identified 18 loci, gene-level analyses identified 112 genes. Furthermore, 31 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and 7 Atlas of Cancer Signaling Network pathways were highlighted (false discovery rate of 5%). Using results from the "index case-control" analysis, we built pathway-derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) and assessed their performance in the population-based CECILE study and in a data set composed of GENESIS-affected sisters and CECILE controls. Although these PRS had poor predictive value in the general population, they performed better than a PRS built using our SNP-level findings, and we found that the joint effect of family history and PRS needs to be considered in risk prediction models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33457DOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic markers and phosphoprotein forms of beta-catenin pβ-Cat552 and pβ-Cat675 are prognostic biomarkers of cervical cancer.

EBioMedicine 2020 Nov 20;61:103049. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Drug Development and Innovation, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris & 92210 Saint-Cloud, France.

Background: Cervical cancer (CC) remains a leading cause of gynaecological cancer-related mortality world wide and constitutes the third most common malignancy in women. The RAIDs consortium (http://www.raids-fp7.eu/) conducted a prospective European study [BioRAIDs (NCT02428842)] with the objective to stratify CC patients for innovative treatments. A "metagene" of genomic markers in the PI3K pathway and epigenetic regulators had been previously associated with poor outcome [2].

Methods: To detect new, more specific, targets for treatment of patients who resist standard chemo-radiation, a high-dimensional Cox model was applied to define dominant molecular variants, copy number variations, and reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA).

Findings: Survival analysis on 89 patients with all omics data available, suggested loss-of-function (LOF) or activating molecular alterations in nine genes to be candidate biomarkers for worse prognosis in patients treated by chemo-radiation while LOF of ATRX, MED13 as well as CASP8 were associated with better prognosis. When protein expression data by RPPA were factored in, the supposedly low molecular weight and nuclear form, of beta-catenin, phosphorylated in Ser552 (pβ-Cat552), ranked highest for good prognosis, while pβ-Cat675 was associated with worse prognosis.

Interpretation: These findings call for molecularly targeted treatments involving p53, Wnt pathway, PI3K pathway, and epigenetic regulator genes. Pβ-Cat552 and pβ-Cat675 may be useful biomarkers to predict outcome to chemo-radiation, which targets the DNA repair axis.

Funding: European Union's Seventh Program for research, technological development and demonstration (agreement N°304,810), the Fondation ARC pour la recherche contre le cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581879PMC
November 2020

Effect of Weekly Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab on Progression-Free Rate Among Patients With Relapsed Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: The ALIENOR/ENGOT-ov7 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

GINECO and Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first randomized trial in sex cord-stromal tumors, and it establishes weekly paclitaxel as standard-of-care therapy after platinum-based therapy in this setting.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of weekly paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab as treatment for relapsed sex cord-stromal tumors and evaluate whether the addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel improves 6-month progression-free rate.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This open-label, academic, international, randomized phase 2 trial (ALIENOR) was conducted at 28 referral centers in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Belgium in collaboration with the Rare Tumor committee of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup and used an adaptive bayesian design. It included 60 women with sex cord-stromal tumors that had relapsed after at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy. Enrollment occurred from 2013 to 2016, and the final analysis database lock was on March 27, 2020 (median follow-up, 38.9 months).

Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either paclitaxel (80 mg/m2, days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks) alone or paclitaxel with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg, every 2 weeks) for 6 cycles followed by maintenance bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, every 3 weeks) for up to 1 year or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Crossover to bevacizumab was permitted after progression during or following paclitaxel alone.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Six-month progression-free rate.

Results: Sixty patients (predominantly with granulosa cell tumors) were randomized, 32 to receive single-agent paclitaxel (median [interquartile range] age at inclusion, 60 [53-64] years) and 28 to receive paclitaxel-bevacizumab (median [interquartile range] age at inclusion, 55 [47-61] years; 1 did not receive treatment). The estimated 6-month progression-free rate was 71% (95% credible interval, 55%-84%) with paclitaxel alone and 72% (95% credible interval, 55%-87%) with paclitaxel-bevacizumab. The bayesian estimate for the probability that the 6-month progression-free rate distribution was higher with the combination than with paclitaxel alone was 57%, less than the predefined superiority threshold. The objective response rate increased from 25% (95% CI, 12%-43%) to 44% (95% CI, 26%-65%) with the addition of bevacizumab. One patient discontinued combination therapy within 6 months because of toxicity.

Conclusions And Relevance: Weekly paclitaxel is a new option for relapsed sex cord-stromal tumors. In this international randomized clinical trial of patients with relapsed sex cord-stromal tumors unsuitable for surgery, adding bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel does not improve clinical benefit.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01770301.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.4574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545353PMC
October 2020

Efficacy of Maintenance Olaparib for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer With a BRCA Mutation: Subgroup Analysis Findings From the SOLO1 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 10 4;38(30):3528-3537. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK.

Purpose: In SOLO1, maintenance olaparib (300 mg twice daily) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with newly diagnosed - and/or -mutated advanced ovarian cancer compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.30; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.41; median not reached 13.8 months). We investigated PFS in SOLO1 for subgroups of patients based on preselected baseline factors.

Patients And Methods: Investigator-assessed PFS subgroup analyses of SOLO1 included clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy (complete [CR] or partial response [PR]), surgery type (upfront or interval surgery), disease status after surgery (residual or no gross residual disease), and BRCA mutation status ( or ). Additionally, we evaluated PFS in patients with stage III disease who underwent upfront surgery and had no gross residual disease. We also report objective response rate.

Results: The risk of disease progression or death was reduced with olaparib compared with placebo by 69% (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46) and 63% (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.58) in patients undergoing upfront or interval surgery; 56% (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.77) and 67% (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.46) in patients with residual or no residual disease after surgery; 66% (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.47) and 69% in women with clinical CR or PR at baseline (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.52); and 59% (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.56) and 80% (HR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.37) in patients with a or mutation, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer achieve substantial benefit from maintenance olaparib treatment regardless of baseline surgery outcome, response to chemotherapy, or BRCA mutation type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00799DOI Listing
October 2020

Dose-intensive regimen treatment for small-cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT).

Gynecol Oncol 2020 Oct 25;159(1):129-135. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Gynecology Unit, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 114 rue Édouard-Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare and rapidly lethal disease affecting young women. Cytoreductive surgery associated with chemotherapy followed by a high dose chemotherapy regimen (HDC) demonstrated improved outcomes in a unique prospective and several retrospective studies, and this report aimed to confirm these results in an independent and larger cohort.

Methods: Between 2006 and 2018, we conducted a multicentric prospective study on 44 women diagnosed with SCCOHT. Patients were treated homogeneously with optimal cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy protocol for four to six cycles (PAVEP). In case of complete response, patients received HDC with stem-cell support, followed by pelvic radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was the event-free survival (EFS) in the per-protocol cohort. Secondary analysis explored the effect of HDC with outcomes.

Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 33 years old (range 13.8-75.8). 14 patients presented with stage FIGO I, 21 with stage III and 9 with stage IV. Median follow-up was 53.4 months. 38 patients underwent optimal surgery with up to 6 cycles of PAVEP. 30 received HDC, and 21 pelvic radiotherapy. 21 relapses were reported leading to death for 18 patients. Median EFS in the per-protocol cohort was 18.2 months, and 2-year EFS rate was 40%. HDC was significantly associated with better overall survival (p < .001). Grades 3/4 adverse events were frequent but, in most cases, manageable, although one grade-5 adverse-event occurred during HDC.

Conclusion: Intensive regimen containing multidrug chemotherapy, HDC and pelvic radiotherapy, for the management of SCCOHT, demonstrated encouraging survival and should be proposed for all patients. However, the significant toxicity cost associated is of concern and it should be restricted to expert centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.07.019DOI Listing
October 2020

A randomized double-blind phase II study evaluating the role of maintenance therapy with cabozantinib in high-grade uterine sarcoma after stabilization or response to doxorubicin ± ifosfamide following surgery or in metastatic first line treatment (EORTC62113).

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 Oct 15;30(10):1633-1637. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Medical Oncology, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Uterine sarcomas are a group of rare tumors that include different subtypes. Patients with histopathological high-grade diseases are at high-risk of recurrence or progression, and have a poor prognosis. We aim to explore the most appropriate management in patients with uterine high-grade sarcomas.

Primary Objective: To assess the efficacy of maintenance treatment with cabozantinib in patients with high-grade uterine sarcomas who achieved clinical benefit after standard chemotherapy.

Study Hypothesis: Maintenance treatment with cabozantinib after standard chemotherapy given as an adjuvant treatment after curative surgery, or in locally advanced or metastatic disease, increases progression-free survival compared with placebo TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized double blinded phase II trial.

Major Inclusion/exclusion Criteria: The study is enrolling adult patients with high-grade undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, high-grade leiomyosarcoma, and high-grade adenosarcoma, FIGO (Federation International gynecologue Obstétricien) stage II/III to IV in stable disease or who achieved complete or partial response with doxorubicin ± ifosfamide, who are assigned 1:1 to 60 mg daily cabozantinib (experimental arm) or placebo (control arm), as maintenance therapy. Exclusion criteria include low-grade sarcoma.

Primary Endpoint: Progression-free survival at 4 months.

Sample Size: The study plans to enroll 90 patients to allow the randomization of 54 patients to detect an improvement in 4-month progression-free survival from 50% to 80% with 15% significance level and 85% power. Estimated dates for accrual completion: recruitment for the trial started in February 2015, and has currently enrolled 83 patients, of whom 35 patients have been randomized. The end of recruitment is anticipated for December 2020.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01979393.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001519DOI Listing
October 2020

How and when to refer patients for oncogenetic counseling in the era of PARP inhibitors.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 28;12:1758835919897530. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Oncology Department, Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France.

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are targeted therapy for cancers with homologous repair deficiency (HRD). They were first approved for ovarian cancer and have changed current treatment strategies. They have also demonstrated efficacy in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and advanced prostate cancer with or mutations. Patients with somatic and/or germline mutations benefit more from these treatments than other patients. Nowadays, the diagnosis of HRD is largely based on germline genetic testing, which is performed after an in-person genetic counseling session, even for patients without any family history of cancer. However, with the increasing number of PARP inhibitor indications across different tumor types, rapid access to oncogenetic consultations will become a challenge. To meet this demand, tumor genomic testing could be offered at initial diagnosis. Telephone counseling and other referral systems could replace in-person consultations for certain subgroups of patients deemed to have a low risk of harboring a germline mutation. This article reviews international guidelines for genetic counseling testing. We herein propose new care pathways for breast, prostate and ovarian cancers, including tumor genomic testing at initial diagnosis in order to help triage genetic counseling referrals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835919897530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052467PMC
February 2020

The Nanocind Signature Is an Independent Prognosticator of Recurrence and Death in Uterine Leiomyosarcomas.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 02 3;26(4):855-861. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Oncosarc, INSERM UMR1037, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Purpose: Uterine leiomyosarcoma, which accounts for 7% of all soft-tissue sarcomas and 1%-3% of all uterine malignancies, is an aggressive tumor responsible for a significant proportion of uterine cancer-related deaths. While Federation Internationale des Gynaecologistes et Obstetristes (FIGO) stage is the most important prognostic factor, metastatic and relapse rates at stage I exceed 50% so it is currently impossible to predict the clinical outcome of stage I leiomyosarcomas. In 2010, our team published a transcriptomic signature composed of 67 genes related to chromosome biogenesis, mitosis control, and chromosome segregation. It has demonstrated its prognostic value in many cancer types and was recently successfully applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sarcomas by NanoCind on NanoString technology, making another step forward toward its use in routine practice.

Experimental Design: Sixty uterine leiomyosarcomas at any stage, including 40 localized in the uterus (stage I), were analyzed with the NanoCind (CINSARC with NanoString) signature. Its prognostic value was evaluated for overall survival and relapse-free survival and compared in multivariate analysis with other prognostic markers like FIGO staging and genomic index.

Results: The NanoCind signature was able to split the heterogeneous group of uterine leiomyosarcomas of any stage including stage I into two distinct groups with different relapse-free survival and overall survival. These results were validated on an independent cohort of uterine leiomyosarcomas in The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium.

Conclusions: The NanoCind signature is a powerful prognosticator that outperforms FIGO staging and the genomic index. The CINSARC signature is platform independent and "ready to use" and should now be used for randomization in future therapeutic trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-2891DOI Listing
February 2020

[Management of the nodal disease in vulvar cancers. The ESGO guidelines].

Bull Cancer 2020 Jun 2;107(6):715-720. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Institut Bergonié, 229, cours de l'Argonne, 33000 Bordeaux, France.

The European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology (ESGO) guidelines cover the whole field of common clinical situations in gynecologic oncology. Their elaboration follows a strict process including a systematic review of the literature, the setting up of a group of expert on the basis of scientific production, geographical balance, and multidisciplinarity, and an external review by users and patients. The recommendations for the management of vulvar cancer were elaborated in 2015 and published in 2017. They are available in open access on the ESGO website, and can be incorporated in clinical practice using the free ESGO guidelines smartphone application. This review is a selection of the sections addressing the diagnostic and strategical aspects of the management of lymph nodal disease in vulvar cancer. An additional review of the recent literature published since 2015 has been carried out. The management of nodal disease in vulvar cancer encompasses a diagnostic and a therapeutic component. Clinical and imaging assessment still play a major role, whilst the identification of the sentinel node is currently a mainstay of assessment of the nodal status in early vulvar cancer. The therapeutic component is based on the rational use of full lymph node dissection and (chemo)radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.06.010DOI Listing
June 2020

Fertility preservation, contraception and menopause hormone therapy in women treated for rare ovarian tumours: guidelines from the French national network dedicated to rare gynaecological cancers.

Eur J Cancer 2019 07 3;116:35-44. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Leon Berard Cancer Center, 28 Rue Laënnec, 69008, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, EA 7425 Hesper, Health Service and Performance Research, Domaine Rockefeller, 8 Avenue Rockefeller, 69373, Lyon Cedex 8, France; Groupe GINECO, France.

Introduction: Rare ovarian tumours include complex borderline ovarian tumours, sex-cord tumours, germ cell tumours and rare epithelial tumours. Indications and modalities of fertility preservation (FP), infertility management, contraindications for hormonal contraception or menopause hormone therapy are frequent issues in clinical practice. A panel of experts from the French national network dedicated to rare gynaecological cancers, and experts in reproductive medicine and gynaecology have built guidelines on FP, contraception and menopause hormone therapy in women treated for ovarian rare tumours.

Material And Methods: A panel of 35 experts from different specialties contributed to the preparation of the guidelines, following the DELPHI method (formal consensus method). Statements were drafted after a systematic literature review and then rated through two successive rounds.

Results: Thirty-five recommendations were identified, concerning indications for FP, contraindications for ovarian stimulation, contraceptive options and menopause hormone therapy for each tumour type.

Discussion: Overall, caution has been recommended in the case of potentially hormone-sensitive tumours such as sex-cord tumours, serous and endometrioid low-grade adenocarcinomas, as well as for high-risk serous borderline ovarian tumours.

Conclusion: In the context of a scarce literature, a formal consensus method allowed the elaboration of guidelines, which will help clinicians in the management of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.04.018DOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical and genetic landscape of treatment naive cervical cancer: Alterations in PIK3CA and in epigenetic modulators associated with sub-optimal outcome.

EBioMedicine 2019 May 2;43:253-260. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Department of Drug Development and Innovation, France.

Background: There is a lack of information as to which molecular processes, present at diagnosis, favor tumour escape from standard-of-care treatments in cervical cancer (CC). RAIDs consortium (www.raids-fp7.eu), conducted a prospectively monitored trial, [BioRAIDs (NCT02428842)] with the objectives to generate high quality samples and molecular assessments to stratify patient populations and to identify molecular patterns associated with poor outcome.

Methods: Between 2013 and 2017, RAIDs collected a prospective CC sample and clinical dataset involving 419 participant patients from 18 centers in seven EU countries. Next Generation Sequencing has so far been carried out on a total of 182 samples from 377 evaluable (48%) patients, allowing to define dominant genetic alterations. Reverse phase protein expression arrays (RPPA) was applied to group patients into clusters. Activation of key genetic pathways and protein expression signatures were tested for associations with outcome.

Findings: At a median follow up (FU) of 22 months, progression-free survival rates of this FIGO stage IB1-IV population, treated predominantly (87%) by chemoradiation, were65•4% [CI95%: 60•2-71.1]. Dominant oncogenic alterations were seen in PIK3CA (40%), while dominant suppressor gene alterations were seen in KMT2D (15%) and KMT2C (16%). Cumulative frequency of loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in any epigenetic modulator gene alteration was 47% and it was associated with PIK3CA gene alterations in 32%. Patients with tumours harboring alterations in both pathways had a significantly poorer PFS. A new finding was the detection of a high frequency of gains of TLR4 gene amplifications (10%), as well as amplifications, mutations, and non-frame-shift deletions of Androgen receptor (AR) gene in 7% of patients. Finally, RPPA protein expression analysis defined three expression clusters.

Interpretation: Our data suggests that patient population may be stratified into four different treatment strategies based on molecular markers at the outset. FUND: European Union's Seventh Program grant agreement No 304810.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.03.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562019PMC
May 2019

Uterine and vaginal sarcomas resembling fibrosarcoma: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis of 13 cases showing common NTRK-rearrangements and the description of a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion novel to uterine neoplasms.

Mod Pathol 2019 07 16;32(7):1008-1022. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK.

Mesenchymal neoplasms of the uterus (corpus and cervix) encompass a heterogeneous group of tumors with differing morphologies, immunophenotypes and molecular alterations. With the advent of modern molecular techniques, such as next generation sequencing, newly defined genetic abnormalities are being reported in this group of neoplasms. Herein we report the clinicopathological and molecular features of a series of 13 spindle cell sarcomas of the uterus and vagina (10 cervix, 2 uterine corpus, 1 vagina) with morphology resembling fibrosarcoma. After targeted RNA-sequencing, dual FISH fusion and array-CGH analysis, 7 of 13 tumors exhibited NTRK rearrangements (6 TPM3-NTRK1 and 1 EML4-NTRK3) and 3 a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion; in the other 3 neoplasms, all of which were positive with S100 (2 diffuse, 1 focal), we identified no rearrangement. All the NTRK fusion-positive sarcomas were located in the cervix and exhibited diffuse staining with Trk while all the other neoplasms were negative. CD34 was diffusely positive in all 3 of the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion sarcomas. The latter molecular abnormality is identical to that commonly found in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and has not been reported previously in uterine mesenchymal neoplasms. We suggest that uterine sarcomas with a morphology resembling fibrosarcoma (and in which leiomyosarcoma and the known molecularly confirmed high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas have been excluded) can be divided into 3 groups:- an NTRK fusion group, a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion group and a group containing neither of these molecular abnormalities which, on the basis of positive staining with S100, could be tentatively classified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, although additional molecular studies may identify specific genetic alterations necessitating a nomenclature change. We suggest a diagnostic algorithm when reporting such neoplasms. Identification of these newly described fusion-associated sarcomas is important given the potential for targeted treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0184-6DOI Listing
July 2019

GREB1-CTNNB1 fusion transcript detected by RNA-sequencing in a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT): A novel CTNNB1 rearrangement.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2019 03 7;58(3):155-163. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, Oncosarc, INSERM UMR1037, Toulouse, France.

Mutations of CTNNB1 have been implicated in tumorigenesis in many organs. However, tumors harboring a CTNNB1 translocation are extremely rare and this translocation has never been reported in a uterine mesenchymal neoplasm. We report a novel translocation t(2;3)(p25;p22) involving the GREB1 (intron 8) and CTNNB1 (exon 3) in a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT), which exhibited extrauterine metastasis. The translocation detected by RNA-sequencing was validated by RT-PCR, and resulted in nuclear expression of β-catenin. Juxtapositioning with GREB1, which is overexpressed in response to estrogens, resulted in overexpression of a truncated and hypophosphorylated nuclear β-catenin in the primary and recurrent tumors. This accumulation of nuclear β-catenin results in a constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway with a major oncogenic effect. The CTNNB1 gene fusion, promoted by an estrogen-responsive gene (GREB1), could be a potential driver of tumorigenesis in this case and a therapeutic target with adapted inhibitors. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry performed on 11 additional UTROSCTs showed no CTNNB1 fusion transcript or nuclear β-catenin immunoreactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22694DOI Listing
March 2019

Maintenance Olaparib in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2018 12 21;379(26):2495-2505. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

From the Stephenson Cancer Center at the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (K.M.); University of Milan-Bicocca, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan (N.C.), and Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS Università Cattolica, Rome (G.S.) - both in Italy; Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (B.-G.K.); Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (A. Oaknin), and M.D. Anderson Cancer Centre Madrid, Madrid (A.G.-M.) - both in Spain; University of New South Wales Clinical School, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia (M.F.); St. Petersburg City Oncology Dispensary, St. Petersburg, Russia (A. Lisyanskaya); Groupe d'Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens, Paris (A.F., A. Leary), Institut Bergonié, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Bordeaux (A.F.), and Gustave-Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif (A. Leary) - all in France; the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (G.S.S.); Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (C.G.), the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, London (S.B.), and AstraZeneca, Cambridge (R.B.) - all in the United Kingdom; Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (A. Oza); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (C.A.); Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (W.B.); Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI (C.M., P.D.); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (J.L.); and AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD (E.S.L.).

Background: Most women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer have a relapse within 3 years after standard treatment with surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. The benefit of the oral poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in relapsed disease has been well established, but the benefit of olaparib as maintenance therapy in newly diagnosed disease is uncertain.

Methods: We conducted an international, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of olaparib as maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed advanced (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III or IV) high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer, or fallopian-tube cancer (or a combination thereof) with a mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, or both ( BRCA1/2) who had a complete or partial clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy. The patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg twice daily) or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival.

Results: Of the 391 patients who underwent randomization, 260 were assigned to receive olaparib and 131 to receive placebo. A total of 388 patients had a centrally confirmed germline BRCA1/2 mutation, and 2 patients had a centrally confirmed somatic BRCA1/2 mutation. After a median follow-up of 41 months, the risk of disease progression or death was 70% lower with olaparib than with placebo (Kaplan-Meier estimate of the rate of freedom from disease progression and from death at 3 years, 60% vs. 27%; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.41; P<0.001). Adverse events were consistent with the known toxic effects of olaparib.

Conclusions: The use of maintenance therapy with olaparib provided a substantial benefit with regard to progression-free survival among women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation, with a 70% lower risk of disease progression or death with olaparib than with placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Merck; SOLO1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844986 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1810858DOI Listing
December 2018

Phase I study of onapristone, a type I antiprogestin, in female patients with previously treated recurrent or metastatic progesterone receptor-expressing cancers.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(10):e0204973. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France.

Introduction: Onapristone is a type I progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist, which prevents PR- mediated DNA transcription. Onapristone is active in multiple preclinical models and two prior studies demonstrated promising activity in patients with breast cancer. We conducted a study of extended release (ER) Onapristone to determine a recommended dose and explore the role of transcriptionally-activated PR (APR), detected as an aggregated subnuclear distribution pattern, as a predictive biomarker.

Methods: An open-label, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, phase 1 study (target n = 60; NCT02052128) included female patients ≥18 years with PRpos tumors. APR analysis was performed on archival tumor tissue. Patients were randomized to five cohorts of extended release (ER) onapristone tablets 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 mg BID, or immediate release 100 mg QD until progressive disease or intolerability. Primary endpoint was to identify the recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary endpoints included safety, clinical benefit and pharmacokinetics.

Results: The phase 1 dose escalation component of the study is complete (n = 52). Tumor diagnosis included: endometrial carcinoma 12; breast cancer 20; ovarian cancer 13; other 7. Median age was 64 (36-84). No dose limiting toxicity was observed with reported liver function test elevation related only to liver metastases. The RP2D was 50 mg ER BID. Median therapy duration was 8 weeks (range 2-44), and 9 patients had clinical benefit ≥24 weeks, including 2 patients with APRpos endometrial carcinoma.

Conclusion: Clinical benefit with excellent tolerance was seen in heavily pretreated patients with endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The data support the development of Onapristone in endometrial endometrioid cancer. Onapristone should also be evaluated in ovarian and breast cancers along with APR immunohistochemistry validation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204973PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179222PMC
March 2019

Familial breast cancer and DNA repair genes: Insights into known and novel susceptibility genes from the GENESIS study, and implications for multigene panel testing.

Int J Cancer 2019 04 13;144(8):1962-1974. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Inserm, Paris, France.

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (OR = 17.4 vs. OR = 1.6; p = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587727PMC
April 2019

[Expectation about maintenance therapy among the GINECO French ovarian cancer cohort from the European NOGGO/ENGOT-ov22 Expression IV survey].

Bull Cancer 2018 May 12;105(5):465-474. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Centre Francois-Baclesse, oncologie médicale, 3, avenue du Général-Harris, 14000 Caen, France. Electronic address:

Background: Expression IV survey evaluated the patients' expectations to a maintenance therapy.

Methods: From January 2015 to March 2016, 401 French patients, in first line or recurrent disease, answered a 24-items anonymous questionnaire. The results were specifically analyzed according to the demographic characteristics and treatment lines.

Results: Among the patients, 62% had already been informed about maintenance therapy. Thirty-seven percent of patients received a maintenance treatment: 111 patients during first line and 39 patients in relapse. Expectations of patients were: 1) the chance of cure (73%), 2) the tumor shrinkage (36%), 3) quality of life improvement (35%) and 4) tumor growth reduction (27%). Among the responders, 42% were willing to take the treatment for 6-24 months, 20% for 24-60 months and 38% until tumor progression. 64% of patients expected more than a 6 months progression-free survival. Patients older than 70 years were less informed than their younger counterparts (48% vs 66%) and had lesser hope for cure with maintenance treatment (60% vs 77%). Patients in relapse had more expectation than patients in remission (tumor shrinkage: 47% vs 22%, slowing of tumor growth: 37% vs 15%, improving the progression-free survival of more than 6 months: 71% vs 53%, respectively). Among patients, 48% in relapse consented to take a treatment until progression vs 24% of patients in remission.

Conclusion: This sub-analysis in French patients demonstrate a gap between the efficacy of maintenance therapy and the patients' expectations in ovarian cancer, particularly in relapsing disease justifying better information and explanations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.01.015DOI Listing
May 2018

[Thyroid carcinoma on struma ovarii: Diagnosis and treatment].

Bull Cancer 2018 Mar 17;105(3):281-289. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Institut Bergonié, département de médecine nucléaire et de cancérologie thyroidienne, 229, cours de l'Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux, France.

Thyroid carcinoma on struma ovarii (TCSO) is a rare ovarian tumour, derivate from monodermic teratomas. It represents about 0.01% of overall ovarian tumours and 5 to 10% of struma ovarii. The diagnosis is histologic and retrospective after pelvic surgery; radiographic imaging being unspecific. Because of its rarity, the treatment of TCSO is not consensual and should be validated in multidisciplinary team involved in rare ovarian carcinoma. The first treatment is a surgical removal, with a laparoscopic approach. A fertility-conservative surgery is recommended for young women. If the tumour is unresectable and/or with metastatic spread, an adjuvant iodine 131 treatment might be proposed after thyroidectomy. Recurrence of TCSO should be taken care of as a thyroid carcinoma with tyrosine kinase inhibitor in case of progressive distant relapse, refractory to iodine 131 treatment. If the recurrence is localised, a complete surgery is the preferred option. There is no gold standard for the follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2017.11.014DOI Listing
March 2018

[Fertility preservation, contraception and menopause hormone therapy in women treated for rare ovarian tumors: Guidelines from the French national network dedicated to rare gynaecological cancer].

Bull Cancer 2018 Mar;105(3):299-314

Centre Léon-Bérard, 28, rue Laënnec, 69008 Lyon, France.

Introduction: Rare ovarian tumors include complex borderline ovarian tumors, sex-cord tumors, germ cell tumors, and rare epithelial tumors. Indications and modalities of fertility preservation, infertility management and contraindications for hormonal contraception or menopause hormone therapy are frequent issues in clinical practice. A panel of experts from the French national network dedicated to rare gynaecological cancers, and of experts in reproductive medicine and gynaecology have worked on guidelines about fertility preservation, contraception and menopause hormone therapy in women treated for ovarian rare tumors.

Methods: A panel of 39 experts from different specialties contributed to the preparation of the guidelines, following the DELPHI method (formal consensus method). Statements were drafted after a systematic literature review, and then rated through two successive rounds.

Results: Thirty-five recommendations were selected, and concerned indications for fertility preservation, contraindications for ovarian stimulation (in the context of fertility preservation or for infertility management), contraceptive options (especially hormonal ones), and menopause hormone therapy for each tumor type. Overall, prudence has been recommended in the case of potentially hormone-sensitive tumors such as sex cord tumors, serous and endometrioid low-grade adenocarcinomas, as well as for high-risk serous borderline ovarian tumors.

Discussion: In the context of a scarce literature, a formal consensus method allowed the elaboration of guidelines, which will help clinicians in the management of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2017.10.032DOI Listing
March 2018

Genome profiling is an efficient tool to avoid the STUMP classification of uterine smooth muscle lesions: a comprehensive array-genomic hybridization analysis of 77 tumors.

Mod Pathol 2018 05 12;31(5):816-828. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Biopathology, Institut Bergonié, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Bordeaux, France.

The diagnosis of a uterine smooth muscle lesion is, in the majority of cases, straightforward. However, in a small number of cases, the morphological criteria used in such lesions cannot differentiate with certainty a benign from a malignant lesion and a diagnosis of smooth muscle tumor with uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is made. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are often easy to diagnose but it is difficult or even impossible to identify a prognostic factor at the moment of the diagnosis with the exception of the stage. We hypothesize, for uterine smooth muscle lesions, that there is a gradient of genomic complexity that correlates to outcome. We first tested this hypothesis on STUMP lesions in a previous study and demonstrated that this 'gray category' could be split according to genomic index into two groups. A benign group, with a low to moderate alteration rate without recurrence and a malignant group, with a highly rearranged profile akin to uterine leiomyosarcomas. Here, we analyzed a large series of 77 uterine smooth muscle lesions (from 76 patients) morphologically classified as 19 leiomyomas, 14 STUMP and 44 leiomyosarcomas with clinicopathological and genomic correlations. We confirmed that genomic index with a cut-off=10 is a predictor of recurrence (P<0.0001) and with a cut-off=35 is a marker for poor overall survival (P=0.035). For the tumors confined to the uterus, stage as a prognostic factor was not useful in survival prediction. At stage I, among the tumors reclassified as molecular leiomyosarcomas (ie, genomic index ≥10), the poor prognostic markers were: 5p gain (overall survival P=0.0008), genomic index at cut-off=35 (overall survival P=0.0193), 13p loss including RB1 (overall survival P=0.0096) and 17p gain including MYOCD gain (overall survival P=0.0425). Based on these findings (and the feasibility of genomic profiling by array-comparative genomic hybridization), genomic index, 5p and 17p gains prognostic value could be evaluated in future prospective chemotherapy trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2017.185DOI Listing
May 2018

The Challenge of Improving Soil Fertility in Yam Cropping Systems of West Africa.

Front Plant Sci 2017 21;8:1953. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Laboratoire d'étude et de recherche sur la fertilité du sol, Institut du Développement Rural, Université Nazi Boni, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Yam ( spp.) is a tuber crop grown for food security, income generation, and traditional medicine. This crop has a high cultural value for some of the groups growing it. Most of the production comes from West Africa where the increased demand has been covered by enlarging cultivated surfaces while the mean yield remained around 10 t tuber ha. In West Africa, yam is traditionally cultivated without input as the first crop after a long-term fallow as it is considered to require a high soil fertility. African soils, however, are being more and more degraded. The aims of this review were to show the importance of soil fertility for yam, discuss barriers that might limit the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) in yam-based systems in West Africa, present the concept of innovation platforms (IPs) as a tool to foster collaboration between actors for designing innovations in yam-based systems and provide recommendations for future research. This review shows that the development of sustainable, feasible, and acceptable soil management innovations for yam requires research to be conducted in interdisciplinary teams including natural and social sciences and in a transdisciplinary manner involving relevant actors from the problem definition, to the co-design of soil management innovations, the evaluation of research results, their communication and their implementation. Finally, this research should be conducted in diverse biophysical and socio-economic settings to develop generic rules on soil/plant relationships in yam as affected by soil management and on how to adjust the innovation supply to specific contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702320PMC
November 2017

Rucaparib maintenance treatment for recurrent ovarian carcinoma after response to platinum therapy (ARIEL3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2017 Oct 12;390(10106):1949-1961. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

University College London Cancer Institute and University College London Hospitals, London, UK.

Background: Rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has anticancer activity in recurrent ovarian carcinoma harbouring a BRCA mutation or high percentage of genome-wide loss of heterozygosity. In this trial we assessed rucaparib versus placebo after response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with high-grade, recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 hospitals and cancer centres across 11 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, had received at least two previous platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, had achieved complete or partial response to their last platinum-based regimen, had a cancer antigen 125 concentration of less than the upper limit of normal, had a performance status of 0-1, and had adequate organ function. Patients were ineligible if they had symptomatic or untreated central nervous system metastases, had received anticancer therapy 14 days or fewer before starting the study, or had received previous treatment with a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. We randomly allocated patients 2:1 to receive oral rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo in 28 day cycles using a computer-generated sequence (block size of six, stratified by homologous recombination repair gene mutation status, progression-free interval after the penultimate platinum-based regimen, and best response to the most recent platinum-based regimen). Patients, investigators, site staff, assessors, and the funder were masked to assignments. The primary outcome was investigator-assessed progression-free survival evaluated with use of an ordered step-down procedure for three nested cohorts: patients with BRCA mutations (carcinoma associated with deleterious germline or somatic BRCA mutations), patients with homologous recombination deficiencies (BRCA mutant or BRCA wild-type and high loss of heterozygosity), and the intention-to-treat population, assessed at screening and every 12 weeks thereafter. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01968213; enrolment is complete.

Findings: Between April 7, 2014, and July 19, 2016, we randomly allocated 564 patients: 375 (66%) to rucaparib and 189 (34%) to placebo. Median progression-free survival in patients with a BRCA-mutant carcinoma was 16·6 months (95% CI 13·4-22·9; 130 [35%] patients) in the rucaparib group versus 5·4 months (3·4-6·7; 66 [35%] patients) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·23 [95% CI 0·16-0·34]; p<0·0001). In patients with a homologous recombination deficient carcinoma (236 [63%] vs 118 [62%]), it was 13·6 months (10·9-16·2) versus 5·4 months (5·1-5·6; 0·32 [0·24-0·42]; p<0·0001). In the intention-to-treat population, it was 10·8 months (8·3-11·4) versus 5·4 months (5·3-5·5; 0·36 [0·30-0·45]; p<0·0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or higher in the safety population (372 [99%] patients in the rucaparib group vs 189 [100%] in the placebo group) were reported in 209 (56%) patients in the rucaparib group versus 28 (15%) in the placebo group, the most common of which were anaemia or decreased haemoglobin concentration (70 [19%] vs one [1%]) and increased alanine or aspartate aminotransferase concentration (39 [10%] vs none).

Interpretation: Across all primary analysis groups, rucaparib significantly improved progression-free survival in patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer who had achieved a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. ARIEL3 provides further evidence that use of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor in the maintenance treatment setting versus placebo could be considered a new standard of care for women with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer following a complete or partial response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy.

Funding: Clovis Oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32440-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901715PMC
October 2017

Traitement des rechutes tardives du cancer de l’ovaire.

Bull Cancer 2017 May;104 Suppl 1:S24-S31

Institut de cancérologie des hospices civils de Lyon (IC-HCL) ; CITOHL ; centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud ; université de Lyon ; université Claude-Bernard Lyon 1 ; faculté de médecine Lyon-Sud ; EMR UCBL/HCL 3738 Lyon, France.

Treatment For Platinum Sensitive Relapses Of Ovarian Cancer: Despite large improvements in treatment efficacy, the cure rate of ovarian cancer has not radically changed. Relapses both remain frequent and are still synonymous with chronic disease. Most of them are platinum-sensitive, and can be successfully treated with successive lines of chemotherapy. Surgery may have a role to play but its real impact, population selection criteria, and adequate timing still have to be established. Regarding medical treatments, the availability of new targeted therapeutics, such as bevacizumab and olaparib, complicates decision making. Moreover, allergic drug reactions to platins worsen treatment management. In practice, treatment decision making integrates patient profiles and wishes, types and numbers of previous medical treatments along with BRCA status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-4551(17)30159-5DOI Listing
May 2017

Secondary Somatic Mutations Restoring and Associated with Acquired Resistance to the PARP Inhibitor Rucaparib in High-Grade Ovarian Carcinoma.

Cancer Discov 2017 09 6;7(9):984-998. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

High-grade epithelial ovarian carcinomas containing mutated or () homologous recombination (HR) genes are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors (PARPi), while restoration of HR function due to secondary mutations in has been recognized as an important resistance mechanism. We sequenced core HR pathway genes in 12 pairs of pretreatment and postprogression tumor biopsy samples collected from patients in ARIEL2 Part 1, a phase II study of the PARPi rucaparib as treatment for platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian carcinoma. In 6 of 12 pretreatment biopsies, a truncation mutation in , or was identified. In five of six paired postprogression biopsies, one or more secondary mutations restored the open reading frame. Four distinct secondary mutations and spatial heterogeneity were observed for complementation assays and a patient-derived xenograft, as well as predictive molecular modeling, confirmed that resistance to rucaparib was associated with secondary mutations. Analyses of primary and secondary mutations in and provide evidence for these primary mutations in conferring PARPi sensitivity and secondary mutations as a mechanism of acquired PARPi resistance. PARPi resistance due to secondary mutations underpins the need for early delivery of PARPi therapy and for combination strategies. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612362PMC
September 2017

Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients.

J Hematol Oncol 2017 02 8;10(1):45. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Early Phase Trials Unit, Institut Bergonié, 229 Cours de l'Argonne, 33000, Bordeaux, France.

Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0-9). The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%), colorectal (14.4%), breast (10.6%), ovarian (10.2%) and sarcoma (10.2%). The median patient age was 63 years (range 19-88). A total of 292 patients (51.4%) presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28%) were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%). The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5%) and general status deterioration (25%). Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment) >1.3.Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-017-0411-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5299780PMC
February 2017

Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab-containing neoadjuvant therapy followed by interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer: Results from the ANTHALYA trial.

Eur J Cancer 2017 01 1;70:133-142. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France. Electronic address:

Aim: To investigate whether adding bevacizumab to neoadjuvant carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP) helps achieve optimal debulking, measured by complete resection rate (CRR) at interval debulking surgery (IDS), in patients with initially unresectable International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC/IV ovarian, tubal or peritoneal adenocarcinoma.

Methods: Multicentre, open-label, non-comparative phase II study. Ninety-five patients randomised (2:1) to receive four cycles of neoadjuvant CP ±3 concomitant cycles of bevacizumab 15 mg/kg (BCP) followed by IDS. Primary objective is to evaluate the CRR at IDS in the BCP group (reference CRR rate defined as 45% CRR). A stopping rule based on bevacizumab-related adverse events (AEs) of special interest was implemented.

Results: In the BCP group (N = 58), IDS was performed in 40 (69%) patients, of whom 85% had a complete resection. The CRR of this group was therefore 58.6% (34 patients), statistically over pre-defined 45%. The CRR in the CP group was 51.4%: 22 (60%) patients underwent IDS (85% had a complete resection). Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 62% of the BCP-treated patients and 63% of the CP-treated patients: mainly blood and lymphatic, gastrointestinal and vascular disorders, without more toxicity with BCP. Postoperative complications (mainly wound, infectious and gastrointestinal complications) occurred in 28% and 36% of the patients, respectively. The pre-specified safety stopping rule was not reached.

Conclusion: The primary objective was met as the CRR with BCP was significantly higher than the reference rate. Bevacizumab may be safely added to a preoperative program in patients deemed non-optimally resectable, whatever the final surgical decision. Bevacizumab's role in this setting should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2016.09.036DOI Listing
January 2017

Rucaparib in relapsed, platinum-sensitive high-grade ovarian carcinoma (ARIEL2 Part 1): an international, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2017 01 29;18(1):75-87. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have activity in ovarian carcinomas with homologous recombination deficiency. Along with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations genomic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) might also represent homologous recombination deficiency. In ARIEL2, we assessed the ability of tumour genomic LOH, quantified with a next-generation sequencing assay, to predict response to rucaparib, an oral PARP inhibitor.

Methods: ARIEL2 is an international, multicentre, two-part, phase 2, open-label study done at 49 hospitals and cancer centres in Australia, Canada, France, Spain, the UK, and the USA. In ARIEL2 Part 1, patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive, high-grade ovarian carcinoma were classified into one of three predefined homologous recombination deficiency subgroups on the basis of tumour mutational analysis: BRCA mutant (deleterious germline or somatic), BRCA wild-type and LOH high (LOH high group), or BRCA wild-type and LOH low (LOH low group). We prespecified a cutoff of 14% or more genomic LOH for LOH high. Patients began treatment with oral rucaparib at 600 mg twice per day for continuous 28 day cycles until disease progression or any other reason for discontinuation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. All patients treated with at least one dose of rucaparib were included in the safety analyses and all treated patients who were classified were included in the primary endpoint analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891344. Enrolment into ARIEL2 Part 1 is complete, although an extension (Part 2) is ongoing.

Findings: 256 patients were screened and 206 were enrolled between Oct 30, 2013, and Dec 19, 2014. At the data cutoff date (Jan 18, 2016), 204 patients had received rucaparib, with 28 patients remaining in the study. 192 patients could be classified into one of the three predefined homologous recombination deficiency subgroups: BRCA mutant (n=40), LOH high (n=82), or LOH low (n=70). Tumours from 12 patients were established as BRCA wild-type, but could not be classified for LOH, because of insufficient neoplastic nuclei in the sample. The median duration of treatment for the 204 patients was 5·7 months (IQR 2·8-10·1). 24 patients in the BRCA mutant subgroup, 56 patients in the LOH high subgroup, and 59 patients in the LOH low subgroup had disease progression or died. Median progression-free survival after rucaparib treatment was 12·8 months (95% CI 9·0-14·7) in the BRCA mutant subgroup, 5·7 months (5·3-7·6) in the LOH high subgroup, and 5·2 months (3·6-5·5) in the LOH low subgroup. Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the BRCA mutant (hazard ratio 0·27, 95% CI 0·16-0·44, p<0·0001) and LOH high (0·62, 0·42-0·90, p=0·011) subgroups compared with the LOH low subgroup. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia or decreased haemoglobin (45 [22%] patients), and elevations in alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase (25 [12%]). Common serious adverse events included small intestinal obstruction (10 [5%] of 204 patients), malignant neoplasm progression (10 [5%]), and anaemia (nine [4%]). Three patients died during the study (two because of disease progression and one because of sepsis and disease progression). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: In patients with BRCA mutant or BRCA wild-type and LOH high platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinomas treated with rucaparib, progression-free survival was longer than in patients with BRCA wild-type LOH low carcinomas. Our results suggest that assessment of tumour LOH can be used to identify patients with BRCA wild-type platinum-sensitive ovarian cancers who might benefit from rucaparib. These results extend the potential usefulness of PARP inhibitors in the treatment setting beyond BRCA mutant tumours.

Funding: Clovis Oncology, US Department of Defense Ovarian Cancer Research Program, Stand Up To Cancer-Ovarian Cancer Research Fund Alliance-National Ovarian Cancer Coalition Dream Team Translational Research Grant, and V Foundation Translational Award.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30559-9DOI Listing
January 2017

Communicating BRCA research results to patients enrolled in international clinical trials: lessons learnt from the AGO-OVAR 16 study.

BMC Med Ethics 2016 10 21;17(1):63. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

AGO Study group and Department of Gynecology & Gynecologic Oncology, Kliniken Essen Mitte (KEM), Essen, Germany.

Background: The focus on translational research in clinical trials has the potential to generate clinically relevant genetic data that could have importance to patients. This raises challenging questions about communicating relevant genetic research results to individual patients.

Methods: An exploratory pharmacogenetic analysis was conducted in the international ovarian cancer phase III trial, AGO-OVAR 16, which found that patients with clinically important germ-line BRCA1/2 mutations had improved progression-free survival prognosis. Mechanisms to communicate BRCA results were evaluated, because these findings may be beneficial to patients and their families.

Results: Communicating individual BRCA results was not anticipated during clinical trial design. Consequently, options were not available for patients to indicate their preference for receiving their individual results when they signed pharmacogenetic informed consent. Differences in local requirements, clinical practice, and opinion regarding the ethical aspects of how to convey genetic results to patients are all potential barriers to returning individual BRCA results to patients. Communicating the aggregate BRCA result from this study provided clinical investigators with a mechanism to disseminate the overall study finding to patients while taking individual circumstances, local guidelines and clinical practice into account.

Conclusion: This study illustrates the importance of increasing the clarity and scope of informed consent and the need for patient engagement to ensure clinical trial participants can indicate their preference regarding receipt of potentially important individual pharmacogenetic results.

Trial Registration: This study was registered in the NCT Clinical Trial Registry under NCT00866697 on March 19, 2009, following approval from participating ethics committees (Additional file 1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-016-0144-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073453PMC
October 2016