Publications by authors named "Anna S Druzhkova"

9 Publications

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Traces of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Mongolian Horse Mitochondrial Lineages in Modern Populations.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of the Diversity and Evolution of Genomes, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

The Mongolian horse is one of the most ancient and relatively unmanaged horse breeds. The population history of the Mongolian horse remains poorly understood due to a lack of information on ancient and modern DNA. Here, we report nearly complete mitochondrial genome data obtained from five ancient Mongolian horse samples of the Khereksur and Deer Stone culture (late 2nd to 1st third of the 1st millennium BC) and one ancient horse specimen from the Xiongnu culture (1st century BC to 1st century AD) using target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing methods. Phylogenetic analysis involving ancient, historical, and modern mitogenomes of horses from Mongolia and other regions showed the presence of three mitochondrial haplogroups in the ancient Mongolian horse populations studied here and similar haplotype composition of ancient and modern horse populations of Mongolia. Our results revealed genetic continuity between the Mongolian horse populations of the Khereksur and Deer Stone culture and those of the Xiongnu culture owing to the presence of related mitotypes. Besides, we report close phylogenetic relationships between haplotypes of the Khereksur and Deer Stone horses and the horses of indigenous breeds of the Middle East (Caspian and Iranian), China (Naqu, Yunnan, and Jinjiang), and Italy (Giara) as well as genetic similarity between the Xiongnu Mongolian horses and those of the most ancient breeds of the Middle East (Arabian) and Central Asia (Akhal-Teke). Despite all the migrations of the Mongolian peoples over the past 3000 years, mitochondrial haplogroup composition of Mongolian horse populations remains almost unchanged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000342PMC
March 2021

High genetic diversity of ancient horses from the Ukok Plateau.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(11):e0241997. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of the Diversity and Evolution of Genomes, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.

A growing number of researchers studying horse domestication come to a conclusion that this process happened in multiple locations and involved multiple wild maternal lines. The most promising approach to address this problem involves mitochondrial haplotype comparison of wild and domestic horses from various locations coupled with studies of possible migration routes of the ancient shepherds. Here, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of six horses from burials of the Ukok plateau (Russia, Altai Mountains) dated from 2.7 to 1.4 thousand years before present and a single late Pleistocene wild horse from the neighboring region (Denisova cave). Sequencing data indicates that the wild horse belongs to an extinct pre-domestication lineage. Integration of the domestic horse data with known Eurasian haplotypes of a similar age revealed two distinct groups: the first one widely distributed in Europe and presumably imported to Altai, and the second one specific for Altai Mountains and surrounding area.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241997PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660532PMC
January 2021

Genetic Content of the Neo-Sex Chromosomes in Ctenonotus and Norops (Squamata, Dactyloidae) and Degeneration of the Y Chromosome as Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of Individual Chromosomes.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2019 1;157(1-2):115-122. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Pleurodont lizards are characterized by an ancient system of sex chromosomes. Along with stability of the central component of the system (homologous to the X chromosome of Anolis carolinensis [Dactyloidae], ACAX), in some genera the ancestral sex chromosomes are fused with microautosomes, forming neo-sex chromosomes. The genus Ctenonotus (Dactyloidae) is characterized by multiple X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosomes. According to cytogenetic data, the large neo-Y chromosome is formed by fusion of the ancestral Y chromosome with 2 microautosomes (homologous to ACA10 or ACA11 and ACA12), the X1 chromosome is formed by fusion of the ancestral X chromosome with the autosome homologous to ACA10 or ACA11, and the X2 chromosome is homologous to autosome ACA12. To determine more precisely the content and evolution of the Ctenonotus sex chromosomes, we sequenced flow-sorted chromosomes (both sex chromosomes and microautosomes as control) of 2 species with a similar system: C. pogus and C. sabanus. Our results indicate that the translocated part of the X1 is homologous to ACA11, X2 is homologous to ACA12, and the Y contains segments homologous to both ACA11 and ACA12. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that the ancestral X-derived part has completely degenerated in the Y of Ctenonotus, similar to the degeneration of the Norops sagrei Y chromosome (Dactyloidae). The newly added regions show loss of DNA content, but without degeneration of the conserved regions. We hypothesize that the translocation of autosomal blocks onto sex chromosomes facilitated rapid degeneration of the pseudoautosomal region on the ancestral Y.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497091DOI Listing
May 2019

Sequencing of Supernumerary Chromosomes of Red Fox and Raccoon Dog Confirms a Non-Random Gene Acquisition by B Chromosomes.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

B chromosomes (Bs) represent a variable addition to the main karyotype in some lineages of animals and plants. Bs accumulate through non-Mendelian inheritance and become widespread in populations. Despite the presence of multiple genes, most Bs lack specific phenotypic effects, although their influence on host genome epigenetic status and gene expression are recorded. Previously, using sequencing of isolated Bs of ruminants and rodents, we demonstrated that Bs originate as segmental duplications of specific genomic regions, and subsequently experience pseudogenization and repeat accumulation. Here, we used a similar approach to characterize Bs of the red fox ( L.) and the Chinese raccoon dog ( Gray). We confirm the previous findings of the gene on Bs of both species, but demostrate an independent origin of Bs in these species, with two reused regions. Comparison of gene ensembles in Bs of canids, ruminants, and rodents once again indicates enrichment with cell-cycle genes, development-related genes, and genes functioning in the neuron synapse. The presence of B-chromosomal copies of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and tissue differentiation may indicate importance of these genes for B chromosome establishment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9080405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116037PMC
August 2018

Low-pass single-chromosome sequencing of human small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) and Apodemus B chromosomes.

Chromosoma 2018 09 30;127(3):301-311. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Supernumerary chromosomes sporadically arise in many eukaryotic species as a result of genomic rearrangements. If present in a substantial part of species population, those are called B chromosomes, or Bs. This is the case for 70 mammalian species, most of which are rodents. In humans, the most common types of extra chromosomes, sSMCs (small supernumerary marker chromosomes), are diagnosed in approximately 1 of 2000 postnatal cases. Due to low frequency in population, human sSMCs are not considered B chromosomes. Genetic content of both B-chromosomes and sSMCs in most cases remains understudied. Here, we apply microdissection of single chromosomes with subsequent low-pass sequencing on Ion Torrent PGM and Illumina MiSeq to identify unique and repetitive DNA sequences present in a single human sSMC and several B chromosomes in mice Apodemus flavicollis and Apodemus peninsulae. The pipeline for sequencing data analysis was made available in Galaxy interface as an addition to previously published command-line version. Human sSMC was attributed to the proximal part of chromosome 15 long arm, and breakpoints leading to its formation were located into satellite DNA arrays. Genetic content of Apodemus B chromosomes was species-specific, and minor alterations were observed in both species. Common features of Bs in these Apodemus species were satellite DNA and ERV enrichment, as well as the presence of the vaccinia-related kinase gene Vrk1. Understanding of the non-essential genome elements content provides important insights into genome evolution in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00412-018-0662-0DOI Listing
September 2018

Next Generation Sequencing of Chromosome-Specific Libraries Sheds Light on Genome Evolution in Paleotetraploid Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus).

Genes (Basel) 2017 Nov 10;8(11). Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

Several whole genome duplication (WGD) events followed by rediploidization took place in the evolutionary history of vertebrates. Acipenserids represent a convenient model group for investigation of the consequences of WGD as their representatives underwent additional WGD events in different lineages resulting in ploidy level variation between species, and these processes are still ongoing. Earlier, we obtained a set of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) chromosome-specific libraries by microdissection and revealed that they painted two or four pairs of whole sterlet chromosomes, as well as additional chromosomal regions, depending on rediploidization status and chromosomal rearrangements after genome duplication. In this study, we employed next generation sequencing to estimate the content of libraries derived from different paralogous chromosomes of sterlet. For this purpose, we aligned the obtained reads to the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) reference genome to reveal syntenic regions between these two species having diverged 360 Mya. We also showed that the approach is effective for synteny prediction at various evolutionary distances and allows one to clearly distinguish paralogous chromosomes in polyploid genomes. We postulated that after the acipenserid-specific WGD sterlet karyotype underwent multiple interchromosomal rearrangements, but different chromosomes were involved in this process unequally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes8110318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5704231PMC
November 2017

Complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct specimen from Denisova cave (Altai, Russia).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Feb 6;2(1):79-81. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.

is an extinct subgenus of first characterized and delineated in 2010. The almost complete mitochondrial genome is available only for a single specimen of - a 40,000 years old from Proskuryakova cave (Khakassia, Russia). Our studies of ancient horses from Denisova cave (Altai, Russia) revealed mitochondrial DNA of this species in a 32,000 years old sample. Using alignments to multiple mitochondrial genomes of non-caballine equids, we recovered 100% complete mitochondrial genome of for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates close relationship between this individual and the one previously described in Khakassia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1285209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800821PMC
February 2017

Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.

PLoS One 2013 6;8(3):e57754. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Genomic Diversity and Evolution, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057754PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590291PMC
September 2013

Genotyping of Capreolus pygargus fossil DNA from Denisova cave reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and modern populations.

PLoS One 2011 29;6(8):e24045. Epub 2011 Aug 29.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Background: The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821) includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus) and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia), where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved.

Methodology/principal Findings: We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan), Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains) are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples.

Conclusion/significance: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian roe deer represent a complex and heterogeneous species with high migration rates and without evident subspecies structure. Low genetic diversity of the West Siberian Plain population indicates a recent bottleneck or founder effect.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024045PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3163676PMC
December 2011