Publications by authors named "Anne D Bjorkman"

22 Publications

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A reflection on four impactful Ambio papers: The biotic perspective : This article belongs to Ambio's 50th Anniversary Collection. Theme: Climate change impacts.

Ambio 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Carl Skottsbergs gata 22B, 413 19, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Climate change represents one of the most pressing societal and scientific challenges of our time. While much of the current research on climate change focuses on future prediction, some of the strongest signals of warming can already be seen in Arctic and alpine areas, where temperatures are rising faster than the global average, and in the oceans, where the combination of rising temperatures and acidification due to increased CO concentrations has had catastrophic consequences for sensitive marine organisms inhabiting coral reefs. The scientific papers highlighted as part of this anniversary issue represent some of the most impactful advances in our understanding of the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. Here, we reflect on the legacy of these papers from the biotic perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01442-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Landscape-scale forest loss as a catalyst of population and biodiversity change.

Science 2020 06;368(6497):1341-1347

Centre for Biological Diversity, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9TF, Scotland.

Global biodiversity assessments have highlighted land-use change as a key driver of biodiversity change. However, there is little empirical evidence of how habitat transformations such as forest loss and gain are reshaping biodiversity over time. We quantified how change in forest cover has influenced temporal shifts in populations and ecological assemblages from 6090 globally distributed time series across six taxonomic groups. We found that local-scale increases and decreases in abundance, species richness, and temporal species replacement (turnover) were intensified by as much as 48% after forest loss. Temporal lags in population- and assemblage-level shifts after forest loss extended up to 50 years and increased with species' generation time. Our findings that forest loss catalyzes population and biodiversity change emphasize the complex biotic consequences of land-use change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aba1289DOI Listing
June 2020

Replacements of small- by large-ranged species scale up to diversity loss in Europe's temperate forest biome.

Nat Ecol Evol 2020 06 13;4(6):802-808. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Forest & Nature Lab, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.

Biodiversity time series reveal global losses and accelerated redistributions of species, but no net loss in local species richness. To better understand how these patterns are linked, we quantify how individual species trajectories scale up to diversity changes using data from 68 vegetation resurvey studies of seminatural forests in Europe. Herb-layer species with small geographic ranges are being replaced by more widely distributed species, and our results suggest that this is due less to species abundances than to species nitrogen niches. Nitrogen deposition accelerates the extinctions of small-ranged, nitrogen-efficient plants and colonization by broadly distributed, nitrogen-demanding plants (including non-natives). Despite no net change in species richness at the spatial scale of a study site, the losses of small-ranged species reduce biome-scale (gamma) diversity. These results provide one mechanism to explain the directional replacement of small-ranged species within sites and thus explain patterns of biodiversity change across spatial scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1176-8DOI Listing
June 2020

Arctic terrestrial biodiversity status and trends: A synopsis of science supporting the CBMP State of Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report.

Ambio 2020 Mar;49(3):833-847

Arctic Research Centre, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

This review provides a synopsis of the main findings of individual papers in the special issue Terrestrial Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing Arctic. The special issue was developed to inform the State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report developed by the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Arctic Council working group. Salient points about the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and biodiversity monitoring are organized by taxonomic groups: (1) vegetation, (2) invertebrates, (3) mammals, and (4) birds. This is followed by a discussion about commonalities across the collection of papers, for example, that heterogeneity was a predominant pattern of change particularly when assessing global trends for Arctic terrestrial biodiversity. Finally, the need for a comprehensive, integrated, ecosystem-based monitoring program, coupled with targeted research projects deciphering causal patterns, is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01303-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989707PMC
March 2020

TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access.

Authors:
Jens Kattge Gerhard Bönisch Sandra Díaz Sandra Lavorel Iain Colin Prentice Paul Leadley Susanne Tautenhahn Gijsbert D A Werner Tuomas Aakala Mehdi Abedi Alicia T R Acosta George C Adamidis Kairi Adamson Masahiro Aiba Cécile H Albert Julio M Alcántara Carolina Alcázar C Izabela Aleixo Hamada Ali Bernard Amiaud Christian Ammer Mariano M Amoroso Madhur Anand Carolyn Anderson Niels Anten Joseph Antos Deborah Mattos Guimarães Apgaua Tia-Lynn Ashman Degi Harja Asmara Gregory P Asner Michael Aspinwall Owen Atkin Isabelle Aubin Lars Baastrup-Spohr Khadijeh Bahalkeh Michael Bahn Timothy Baker William J Baker Jan P Bakker Dennis Baldocchi Jennifer Baltzer Arindam Banerjee Anne Baranger Jos Barlow Diego R Barneche Zdravko Baruch Denis Bastianelli John Battles William Bauerle Marijn Bauters Erika Bazzato Michael Beckmann Hans Beeckman Carl Beierkuhnlein Renee Bekker Gavin Belfry Michael Belluau Mirela Beloiu Raquel Benavides Lahcen Benomar Mary Lee Berdugo-Lattke Erika Berenguer Rodrigo Bergamin Joana Bergmann Marcos Bergmann Carlucci Logan Berner Markus Bernhardt-Römermann Christof Bigler Anne D Bjorkman Chris Blackman Carolina Blanco Benjamin Blonder Dana Blumenthal Kelly T Bocanegra-González Pascal Boeckx Stephanie Bohlman Katrin Böhning-Gaese Laura Boisvert-Marsh William Bond Ben Bond-Lamberty Arnoud Boom Coline C F Boonman Kauane Bordin Elizabeth H Boughton Vanessa Boukili David M J S Bowman Sandra Bravo Marco Richard Brendel Martin R Broadley Kerry A Brown Helge Bruelheide Federico Brumnich Hans Henrik Bruun David Bruy Serra W Buchanan Solveig Franziska Bucher Nina Buchmann Robert Buitenwerf Daniel E Bunker Jana Bürger Sabina Burrascano David F R P Burslem Bradley J Butterfield Chaeho Byun Marcia Marques Marina C Scalon Marco Caccianiga Marc Cadotte Maxime Cailleret James Camac Jesús Julio Camarero Courtney Campany Giandiego Campetella Juan Antonio Campos Laura Cano-Arboleda Roberto Canullo Michele Carbognani Fabio Carvalho Fernando Casanoves Bastien Castagneyrol Jane A Catford Jeannine Cavender-Bares Bruno E L Cerabolini Marco Cervellini Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal Kenneth Chapin F Stuart Chapin Stefano Chelli Si-Chong Chen Anping Chen Paolo Cherubini Francesco Chianucci Brendan Choat Kyong-Sook Chung Milan Chytrý Daniela Ciccarelli Lluís Coll Courtney G Collins Luisa Conti David Coomes Johannes H C Cornelissen William K Cornwell Piermaria Corona Marie Coyea Joseph Craine Dylan Craven Joris P G M Cromsigt Anikó Csecserits Katarina Cufar Matthias Cuntz Ana Carolina da Silva Kyla M Dahlin Matteo Dainese Igor Dalke Michele Dalle Fratte Anh Tuan Dang-Le Jirí Danihelka Masako Dannoura Samantha Dawson Arend Jacobus de Beer Angel De Frutos Jonathan R De Long Benjamin Dechant Sylvain Delagrange Nicolas Delpierre Géraldine Derroire Arildo S Dias Milton Hugo Diaz-Toribio Panayiotis G Dimitrakopoulos Mark Dobrowolski Daniel Doktor Pavel Dřevojan Ning Dong John Dransfield Stefan Dressler Leandro Duarte Emilie Ducouret Stefan Dullinger Walter Durka Remko Duursma Olga Dymova Anna E-Vojtkó Rolf Lutz Eckstein Hamid Ejtehadi James Elser Thaise Emilio Kristine Engemann Mohammad Bagher Erfanian Alexandra Erfmeier Adriane Esquivel-Muelbert Gerd Esser Marc Estiarte Tomas F Domingues William F Fagan Jaime Fagúndez Daniel S Falster Ying Fan Jingyun Fang Emmanuele Farris Fatih Fazlioglu Yanhao Feng Fernando Fernandez-Mendez Carlotta Ferrara Joice Ferreira Alessandra Fidelis Bryan Finegan Jennifer Firn Timothy J Flowers Dan F B Flynn Veronika Fontana Estelle Forey Cristiane Forgiarini Louis François Marcelo Frangipani Dorothea Frank Cedric Frenette-Dussault Grégoire T Freschet Ellen L Fry Nikolaos M Fyllas Guilherme G Mazzochini Sophie Gachet Rachael Gallagher Gislene Ganade Francesca Ganga Pablo García-Palacios Verónica Gargaglione Eric Garnier Jose Luis Garrido André Luís de Gasper Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo David Gibson Andrew N Gillison Aelton Giroldo Mary-Claire Glasenhardt Sean Gleason Mariana Gliesch Emma Goldberg Bastian Göldel Erika Gonzalez-Akre Jose L 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Glob Chang Biol 2020 01 31;26(1):119-188. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany.

Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14904DOI Listing
January 2020

The geography of biodiversity change in marine and terrestrial assemblages.

Science 2019 10;366(6463):339-345

Centre for Biological Diversity, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UK.

Human activities are fundamentally altering biodiversity. Projections of declines at the global scale are contrasted by highly variable trends at local scales, suggesting that biodiversity change may be spatially structured. Here, we examined spatial variation in species richness and composition change using more than 50,000 biodiversity time series from 239 studies and found clear geographic variation in biodiversity change. Rapid compositional change is prevalent, with marine biomes exceeding and terrestrial biomes trailing the overall trend. Assemblage richness is not changing on average, although locations exhibiting increasing and decreasing trends of up to about 20% per year were found in some marine studies. At local scales, widespread compositional reorganization is most often decoupled from richness change, and biodiversity change is strongest and most variable in the oceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw1620DOI Listing
October 2019

Local snow melt and temperature-but not regional sea ice-explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 07 24;25(7):2258-2274. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan.

The Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change with rapidly rising surface temperatures, accelerating sea ice decline and changing snow regimes, all of which influence tundra plant phenology. Despite these changes, no globally consistent direction of trends in spring phenology has been reported across the Arctic. While spring has advanced at some sites, spring has delayed or not changed at other sites, highlighting substantial unexplained variation. Here, we test the relative importance of local temperatures, local snow melt date and regional spring drop in sea ice extent as controls of variation in spring phenology across different sites and species. Trends in long-term time series of spring leaf-out and flowering (average span: 18 years) were highly variable for the 14 tundra species monitored at our four study sites on the Arctic coasts of Alaska, Canada and Greenland, ranging from advances of 10.06 days per decade to delays of 1.67 days per decade. Spring temperatures and the day of spring drop in sea ice extent advanced at all sites (average 1°C per decade and 21 days per decade, respectively), but only those sites with advances in snow melt (average 5 days advance per decade) also had advancing phenology. Variation in spring plant phenology was best explained by snow melt date (mean effect: 0.45 days advance in phenology per day advance snow melt) and, to a lesser extent, by mean spring temperature (mean effect: 2.39 days advance in phenology per °C). In contrast to previous studies examining sea ice and phenology at different spatial scales, regional spring drop in sea ice extent did not predict spring phenology for any species or site in our analysis. Our findings highlight that tundra vegetation responses to global change are more complex than a direct response to warming and emphasize the importance of snow melt as a local driver of tundra spring phenology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14639DOI Listing
July 2019

Status and trends in Arctic vegetation: Evidence from experimental warming and long-term monitoring.

Ambio 2020 Mar 30;49(3):678-692. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Changes in Arctic vegetation can have important implications for trophic interactions and ecosystem functioning leading to climate feedbacks. Plot-based vegetation surveys provide detailed insight into vegetation changes at sites around the Arctic and improve our ability to predict the impacts of environmental change on tundra ecosystems. Here, we review studies of changes in plant community composition and phenology from both long-term monitoring and warming experiments in Arctic environments. We find that Arctic plant communities and species are generally sensitive to warming, but trends over a period of time are heterogeneous and complex and do not always mirror expectations based on responses to experimental manipulations. Our findings highlight the need for more geographically widespread, integrated, and comprehensive monitoring efforts that can better resolve the interacting effects of warming and other local and regional ecological factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01161-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989703PMC
March 2020

Warming shortens flowering seasons of tundra plant communities.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 01 10;3(1):45-52. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research, Davos, Switzerland.

Advancing phenology is one of the most visible effects of climate change on plant communities, and has been especially pronounced in temperature-limited tundra ecosystems. However, phenological responses have been shown to differ greatly between species, with some species shifting phenology more than others. We analysed a database of 42,689 tundra plant phenological observations to show that warmer temperatures are leading to a contraction of community-level flowering seasons in tundra ecosystems due to a greater advancement in the flowering times of late-flowering species than early-flowering species. Shorter flowering seasons with a changing climate have the potential to alter trophic interactions in tundra ecosystems. Interestingly, these findings differ from those of warmer ecosystems, where early-flowering species have been found to be more sensitive to temperature change, suggesting that community-level phenological responses to warming can vary greatly between biomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0745-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Global trait-environment relationships of plant communities.

Authors:
Helge Bruelheide Jürgen Dengler Oliver Purschke Jonathan Lenoir Borja Jiménez-Alfaro Stephan M Hennekens Zoltán Botta-Dukát Milan Chytrý Richard Field Florian Jansen Jens Kattge Valério D Pillar Franziska Schrodt Miguel D Mahecha Robert K Peet Brody Sandel Peter van Bodegom Jan Altman Esteban Alvarez-Dávila Mohammed A S Arfin Khan Fabio Attorre Isabelle Aubin Christopher Baraloto Jorcely G Barroso Marijn Bauters Erwin Bergmeier Idoia Biurrun Anne D Bjorkman Benjamin Blonder Andraž Čarni Luis Cayuela Tomáš Černý J Hans C Cornelissen Dylan Craven Matteo Dainese Géraldine Derroire Michele De Sanctis Sandra Díaz Jiří Doležal William Farfan-Rios Ted R Feldpausch Nicole J Fenton Eric Garnier Greg R Guerin Alvaro G Gutiérrez Sylvia Haider Tarek Hattab Greg Henry Bruno Hérault Pedro Higuchi Norbert Hölzel Jürgen Homeier Anke Jentsch Norbert Jürgens Zygmunt Kącki Dirk N Karger Michael Kessler Michael Kleyer Ilona Knollová Andrey Y Korolyuk Ingolf Kühn Daniel C Laughlin Frederic Lens Jacqueline Loos Frédérique Louault Mariyana I Lyubenova Yadvinder Malhi Corrado Marcenò Maurizio Mencuccini Jonas V Müller Jérôme Munzinger Isla H Myers-Smith David A Neill Ülo Niinemets Kate H Orwin Wim A Ozinga Josep Penuelas Aaron Pérez-Haase Petr Petřík Oliver L Phillips Meelis Pärtel Peter B Reich Christine Römermann Arthur V Rodrigues Francesco Maria Sabatini Jordi Sardans Marco Schmidt Gunnar Seidler Javier Eduardo Silva Espejo Marcos Silveira Anita Smyth Maria Sporbert Jens-Christian Svenning Zhiyao Tang Raquel Thomas Ioannis Tsiripidis Kiril Vassilev Cyrille Violle Risto Virtanen Evan Weiher Erik Welk Karsten Wesche Marten Winter Christian Wirth Ute Jandt

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 12 19;2(12):1906-1917. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.

Plant functional traits directly affect ecosystem functions. At the species level, trait combinations depend on trade-offs representing different ecological strategies, but at the community level trait combinations are expected to be decoupled from these trade-offs because different strategies can facilitate co-existence within communities. A key question is to what extent community-level trait composition is globally filtered and how well it is related to global versus local environmental drivers. Here, we perform a global, plot-level analysis of trait-environment relationships, using a database with more than 1.1 million vegetation plots and 26,632 plant species with trait information. Although we found a strong filtering of 17 functional traits, similar climate and soil conditions support communities differing greatly in mean trait values. The two main community trait axes that capture half of the global trait variation (plant stature and resource acquisitiveness) reflect the trade-offs at the species level but are weakly associated with climate and soil conditions at the global scale. Similarly, within-plot trait variation does not vary systematically with macro-environment. Our results indicate that, at fine spatial grain, macro-environmental drivers are much less important for functional trait composition than has been assumed from floristic analyses restricted to co-occurrence in large grid cells. Instead, trait combinations seem to be predominantly filtered by local-scale factors such as disturbance, fine-scale soil conditions, niche partitioning and biotic interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0699-8DOI Listing
December 2018

Plant traits inform predictions of tundra responses to global change.

New Phytol 2019 03 24;221(4):1742-1748. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberganlage 25, Frankfurt, Germany.

Contents Summary 1742 I. Introduction 1742 II. The global context of tundra trait variation 1743 III. The current state of knowledge on trait change in the tundra biome 1744 IV. The links between traits and ecosystem functions 1744 V. Future priorities for tundra trait research 1746 VI. Conclusions 1746 References 1747 SUMMARY: In the rapidly warming tundra biome, plant traits provide an essential link between ongoing vegetation change and feedbacks to key ecosystem functions. However, only recently have comprehensive trait data been compiled for tundra species and sites, allowing us to assess key elements of functional responses to global change. In this review, we summarize trait-based research in tundra ecosystems, with a focus on three components: plant trait variation and how it compares with global patterns; shifts in community-level traits in response to environmental change; and the use of traits to understand and predict ecosystem function. Quantifying patterns and trends in plant traits will allow us to better project the consequences of environmental change for the ecology and functioning of tundra ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15592DOI Listing
March 2019

Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome.

Authors:
Anne D Bjorkman Isla H Myers-Smith Sarah C Elmendorf Signe Normand Nadja Rüger Pieter S A Beck Anne Blach-Overgaard Daan Blok J Hans C Cornelissen Bruce C Forbes Damien Georges Scott J Goetz Kevin C Guay Gregory H R Henry Janneke HilleRisLambers Robert D Hollister Dirk N Karger Jens Kattge Peter Manning Janet S Prevéy Christian Rixen Gabriela Schaepman-Strub Haydn J D Thomas Mark Vellend Martin Wilmking Sonja Wipf Michele Carbognani Luise Hermanutz Esther Lévesque Ulf Molau Alessandro Petraglia Nadejda A Soudzilovskaia Marko J Spasojevic Marcello Tomaselli Tage Vowles Juha M Alatalo Heather D Alexander Alba Anadon-Rosell Sandra Angers-Blondin Mariska Te Beest Logan Berner Robert G Björk Agata Buchwal Allan Buras Katherine Christie Elisabeth J Cooper Stefan Dullinger Bo Elberling Anu Eskelinen Esther R Frei Oriol Grau Paul Grogan Martin Hallinger Karen A Harper Monique M P D Heijmans James Hudson Karl Hülber Maitane Iturrate-Garcia Colleen M Iversen Francesca Jaroszynska Jill F Johnstone Rasmus Halfdan Jørgensen Elina Kaarlejärvi Rebecca Klady Sara Kuleza Aino Kulonen Laurent J Lamarque Trevor Lantz Chelsea J Little James D M Speed Anders Michelsen Ann Milbau Jacob Nabe-Nielsen Sigrid Schøler Nielsen Josep M Ninot Steven F Oberbauer Johan Olofsson Vladimir G Onipchenko Sabine B Rumpf Philipp Semenchuk Rohan Shetti Laura Siegwart Collier Lorna E Street Katharine N Suding Ken D Tape Andrew Trant Urs A Treier Jean-Pierre Tremblay Maxime Tremblay Susanna Venn Stef Weijers Tara Zamin Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe William A Gould David S Hik Annika Hofgaard Ingibjörg S Jónsdóttir Janet Jorgenson Julia Klein Borgthor Magnusson Craig Tweedie Philip A Wookey Michael Bahn Benjamin Blonder Peter M van Bodegom Benjamin Bond-Lamberty Giandiego Campetella Bruno E L Cerabolini F Stuart Chapin William K Cornwell Joseph Craine Matteo Dainese Franciska T de Vries Sandra Díaz Brian J Enquist Walton Green Ruben Milla Ülo Niinemets Yusuke Onoda Jenny C Ordoñez Wim A Ozinga Josep Penuelas Hendrik Poorter Peter Poschlod Peter B Reich Brody Sandel Brandon Schamp Serge Sheremetev Evan Weiher

Nature 2018 10 26;562(7725):57-62. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI, USA.

The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature-trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0563-7DOI Listing
October 2018

BioTIME: A database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene.

Authors:
Maria Dornelas Laura H Antão Faye Moyes Amanda E Bates Anne E Magurran Dušan Adam Asem A Akhmetzhanova Ward Appeltans José Manuel Arcos Haley Arnold Narayanan Ayyappan Gal Badihi Andrew H Baird Miguel Barbosa Tiago Egydio Barreto Claus Bässler Alecia Bellgrove Jonathan Belmaker Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi Brian J Bett Anne D Bjorkman Magdalena Błażewicz Shane A Blowes Christopher P Bloch Timothy C Bonebrake Susan Boyd Matt Bradford Andrew J Brooks James H Brown Helge Bruelheide Phaedra Budy Fernando Carvalho Edward Castañeda-Moya Chaolun Allen Chen John F Chamblee Tory J Chase Laura Siegwart Collier Sharon K Collinge Richard Condit Elisabeth J Cooper J Hans C Cornelissen Unai Cotano Shannan Kyle Crow Gabriella Damasceno Claire H Davies Robert A Davis Frank P Day Steven Degraer Tim S Doherty Timothy E Dunn Giselda Durigan J Emmett Duffy Dor Edelist Graham J Edgar Robin Elahi Sarah C Elmendorf Anders Enemar S K Morgan Ernest Rubén Escribano Marc Estiarte Brian S Evans Tung-Yung Fan Fabiano Turini Farah Luiz Loureiro Fernandes Fábio Z Farneda Alessandra Fidelis Robert Fitt Anna Maria Fosaa Geraldo Antonio Daher Correa Franco Grace E Frank William R Fraser Hernando García Roberto Cazzolla Gatti Or Givan Elizabeth Gorgone-Barbosa William A Gould Corinna Gries Gary D Grossman Julio R Gutierréz Stephen Hale Mark E Harmon John Harte Gary Haskins Donald L Henshaw Luise Hermanutz Pamela Hidalgo Pedro Higuchi Andrew Hoey Gert Van Hoey Annika Hofgaard Kristen Holeck Robert D Hollister Richard Holmes Mia Hoogenboom Chih-Hao Hsieh Stephen P Hubbell Falk Huettmann Christine L Huffard Allen H Hurlbert Natália Macedo Ivanauskas David Janík Ute Jandt Anna Jażdżewska Tore Johannessen Jill Johnstone Julia Jones Faith A M Jones Jungwon Kang Tasrif Kartawijaya Erin C Keeley Douglas A Kelt Rebecca Kinnear Kari Klanderud Halvor Knutsen Christopher C Koenig Alessandra R Kortz Kamil Král Linda A Kuhnz Chao-Yang Kuo David J Kushner Claire Laguionie-Marchais Lesley T Lancaster Cheol Min Lee Jonathan S Lefcheck Esther Lévesque David Lightfoot Francisco Lloret John D Lloyd Adrià López-Baucells Maite Louzao Joshua S Madin Borgþór Magnússon Shahar Malamud Iain Matthews Kent P McFarland Brian McGill Diane McKnight William O McLarney Jason Meador Peter L Meserve Daniel J Metcalfe Christoph F J Meyer Anders Michelsen Nataliya Milchakova Tom Moens Even Moland Jon Moore Carolina Mathias Moreira Jörg Müller Grace Murphy Isla H Myers-Smith Randall W Myster Andrew Naumov Francis Neat James A Nelson Michael Paul Nelson Stephen F Newton Natalia Norden Jeffrey C Oliver Esben M Olsen Vladimir G Onipchenko Krzysztof Pabis Robert J Pabst Alain Paquette Sinta Pardede David M Paterson Raphaël Pélissier Josep Peñuelas Alejandro Pérez-Matus Oscar Pizarro Francesco Pomati Eric Post Herbert H T Prins John C Priscu Pieter Provoost Kathleen L Prudic Erkki Pulliainen B R Ramesh Olivia Mendivil Ramos Andrew Rassweiler Jose Eduardo Rebelo Daniel C Reed Peter B Reich Suzanne M Remillard Anthony J Richardson J Paul Richardson Itai van Rijn Ricardo Rocha Victor H Rivera-Monroy Christian Rixen Kevin P Robinson Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues Denise de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres Lars Rudstam Henry Ruhl Catalina S Ruz Erica M Sampaio Nancy Rybicki Andrew Rypel Sofia Sal Beatriz Salgado Flavio A M Santos Ana Paula Savassi-Coutinho Sara Scanga Jochen Schmidt Robert Schooley Fakhrizal Setiawan Kwang-Tsao Shao Gaius R Shaver Sally Sherman Thomas W Sherry Jacek Siciński Caya Sievers Ana Carolina da Silva Fernando Rodrigues da Silva Fabio L Silveira Jasper Slingsby Tracey Smart Sara J Snell Nadejda A Soudzilovskaia Gabriel B G Souza Flaviana Maluf Souza Vinícius Castro Souza Christopher D Stallings Rowan Stanforth Emily H Stanley José Mauro Sterza Maarten Stevens Rick Stuart-Smith Yzel Rondon Suarez Sarah Supp Jorge Yoshio Tamashiro Sukmaraharja Tarigan Gary P Thiede Simon Thorn Anne Tolvanen Maria Teresa Zugliani Toniato Ørjan Totland Robert R Twilley Gediminas Vaitkus Nelson Valdivia Martha Isabel Vallejo Thomas J Valone Carl Van Colen Jan Vanaverbeke Fabio Venturoli Hans M Verheye Marcelo Vianna Rui P Vieira Tomáš Vrška Con Quang Vu Lien Van Vu Robert B Waide Conor Waldock Dave Watts Sara Webb Tomasz Wesołowski Ethan P White Claire E Widdicombe Dustin Wilgers Richard Williams Stefan B Williams Mark Williamson Michael R Willig Trevor J Willis Sonja Wipf Kerry D Woods Eric J Woehler Kyle Zawada Michael L Zettler Thomas Hickler

Glob Ecol Biogeogr 2018 Jul 24;27(7):760-786. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Centre for Biological Diversity and Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews St Andrews United Kingdom.

Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

Main Types Of Variables Included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the database contains metadata relating to sampling methodology and contextual information about each record.

Spatial Location And Grain: BioTIME is a global database of 547,161 unique sampling locations spanning the marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Grain size varies across datasets from 0.0000000158 km (158 cm) to 100 km (1,000,000,000,000 cm).

Time Period And Grain: BioTIME records span from 1874 to 2016. The minimal temporal grain across all datasets in BioTIME is a year.

Major Taxa And Level Of Measurement: BioTIME includes data from 44,440 species across the plant and animal kingdoms, ranging from plants, plankton and terrestrial invertebrates to small and large vertebrates.

Software Format: .csv and .SQL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099392PMC
July 2018

Accelerated increase in plant species richness on mountain summits is linked to warming.

Nature 2018 04 4;556(7700):231-234. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos, Switzerland.

Globally accelerating trends in societal development and human environmental impacts since the mid-twentieth century are known as the Great Acceleration and have been discussed as a key indicator of the onset of the Anthropocene epoch . While reports on ecological responses (for example, changes in species range or local extinctions) to the Great Acceleration are multiplying , it is unknown whether such biotic responses are undergoing a similar acceleration over time. This knowledge gap stems from the limited availability of time series data on biodiversity changes across large temporal and geographical extents. Here we use a dataset of repeated plant surveys from 302 mountain summits across Europe, spanning 145 years of observation, to assess the temporal trajectory of mountain biodiversity changes as a globally coherent imprint of the Anthropocene. We find a continent-wide acceleration in the rate of increase in plant species richness, with five times as much species enrichment between 2007 and 2016 as fifty years ago, between 1957 and 1966. This acceleration is strikingly synchronized with accelerated global warming and is not linked to alternative global change drivers. The accelerating increases in species richness on mountain summits across this broad spatial extent demonstrate that acceleration in climate-induced biotic change is occurring even in remote places on Earth, with potentially far-ranging consequences not only for biodiversity, but also for ecosystem functioning and services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0005-6DOI Listing
April 2018

Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

Glob Chang Biol 2017 07 6;23(7):2660-2671. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, 7260 Davos, Switzerland.

Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13619DOI Listing
July 2017

Climate adaptation is not enough: warming does not facilitate success of southern tundra plant populations in the high Arctic.

Glob Chang Biol 2017 04 6;23(4):1540-1551. Epub 2016 Aug 6.

Department of Geography and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Rapidly rising temperatures are expected to cause latitudinal and elevational range shifts as species track their optimal climate north and upward. However, a lack of adaptation to environmental conditions other than climate - for example photoperiod, biotic interactions, or edaphic conditions - might limit the success of immigrants in a new location despite hospitable climatic conditions. Here, we present one of the first direct experimental tests of the hypothesis that warmer temperatures at northern latitudes will confer a fitness advantage to southern immigrants relative to native populations. As rates of warming in the Arctic are more than double the global average, understanding the impacts of warming in Arctic ecosystems is especially urgent. We established experimentally warmed and nonwarmed common garden plots at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic with seeds of two forb species (Oxyria digyna and Papaver radicatum) originating from three to five populations at different latitudes across the Arctic. We found that plants from the local populations generally had higher survival and obtained a greater maximum size than foreign individuals, regardless of warming treatment. Phenological traits varied with latitude of the source population, such that southern populations demonstrated substantially delayed leaf-out and senescence relative to northern populations. Our results suggest that environmental conditions other than temperature may influence the ability of foreign populations and species to establish at more northerly latitudes as the climate warms, potentially leading to lags in northward range shifts for some species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13417DOI Listing
April 2017

Contrasting effects of warming and increased snowfall on Arctic tundra plant phenology over the past two decades.

Glob Chang Biol 2015 Dec;21(12):4651-61

Department of Geography and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Recent changes in climate have led to significant shifts in phenology, with many studies demonstrating advanced phenology in response to warming temperatures. The rate of temperature change is especially high in the Arctic, but this is also where we have relatively little data on phenological changes and the processes driving these changes. In order to understand how Arctic plant species are likely to respond to future changes in climate, we monitored flowering phenology in response to both experimental and ambient warming for four widespread species in two habitat types over 21 years. We additionally used long-term environmental records to disentangle the effects of temperature increase and changes in snowmelt date on phenological patterns. While flowering occurred earlier in response to experimental warming, plants in unmanipulated plots showed no change or a delay in flowering over the 21-year period, despite more than 1 °C of ambient warming during that time. This counterintuitive result was likely due to significantly delayed snowmelt over the study period (0.05-0.2 days/yr) due to increased winter snowfall. The timing of snowmelt was a strong driver of flowering phenology for all species - especially for early-flowering species - while spring temperature was significantly related to flowering time only for later-flowering species. Despite significantly delayed flowering phenology, the timing of seed maturation showed no significant change over time, suggesting that warmer temperatures may promote more rapid seed development. The results of this study highlight the importance of understanding the specific environmental cues that drive species' phenological responses as well as the complex interactions between temperature and precipitation when forecasting phenology over the coming decades. As demonstrated here, the effects of altered snowmelt patterns can counter the effects of warmer temperatures, even to the point of generating phenological responses opposite to those predicted by warming alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13051DOI Listing
December 2015

Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica).

Evol Appl 2015 Jun 13;8(5):464-75. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada ; Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, IN, USA.

Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's 'atypical' domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4430770PMC
June 2015

Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Mar 3;111(11):4001-6. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Apartado Aéreo 6713, Cali, Colombia.

The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world's food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313490111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964121PMC
March 2014

Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra vegetation: heterogeneity over space and time.

Ecol Lett 2012 Feb 5;15(2):164-75. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Understanding the sensitivity of tundra vegetation to climate warming is critical to forecasting future biodiversity and vegetation feedbacks to climate. In situ warming experiments accelerate climate change on a small scale to forecast responses of local plant communities. Limitations of this approach include the apparent site-specificity of results and uncertainty about the power of short-term studies to anticipate longer term change. We address these issues with a synthesis of 61 experimental warming studies, of up to 20 years duration, in tundra sites worldwide. The response of plant groups to warming often differed with ambient summer temperature, soil moisture and experimental duration. Shrubs increased with warming only where ambient temperature was high, whereas graminoids increased primarily in the coldest study sites. Linear increases in effect size over time were frequently observed. There was little indication of saturating or accelerating effects, as would be predicted if negative or positive vegetation feedbacks were common. These results indicate that tundra vegetation exhibits strong regional variation in response to warming, and that in vulnerable regions, cumulative effects of long-term warming on tundra vegetation - and associated ecosystem consequences - have the potential to be much greater than we have observed to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01716.xDOI Listing
February 2012

Defining historical baselines for conservation: ecological changes since European settlement on Vancouver Island, Canada.

Conserv Biol 2010 Dec;24(6):1559-68

Department of Botany, Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Conservation and restoration goals are often defined by historical baseline conditions that occurred prior to a particular period of human disturbance, such as European settlement in North America. Nevertheless, if ecosystems were heavily influenced by native peoples prior to European settlement, conservation efforts may require active management rather than simple removal of or reductions in recent forms of disturbance. We used pre-European settlement land survey records (1859-1874) and contemporary vegetation surveys to assess changes over the past 150 years in tree species and habitat composition, forest density, and tree size structure on southern Vancouver Island and Saltspring Island, British Columbia, Canada. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that frequent historical burning by native peoples, and subsequent fire suppression, have played dominant roles in shaping this landscape. First, the relative frequency of fire-sensitive species (e.g., cedar [Thuja plicata]) has increased, whereas fire-tolerant species (e.g., Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii]) have decreased. Tree density has increased 2-fold, and the proportion of the landscape in forest has greatly increased at the expense of open habitats (plains, savannas), which today contain most of the region's threatened species. Finally, the frequency distribution of tree size has shifted from unimodal to monotonically decreasing, which suggests removal of an important barrier to tree recruitment. In addition, although most of the open habitats are associated with Garry oak (Quercus garryana) at present, most of the open habitats prior to European settlement were associated with Douglas-fir, which suggests that the current focus on Garry oak as a flagship for the many rare species in savannas may be misguided. Overall, our results indicate that the maintenance and restoration of open habitats will require active management and that historical records can provide critical guidance to such efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01550.xDOI Listing
December 2010