Publications by authors named "Anna-Liisa Myllyniemi"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antimicrobial use, biosecurity, herd characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli in ten Finnish pig farms.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Aug 10;193:105408. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

We investigated connections between antimicrobial use (AMU), biosecurity, and the numbers of pigs and staff in ten Finnish farrow-to-finish herds. Data on AMU in each herd were collected for 12 months. AMU was quantified as treatment incidences per 1000 days at risk (TI) using the consensus defined daily dose calculation. Biosecurity was scored using the Biocheck.UGent™ system. We also examined antimicrobial resistance patterns of indicator E. coli isolated from faeces of selected pigs. In each herd, two groups of five pigs were formed: 1) antimicrobial treatment group (ANT: at least one pig in the litter was identified as sick and treated with antimicrobials) and 2) non-antimicrobial treatment group (NON: the litter was not medicated). Faecal samples were taken from these pigs at 5 and 22 weeks of age, cultured, and indicator E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities. The AMU varied considerably between the herds. Altogether, most of the antimicrobial treatment courses were assigned to weaned piglets. When AMU was quantified as TIs, suckling piglets had the highest TI (mean 46.6), which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than TIs in fatteners and breeders (9.3 and 7.3, respectively). The difference between TI in suckling and TI in weaned piglets (19.1) was not statistically significant. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between the TI in breeders and the number of sows (r = -0.56, P = 0.09). Larger herds had higher external biosecurity scores than smaller herds (LS-means; 72 vs. 66, P < 0.05). The proportions of E. coli isolates resistant to at least one antimicrobial were higher in pigs at 5 weeks than in pigs at 22 weeks of age (Binomial proportion means; 40.5 % vs. 15.5 %, P < 0.05); as well as proportions of isolates resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes (23.0 % vs. 3.7 %, P < 0.01). These proportions did not differ between the ANT and NON groups at either 5 or 22 weeks of age (P> 0.05). We found few connections: enhanced external biosecurity levels found in the large herds co-occurred with lower use of antimicrobials and herds with low biosecurity scores - especially in the internal subcategories - appeared to have higher proportions of resistant isolates. Conclusively, we suggest that enhancing internal biosecurity might contribute to a reduction in the spreading of antimicrobial resistance in pig herds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105408DOI Listing
August 2021

Plasmid-Borne and Chromosomal ESBL/AmpC Genes in and in Global Food Products.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:592291. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC, and carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae, in particular and , with potential zoonotic transmission routes, are one of the greatest threats to global health. The aim of this study was to investigate global food products as potential vehicles for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria and identify plasmids harboring resistance genes. We sampled 200 food products purchased from Finland capital region during fall 2018. Products originated from 35 countries from six continents and represented four food categories: vegetables ( = 60), fruits and berries ( = 50), meat ( = 60), and seafood ( = 30). Additionally, subsamples ( = 40) were taken from broiler meat. Samples were screened for ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae and whole genome sequenced to identify resistance and virulence genes and sequence types (STs). To accurately identify plasmids harboring resistance and virulence genes, a hybrid sequence analysis combining long- and short-read sequencing was employed. Sequences were compared to previously published plasmids to identify potential epidemic plasmid types. Altogether, 14 out of 200 samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing and/or . Positive samples were recovered from meat (18%; 11/60) and vegetables (5%; 3/60) but were not found from seafood or fruit. ESBL/AmpC-producing and/or was found in 90% (36/40) of broiler meat subsamples. Whole genome sequencing of selected isolates ( = 21) revealed a wide collection of STs, plasmid replicons, and genes conferring multidrug resistance. -producing ST307 was identified in vegetable ( = 1) and meat ( = 1) samples. Successful IncFII plasmid type was recovered from vegetable and both IncFII and IncI1-Iγ types from meat samples. Hybrid sequence analysis also revealed chromosomally located beta-lactamase genes in two of the isolates and indicated similarity of food-derived plasmids to other livestock-associated sources and also to plasmids obtained from human clinical samples from various countries, such as IncI type plasmid harboring from a human urine sample obtained in the Netherlands which was highly similar to a plasmid obtained from broiler meat in this study. Results indicate certain foods contain bacteria with multidrug resistance and pose a possible risk to public health, emphasizing the importance of surveillance and the need for further studies on epidemiology of epidemic plasmids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.592291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886708PMC
February 2021

Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland.

Acta Vet Scand 2013 Aug 28;55:61. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Production Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Koetilantie 7, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods.

Results: Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates.

Conclusions: The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-55-61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846491PMC
August 2013

Genetic basis of penicillin resistance of S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis.

Acta Vet Scand 2012 Nov 23;54:69. Epub 2012 Nov 23.

Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The blaZ gene encoding penicillin resistance can be located either chromosomally or on plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships and to determine the location of the blaZ gene in S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis in Finland and Sweden.

Methods: Seventy-eight β-lactamase positive S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis (34 from Finland and 44 from Sweden) were included in the study. The localization of blaZ gene was determined by Southern blotting. The blaZ genes of the isolates were sequenced and the sequences were translated to beta-lactamase proteins and further grouped as different protein signatures. The isolates and, as control, 33 Swedish and 36 Finnish beta-lactamase negative isolates were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Results: In 26 out of 34 Finnish isolates (76.5%) and in 25 out of 44 Swedish isolates (56.8%) the blaZ gene was localized on a plasmid. Six different protein signatures were found. One signature was found only in four Swedish isolates, but all other signatures were found both in Finnish and Swedish isolates. The PFGE results revealed a diversity of S. aureus clones. The protein signatures were not clearly associated with certain pulsotypes.

Conclusions: The plasmid location of the blaZ gene was not statistically significantly more common in Finland than in Sweden, and hence does not explain the higher proportion of penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis in Finland compared to Sweden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-54-69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575348PMC
November 2012

International collaborative study on the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolated from animals, humans, food and the environment in 13 European countries.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2011 Jun 9;66(6):1278-86. Epub 2011 Mar 9.

Central Veterinary Institute (CVI), Wageningen UR, PO Box 65, 8200 AB, Lelystad, The Netherlands.

Objectives: This study was initiated to collect retrospective information on the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates in Europe and to identify the responsible genes.

Methods: Databases of national reference laboratories containing MIC values for Salmonella and E. coli isolated between 1994 and 2009 in animals, humans, food and the environment from 13 European countries were screened for isolates exhibiting a defined quinolone resistance phenotype, i.e. reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and nalidixic acid. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify the responsible PMQR genes.

Results: Screening of databases of 13 European countries resulted in a selection of 1215 Salmonella and 333 E. coli isolates. PMQR genes were identified in 59% of the Salmonella isolates and 15% of the E. coli isolates selected. In Salmonella, qnrS1 (n = 125) and variants of qnrB (n = 138) were frequently identified, whereas qnrA1 (n = 3) and aac(6')-1b-cr (n = 3) were rarely found. qnrD was detected in 22 Salmonella isolates obtained from humans and animals. In E. coli, qnrS1 was identified in 19 isolates and qnrB19 was found in one isolate. No qnrC or qepA genes were detected in either Salmonella or E. coli.

Conclusions: This study shows the occurrence and dissemination of PMQR genes in Salmonella and E. coli in Europe with a defined quinolone resistance phenotype. We also report the first detection of qnrD in Salmonella collected in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkr084DOI Listing
June 2011

Human cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398, Finland.

Emerg Infect Dis 2010 Oct;16(10):1626-9

National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Helsinki, Finland.

Nationwide surveillance identified 10 human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398. Further typing in comparison with animal isolates identified 4 clusters: 1 related to a horse epidemic and 3 to persons who had no direct contact with animals or each other. These findings may indicate unrecognized community transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1610.091571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294383PMC
October 2010

Phylogeny, virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated in clinical bovine mastitis.

Vet Microbiol 2011 Jan 22;147(3-4):383-8. Epub 2010 Jul 22.

Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Paroninkuja 20, FI-04920 Saarentaus, Finland.

The aim of this study was to identify specific phylogeny groups, virulence genes or antimicrobial resistance traits of Escherichia coli isolated in bovine mastitis associated to clinical signs, persistence of intramammary infection in the quarter and recovery from mastitis. A total of 154 E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis, 144 from the acute stage and 10 from follow-up samples 3 weeks later, originating from 144 cows in 65 dairy herds in Southern Finland were investigated. Phylogeny groups and virulence genes of the isolates were determined using polymerase chain reaction, and antimicrobial susceptibility using the VetMIC™ microdilution method. In ten cows (11.8%), infection persisted, confirmed by re-isolation of the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type from the affected quarter at 3 weeks post-treatment. The majority of isolates, 119 (82.6%), belonged to phylogeny group A, which mainly consisted of commensal strains. Altogether 56 isolates (38.9%) had at least one virulence gene detected. Most common virulence genes detected were irp2, iucD, papC iss; genes svg, stx1, stx2, cnf1 and hlyA were not found. Combinations of virulence genes varied greatly. Forty (27.8%) of the 144 E. coli isolates showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial tested. None of the studied phylogeny groups, virulence factors or antimicrobial resistance traits was associated with clinical signs, persistence of intramammary infection or clinical recovery from mastitis. The results support the conclusion that mastitis-causing E. coli bacteria are typical commensals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.07.011DOI Listing
January 2011

Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002-2004.

Acta Vet Scand 2008 Jul 8;50:28. Epub 2008 Jul 8.

National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Bülowsvej 27, DK-1790, Copenhagen V, Denmark.

Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003-2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected.

Method: Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002-2004). Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species.A proficiency test (EQAS - external quality assurance system) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries.

Results: Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales), Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to tetracycline, gentamicin and erythromycin. More resistance and variation of the resistance levels between countries were observed for Escherichia coli compared to the other bacterial species investigated.

Conclusion: In general, isolates from Denmark, England (and Wales), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland showed low frequencies of resistance, whereas many isolates from Belgium, France, Italy, Latvia and Spain were resistant to most antimicrobials tested. In the future, data on the prevalence of resistance should be used to develop guidelines for appropriate antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-50-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2486267PMC
July 2008

Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens and indicator bacteria in pigs in different European countries from year 2002 - 2004: the ARBAO-II study.

Acta Vet Scand 2008 Jun 13;50:19. Epub 2008 Jun 13.

National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Bülowsvej 27, DK-1790 Copenhagen V, Denmark.

Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003-05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria causing infections in pigs are reported.

Methods: Susceptibility data from 17,642 isolates of pathogens and indicator bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002-2004.

Results: Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim - sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 - 92.0%) and erythromycin (29.1 - 75.0%) was observed in all countries whereas the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin differed between the reporting countries. Isolates from England (and Wales), France and The Netherlands were all susceptible to penicillin. In contrast the proportion of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin ranged from 12.6 to 79.0% (2004) and to penicillin from 8.1 - 13.0% (2004) in Poland and Portugal. Data for E. coli from infected and healthy pigs were obtained from eleven countries. The data reveal a high level of resistance to tetracyclines, streptomycin and ampicillin among infected pigs whereas in healthy pigs the frequency of resistance was lower.

Conclusion: Bacterial resistance to some antimicrobials was frequent with different levels of resistance being observed to several antimicrobial agents in different countries. The occurrence of resistance varied distinctly between isolates from healthy and diseased pigs, with the isolates from healthy pigs generally showing a lower level of resistance than those from diseased pigs. The study suggests that the choice of antimicrobials used for the treatment of diseased animals should preferably be based on knowledge of the local pattern of resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-50-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2459172PMC
June 2008

An automated turbidimetric method for the identification of certain antibiotic groups in incurred kidney samples.

Analyst 2004 Mar 27;129(3):265-9. Epub 2004 Jan 27.

Department of Bacteriology, PO Box 45 (Hämeentie 57), Helsinki FIN-00581, Finland.

An automated turbidimetric method was developed for group level identification of penicillinase sensitive penicillins, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in kidney samples. A sample pretreatment procedure was elaborated for the extraction of incurred residues from kidney tissue in a translucent solution to enable the measurement of changes in optical density. The method was comprised of three pairs, one for each antibiotic group: a sensitive test bacterium strain and a resistant strain for the identification of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, and a sensitive strain with and without penicillinase for the identification of penicillinase sensitive penicillins. The algorithm employed compared the areas under the OD vs. time curves; threshold values and experimentally observed intra-test criteria were also included in the algorithm. Antibiotics were reliably identified to group level, and no false identifications were obtained with antibiotics belonging to groups not included in the reference panel. Incurred penicillin G, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin-ciprofloxacin residues were identified at or below the MRL levels for kidney tissue. The graphically determined shortest possible identification times varied between 2 and 7 h. The method developed could furthermore easily be diversified to include other antibiotic groups by adding new "sensitive-resistant" bacterium and medium combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b306622cDOI Listing
March 2004

An indirect conductimetric screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in bovine kidneys.

Analyst 2002 Sep;127(9):1247-51

Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

An indirect conductimetric screening method using three test bacterium-medium combinations was developed for rapid detection of antibiotic residues in bovine carcasses. The detection time (DT), i.e. the point when the growth of the test bacterium was detected, was determined by observing the rate of change in the conductance plotted against time. This detection time averaged half of the reference time recorded by the instrument software. Total change in conductance (TC) was used as a further measure of growth. Threshold values for DT and TC were determined with inhibitor-free kidney samples. The presence of a residue was indicated if the DT exceeded the respective threshold value and was confirmed if the TC remained below the TC threshold value. The limits of detection (LODs) determined with fortified samples were at about or below the MRLs for cephalexin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, dihydrostreptomycin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and penicillin G. The LODs for penicillin G, oxytetracycline and the sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also estimated with incurred samples; these samples were also analysed using liquid chromatography. The LODs determined with fortified and incurred samples were in close agreement. Given its rapid detection, good sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and ease of performance, the indirect conductimetric method developed here would seem to offer an appealing alternative to agar diffusion tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b204175hDOI Listing
September 2002