Publications by authors named "Anne Fawcett"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Animal welfare concerns highlight inequitable requirements.

Authors:
Anne Fawcett

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2020 Nov;43(6):517-518

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12914DOI Listing
November 2020

Review of the Online One Welfare Portal: Shared Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 3;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

This article introduces the online One Welfare learning and teaching portal (OWP) and describes its development, use, importance and relevance to animal welfare and ethics (AWE) stakeholders. As animal welfare issues increase in importance, veterinarians must be trained to lead the science that underpins AWE discourses. The OWP is a collection of resources designed to engage and challenge veterinary science students as they become advocates for animals. It was developed collaboratively by all eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand, and funded by the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching. Surveys to investigate the attitudes of students and educators to AWE issues in six context-specific themes based on the Australian Animal Welfare Strategy (AAWS) (companion animals; animals used in research and teaching; livestock/production animals; animals used for sport, recreation or display; animals in the wild and aquatic animals) were administered through all participating schools. Students assigned more importance to Day One competence in knowledge of welfare concepts than did educators for the following groups: production animals, companion animals, animals in the wild, aquatic animals, animals used in research and teaching, and animals used for sport, recreation or display (all p < 0.01). Agreement between educators and students was closer regarding the importance of Day One competence for euthanasia for all six context-specific themes (p < 0.01 - 0.03). Students assigned more importance than educators to social, economic and cultural drivers of welfare outcomes in production animals (p < 0.01); slaughter and preslaughter inspections in production animals (p < 0.01); animal abuse and hoarding in companion animals (p < 0.01); shelter medicine in companion animals (p < 0.01); disaster preparedness in wildlife animals (p < 0.01); pain and distress caused by fishing in aquatic animals (p < 0.01); conscientious objection related to animals held for research and teaching (p < 0.01); behaviour, selection and training of animals used for sport, recreation and display (p = 0.046) and educating the public around sporting animal welfare (p < 0.01). Agreement between educators and students was closer for strategies to address painful husbandry procedures in production animals (p = 0.03); behaviour and training of companion animals (p = 0.03); veterinarians' duties to wild animals in wildlife (p = 0.02); the 3Rs in animals held for research and teaching (p = 0.03) and ownership responsibility in sporting animals (p = 0.01). This report discusses the reasons for differences among students and educators as they approach these issues. The portal is expected to gather more content as veterinary schools in other countries use its resources and users submit scenarios and discussion topics that reflect local needs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460400PMC
August 2020

"The Cone of Shame": Welfare Implications of Elizabethan Collar Use on Dogs and Cats as Reported by their Owners.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Feb 20;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

Elizabethan collars are used in companion animals primarily to prevent self-trauma and associated negative welfare states in animals. However, they have been anecdotally associated with negative impacts on animal health and welfare including distress, abraded/ulcerated skin and misadventure. This study aimed to characterise the welfare impacts of Elizabethan collar use on companion dogs and cats, as reported by owners. Owners of pets who wore an Elizabethan collar during the past 12 months were surveyed about the impacts that the use of Elizabethan collars had on animal activities, in particular sleep, eating, drinking, exercise, interactions with other animals, as well as overall quality of life (QOL). The majority of 434 respondents (77.4%) reported a worse QOL score when their companion animal was wearing the collar, significantly so when the Elizabethan collar irritated their pet or impacted on their ability to drink or play. While other factors are likely to impact animal welfare during veterinary treatment that necessitates the use of Elizabethan collars, this study suggests that Elizabethan collars themselves might have negative welfare impacts in a range of domains including nutrition, environment, health, behaviour and mental state. We recommend that animal owners are informed about potential negative impacts of Elizabethan collars and harm minimisation strategies. Where possible, alternative methods of preventing self-trauma should be explored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10020333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070745PMC
February 2020

Behavioural risks in female dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones.

PLoS One 2019 5;14(12):e0223709. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Spaying of female dogs is a widespread practice, performed primarily for population control. While the consequences of early spaying for health are still being debated, the consequences for behaviour are believed to be negligible. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 8981 female dogs spayed before 520 weeks (ten years) of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). We found that 23 behaviours differed between entire and spayed dogs, of which 12 were associated with PLGH and 5 with age-at-spay (AAS). Two behaviours, chewing and howling, were significantly more likely in dogs with longer PLGH. In contrast, longer PLGH was associated with significantly reduced reporting of 10 (mostly unwelcome) behaviours. Of these, one related to fearfulness and three to aggression. The current data suggest that dogs' tendency to show numerous behaviours can be influenced by the timing of spaying. They indicate how female dog behaviour matures when gonadal hormones are allowed to have their effect. The differences reported here between undesirable behaviours of spayed and entire dogs were in the range of 5.33% and 7.22%, suggesting that, for some dogs, partial or complete denial of maturation may reduce howling and chewing and improve retrieval and recall, but have other undesirable consequences. Veterinarians may take these data into account to discuss the risks and benefits of spaying with clients, and the timing of the procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223709PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894801PMC
March 2020

Cross-sectional analysis of veterinary student coping strategies and stigma in seeking psychological help.

Vet Rec 2019 06 16;184(23):709. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, South Australia, Australia.

Veterinary education can result in high levels of academic stressors for students. Students are also susceptible to non-academic stressors, including relationship issues and financial concerns. These can all result in mental ill health, which may impair the student's ability to complete their studies and go on to a successful professional career. Finding and using strategies early on to help alleviate mental health problems is critical to successful management of these problems, but seeking help may be impeded by the stigma associated with mental health problems. Using a cross-sectional online survey of a sample of Australian veterinary students, the aim of the current study was to investigate the type and frequency of their coping strategies as well as to explore relationships between self-stigma and coping strategies. Female veterinary students reported more use of instrumental and emotional support as coping strategies, while male veterinary students demonstrated more use of humour. Self-stigma was related to less instrumental support, greater self-blame and gender, while males who employed more humour as a coping strategy reported more self-stigma. Improving the coping strategies of veterinary students and reducing the self-stigma surrounding mental ill health is important to improve the wellbeing and resilience of the veterinary profession.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105042DOI Listing
June 2019

Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Dec 21;9(1). Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

This article, written by veterinarians whose caseloads include brachycephalic dogs, argues that there is now widespread evidence documenting a link between extreme brachycephalic phenotypes and chronic disease, which compromises canine welfare. This paper is divided into nine sections exploring the breadth of the impact of brachycephaly on the incidence of disease, as indicated by pet insurance claims data from an Australian pet insurance provider, the stabilization of respiratory distress associated with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS), challenges associated with sedation and the anaesthesia of patients with BOAS; effects of brachycephaly on the brain and associated neurological conditions, dermatological conditions associated with brachycephalic breeds, and other conditions, including ophthalmic and orthopedic conditions, and behavioural consequences of brachycephaly. In the light of this information, we discuss the ethical challenges that are associated with brachycephalic breeds, and the role of the veterinarian. In summary, dogs with BOAS do not enjoy freedom from discomfort, nor freedom from pain, injury, and disease, and they do not enjoy the freedom to express normal behaviour. According to both deontological and utilitarian ethical frameworks, the breeding of dogs with BOAS cannot be justified, and further, cannot be recommended, and indeed, should be discouraged by veterinarians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9010003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356869PMC
December 2018

Exploring how end-of-life management is taught to Australasian veterinary students. Part 1: technical euthanasia.

Vet Rec 2018 Dec 19;183(22):691. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Animal Welfare Science and Education Department, Royal New Zealand SPCA National Office, Auckland, New Zealand.

This descriptive study explored how end-of-life management was taught to students in all eight Australasian veterinary schools. A questionnaire-style interview guide was used by a representative at each university to conduct structured interviews with educators in a snowball sampling approach. Four categories of animals were addressed: livestock, equine, companion and avian/wildlife. This article focuses on the first part of the questionnaire: teaching the technical aspects of euthanasia. Euthanasia techniques were taught at more universities in clinical years than preclinical years. Clinical teaching relied on opportunities presenting, for example, euthanasia consultations. Few universities gave students a chance to practise euthanasia during a consultation and those that did were all with livestock. Competency in euthanasia techniques is an important aspect of clinical practice and these findings can be used to inform curriculum reviews of veterinary training.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.104775DOI Listing
December 2018

Australian and New Zealand Veterinary Students' Opinions on Animal Welfare and Ethical Issues Concerning Animal Use within Sport, Recreation, and Display.

J Vet Med Educ 2019 12;46(2):264-272. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Animals used for sport, recreation and display are highly visible and can divide community attitudes. The study of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) as part of veterinary education is important because it is the responsibility of veterinarians to use their scientific knowledge and skills to promote animal welfare in the context of community expectations. To explore the attitudes of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand to AWE, a survey of the current cohort was undertaken. The survey aimed to reveal how veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand rate the importance of five selected AWE topics for Day One Competences in animals used in sport, recreation and display and to establish how veterinary students' priorities were associated with gender and stage of study. The response rate (n = 851) across the seven schools was just over 25%. Results indicated little variation on ratings for topics. The topics were ranked in the following order (most to least important): Pushing of animals to their physiologic/behavioral limits; ownership/responsibility; euthanasia; educating the public; and behavior, selection, and training for sport and recreation displays. In contrast to related studies, ratings were not associated with stage of study and there were few differences associated with gender. More females rated the pushing of animals to physiologic/behavioral limits as extremely important than did males ( p < .001). The role of veterinarians in advocating for and educating the public about the welfare of animals used in sport, recreation and display merits further discussion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/jvme.0717-086rDOI Listing
May 2019

What do clients want in a veterinarian?

Authors:
Anne Fawcett

Vet Rec 2018 11;183(17):531-533

School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.k4538DOI Listing
November 2018

Application of Fraser's "Practical" Ethic in Veterinary Practice, and Its Compatibility with a "One Welfare" Framework.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Jul 3;8(7). Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

Ethically challenging situations are common in veterinary practice, and they may be a source of moral stress, which may in turn impact the welfare of veterinarians. Despite recognition of the importance of ethical reasoning, some veterinary students may struggle to apply theoretical ethical frameworks. Fraser developed a “practical” ethic consisting of four principles that can be applied to ethically challenging situations. We apply Fraser’s “practical” ethic to three cases that veterinarians may encounter: animal hoarding, animal neglect, and treatment of wildlife. We argue that Fraser’s “practical” ethic is consistent with a One Welfare framework, and may have increasing currency for veterinarians in the light of the World Animal Health Organisation’s Global Animal Welfare Strategy. Both Fraser’s “practical” ethic and a One Welfare framework require veterinarians to consider the impacts of animal ethics decisions on a broader scale than most other ethical frameworks have prepared them for. We discuss the strengths and limitations of Fraser’s “practical” ethic when applied in veterinary contexts and recommend additional support and training to enable veterinarians to effectively apply these frameworks in real-world settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8070109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071015PMC
July 2018

Speaking Up: Veterinary Ethical Responsibilities and Animal Welfare Issues in Everyday Practice.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Jan 22;8(1). Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how veterinary ethics are taught and how common ethical frameworks and approaches are employed-along with legislation, guidelines and codes of professional conduct-to address animal welfare issues. Insufficiently mature ethical reasoning or a lack of veterinary ethical sensitivity can lead to an inability or difficulty in speaking up about concerns with clients and ultimately, failure in their duty of care to animals, leading to poor animal welfare outcomes. A number of examples are provided to illustrate this point. Ensuring that robust ethical frameworks are employed will ultimately help veterinarians to "speak up" to address animal welfare concerns and prevent future harms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8010015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789310PMC
January 2018

The Importance of Animal Welfare Science and Ethics to Veterinary Students in Australia and New Zealand.

J Vet Med Educ Summer 2017;44(2):208-216. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

The study of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) as part of veterinary education is important due to increasing community concerns and expectations about this topic, global pressures regarding food security, and the requirements of veterinary accreditation, especially with respect to Day One Competences. To address several key questions regarding the attitudes to AWE of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), the authors surveyed the 2014 cohort of these students. The survey aimed (1) to reveal what AWE topics veterinary students in Australia and NZ consider important as Day One Competences, and (2) to ascertain how these priorities align with existing research on how concern for AWE relates to gender and stage of study. Students identified triage and professional ethics as the most important Day One Competences in AWE. Students ranked an understanding of triage as increasingly important as they progressed through their program. Professional ethics was rated more important by early and mid-stage students than by senior students. Understanding the development of animal welfare science and perspectives on animal welfare were rated as being of little importance to veterinary graduates as Day One Competences, and an understanding of "why animal welfare matters" declined as the students progressed through the program. Combined, these findings suggest that veterinary students consider it more important to have the necessary practical skills and knowledge to function as a veterinarian on their first day in practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/jvme.1215-191RDOI Listing
August 2017

Career Preferences and Opinions on Animal Welfare and Ethics: A Survey of Veterinary Students in Australia and New Zealand.

J Vet Med Educ Fall 2016;43(3):310-20. Epub 2016 May 6.

Historically, the veterinary profession has understood animal welfare primarily in terms of animal health and productivity, with less recognition of animals' feelings and mental state. Veterinary students' career preferences and attitudes to animal welfare have been the focus of several international studies. As part of a survey in Australia and New Zealand, this study reports on whether veterinary students prioritize animal welfare topics or professional conduct on the first day of practice and examines links between students' career preferences and their institution, gender, and year of study. The questionnaire was designed to explore the importance that students assign to topics in animal welfare and ethics. Of the 3,320 students invited to participate in the online survey, a total of 851 students participated, representing a response rate of 25.5%. Students' preferences increased for companion-animal practice and decreased for production-animal practice as they progressed through their studies. Females ranked the importance of animal welfare topics higher than males, but the perceived importance declined for both genders in their senior years. In line with previous studies, this report highlighted two concerns: (1) the importance assigned to animal welfare declined as students progressed through their studies, and (2) males placed less importance overall on animal welfare than females. Given that veterinarians have a strong social influence on animal issues, there is an opportunity, through enhanced education in animal welfare, to improve student concern for animal welfare and in turn improve animal care and policy making by future veterinarians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/jvme.0615-091R2DOI Listing
January 2017

AVA Annual Conference--much more to it.

Authors:
Anne Fawcett

Aust Vet J 2016 Mar;94(3):N2

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avj.167DOI Listing
March 2016

Aldosterone and progesterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma in a cat with a concurrent meningioma.

JFMS Open Rep 2016 Jan-Jun;2(1):2055116915624448. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Valentine Charlton Cat Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Case Summary: A 12-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of suspected hyperaldosteronism due to persistent hypokalaemia, hindlimb ataxia, weakness of 1 month's duration and a left adrenal mass that was detected on abdominal ultrasound. Neurological examination findings at referral were suggestive of a concurrent left forebrain lesion. Hyperaldosteronism and concurrent hyperprogesteronism were confirmed on endocrine testing. On computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and thorax there was no evidence of local vascular invasion by the adrenal mass or of metastatic disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging featured a large, focal rim-enhancing extra-axial left forebrain lesion consistent with a meningioma. Surgical excision of the forebrain mass was followed by adrenalectomy 2 weeks later. The tumours were classified on histopathology as a psammomatous meningioma and an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of the meningioma confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors. The cat remains well 2 years later.

Relevance And Novel Information: In humans, elevated serum progesterone levels have been associated with rapid growth of meningiomas due to the presence of progesterone receptors on the tumour. This is the first report of a cat with a progesterone and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and a concurrent meningioma. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effect of elevated progesterone on meningiomas in cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055116915624448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5359794PMC
January 2016

The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand.

Animals (Basel) 2015 May 29;5(2):395-406. Epub 2015 May 29.

Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called 'Human Continuum' discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani5020362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4494409PMC
May 2015

What I love about Pan Pac.

Authors:
Anne Fawcett

Aust Vet J 2015 Apr;93(4):N16

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2015

In vitro inhibition of field isolates of feline calicivirus with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

Vet Microbiol 2015 May 24;177(1-2):78-86. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Building B14, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common infection of domestic cats. Most infections are mild and self-limiting; however more severe disease manifestations, such as FCV-associated virulent systemic disease, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is currently a lack of effective antiviral treatments for these disease manifestations. In this study, a panel of eight siRNAs were designed to target four conserved regions of the FCV genome. siRNAs were screened for in vitro antiviral efficacy against the reference strain FCV F9 by determination of extracellular virus titres and morphological assessment of protection from cytopathic effect. Three of the siRNA (FCV3.7, FCV4.1, and FCV4.2) demonstrated a marked antiviral effect with a greater than 99% reduction in extracellular viral titre. Titration of these effective siRNAs demonstrated a clear concentration-response relationship, with IC50 values of approximately 1 nM, and combination treatment with multiple siRNAs demonstrated additive or synergistic effects. To assess the potential usefulness of the compounds in a clinical setting, siRNAs were screened against a panel of six recent Australian FCV isolates from cats with FCV-related disease. The siRNAs shown to be effective against the reference strain FCV F9 were active against the majority of the isolates tested, although some variability was noted. Taken together these data suggest potential therapeutic application of antiviral RNAi for treating FCV-associated disease in cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.02.015DOI Listing
May 2015

Antiviral effect of mefloquine on feline calicivirus in vitro.

Vet Microbiol 2015 Apr 16;176(3-4):370-7. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Faculty of Veterinary Science, Building B14, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important viral pathogen of domestic cats causing clinical signs ranging from mild to severe oral ulceration or upper respiratory tract disease through to a severe fatal systemic disease. Current therapeutic options are limited, with no direct acting antivirals available for treatment. This study screened a panel of 19 compounds for potential antiviral activity against FCV strain F9 and recent field isolates in vitro. Using a resazurin-based cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay, mefloquine demonstrated a marked inhibitory effect on FCV induced CPE, albeit with a relatively low selectivity index. Orthogonal assays confirmed inhibition of CPE was associated with a significant reduction in viral replication. Mefloquine exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against a panel of seven recent FCV isolates from Australia, with calculated IC50 values for the field isolates approximately 50% lower than against the reference strain FCV F9. In vitro combination therapy with recombinant feline interferon-ω, a biological response modifier currently registered for the treatment of FCV, demonstrated additive effects with a concurrent reduction in the IC50 of mefloquine. These results are the first report of antiviral effects of mefloquine against a calicivirus and support further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of this compound as an antiviral therapeutic for FCV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127475PMC
April 2015

Polyostotic hyperostosis in a domestic shorthair cat.

J Feline Med Surg 2014 May;16(5):432-40

1Sydney Animal Hospitals - Inner West, 1a Northumberland Avenue, Stanmore, NSW 2048, Australia.

Clinical Presentation: An 11-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for investigation of weight loss and inappetence. On physical examination there was palpable enlargement and thickening of many bones, and this finding was confirmed radiographically. PROPOSED DIAGNOSIS: Based on clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, a polyostotic bone disease, best described as generalised idiopathic hyperostosis, was diagnosed. This condition has not been reported in cats previously. Canine and human diseases with similarities to this presentation are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X14530216DOI Listing
May 2014

Clinical snapshot: A corn in a whippet.

Compend Contin Educ Vet 2012 ;34(9):E3

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
August 2013

A poodle with a facial lesion.

Compend Contin Educ Vet 2012 Apr;34(4):E1

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2012

Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis in Australian cats.

J Feline Med Surg 2012 Jun 7;14(6):405-12. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

The objective of this study was to determine whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia. A retrospective comparison of the signalment between cats with confirmed FIP and the general cat population was designed. The patient signalment of 382 FIP confirmed cases were compared with the Companion Animal Register of NSW and the general cat population of Sydney. Younger cats were significantly over-represented among FIP cases. Domestic crossbred, Persian and Himalayan cats were significantly under-represented in the FIP cohort, while several breeds were over-represented, including British Shorthair, Devon Rex and Abyssinian. A significantly higher proportion of male cats had FIP compared with female cats. This study provides further evidence that FIP is a disease primarily of young cats and that significant breed and sex predilections exist in Australia. This opens further avenues to investigate the role of genetic factors in FIP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X12441875DOI Listing
June 2012

Markers of feline leukaemia virus infection or exposure in cats from a region of low seroprevalence.

J Feline Med Surg 2011 Dec 31;13(12):927-33. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Valentine Charlton Cat Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Molecular techniques have demonstrated that cats may harbour feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) provirus in the absence of antigenaemia. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), p27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), anti-feline oncornavirus-associated cell-membrane-antigen (FOCMA) antibody testing and virus isolation (VI) we investigated three groups of cats. Among cats with cytopenias or lymphoma, 2/75 were transiently positive for provirus and anti-FOCMA antibodies were the only evidence of exposure in another. In 169 young, healthy cats, all tests were negative. In contrast, 3/4 cats from a closed household where FeLV was confirmed by isolation, had evidence of infection. Our results support a role for factors other than FeLV in the pathogenesis of cytopenias and lymphoma. There was no evidence of exposure in young cats. In regions of low prevalence, where the positive predictive value of antigen testing is low, qPCR may assist with diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2011.07.011DOI Listing
December 2011

Vitamin D-dependent non-type 1, non-type 2 rickets in a 3-month-old Cornish Rex kitten.

J Feline Med Surg 2011 Jul;13(7):526-31

Sydney Animal Hospitals Inner West, 1A Northumberland Avenue, Stanmore, NSW 2048, Australia.

Unlabelled: CASE PRESENTATION AND ASSESSMENT: A 3-month-old female Cornish Rex kitten was found to have non-painful swelling of the carpal and tarsal regions when presented for routine neutering. The kitten was smaller in stature and less active than its siblings and, according to the owner, had a bunny-hopping gait, was reluctant to climb stairs and strained during defecation. Radiography of the affected limbs and a subsequent radiographic survey of the entire skeleton demonstrated features consistent with rickets. The three littermates were clinically and radiographically normal. As a nutritionally complete diet was being fed, it seemed most likely that the kitten had an inborn error related to vitamin D metabolism. Serum biochemistry demonstrated reduced total alkaline phosphatase activity and increased concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Concentrations of 1,25- and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol were markedly reduced, confirming the diagnosis of rickets.

Treatment: The kitten was treated with calcitriol, administered orally once daily, and improved rapidly both clinically and radiologically. Serial laboratory studies suggested that the error in vitamin D metabolism was transient, and, at the time of writing, as an adult, the cat appears to require no ongoing replacement calcitriol therapy.

Clinical Relevance: This case emphasises the value of examining a full 'calcium profile' via a human or veterinary reference laboratory, and a favourable prognosis in some kittens with rickets makes such investigations worthwhile. Even when finances preclude detailed investigation, trial therapy using a nutritionally complete diet and physiological doses of calcitriol or cholecalciferol is inexpensive and can produce a good response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2011.05.010DOI Listing
July 2011

Ocular hemangiosarcoma in a husky.

Compend Contin Educ Vet 2010 Sep;32(9):E8

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2010

Permethrin spot-on intoxication of cats Literature review and survey of veterinary practitioners in Australia.

J Feline Med Surg 2010 Jan;12(1):5-14

Centre for Veterinary Education; Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

Unlabelled: SURVEY AIMS: A questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in Australia to determine the approximate number of cats presenting for permethrin spot-on (PSO) intoxication over a 2-year period.

Findings: Of the 269 questionnaires returned, 255 were eligible for analysis. A total of 207 respondents (81%) reported cases of PSO intoxication in cats over the previous 2 years. In total, 750 individual cases were reported, with 166 deaths. While all deaths were generally attributable to intoxication, 39 cats were euthanased because owners were unable to pay the anticipated treatment costs. Brands of PSO implicated included Exelpet Flea (and Tick) Liquidator (Mars Australia) (146 respondents), Bayer Advantix (48), Purina Totalcare Flea Eliminator Line-On (19), Troy Ease-On (six) and Duogard Line-On (Virbac) (four); 67 respondents were not able to identify a specific product. Permethrin spot-on formulations were most commonly obtained from supermarkets (146 respondents), followed by pet stores (43), veterinary practices (16), and a range of other sources including produce stores and friends. The majority of intoxication cases reported involved PSOs labelled for use in dogs with specific label instructions such as 'toxic to cats'. Owners applied these PSO products to their cats accidentally or intentionally. In some cases, exposure was through secondary contact, such as when a PSO product was applied to a dog with which a cat had direct or indirect contact.

Recommendations: In the authors' view, because of the likelihood of inappropriate use and toxicity in the non-labelled species, over-the-counter products intended for use in either dogs or cats must have a high margin of safety in all species. Furthermore, PSOs should only be available at points of sale where veterinary advice can be provided and appropriate warnings given. As an interim measure, modified labelling with more explicit warnings may reduce morbidity and mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2009.12.002DOI Listing
January 2010

The curious case of the cat with the munchies.

Compend Contin Educ Vet 2009 Jan;31(1):1 p following E12

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2009
-->