Publications by authors named "Anna Rodina"

41 Publications

Polarized emission of CdSe nanocrystals in magnetic field: the role of phonon-assisted recombination of the dark exciton.

Nanoscale 2021 Jan 22;13(2):790-800. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

The recombination dynamics and spin polarization of excitons in CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a glass matrix are investigated using polarized photoluminescence in high magnetic fields up to 30 Tesla. The dynamics are accelerated by increasing temperature and magnetic field, confirming the dark exciton nature of low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). The circularly polarized PL in magnetic fields reveals several unusual appearances: (i) a spectral dependence of the polarization degree, (ii) its low saturation value, and (iii) a stronger intensity of the Zeeman component which is higher in energy. The latter feature is the most surprising being in contradiction with the thermal population of the exciton spin sublevels. The same contradiction was previously observed in the ensemble of wet-chemically synthesized CdSe nanocrystals but was not understood. We present a theory which explains all the observed features and shows that the inverted ordering of the circularly polarized PL maxima from the ensemble of nanocrystals is a result of competition between the zero phonon (ZPL) and one optical phonon-assisted (1PL) emission of the dark excitons. The essential aspects of the theoretical model are different polarization properties of the dark exciton emission via ZPL and 1PL recombination channels and the inhomogeneous broadening of the PL spectrum from the ensemble of nanocrystals exceeding the optical phonon energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07117jDOI Listing
January 2021

Measuring Tumor Epichaperome Expression Using [I] PU-H71 Positron Emission Tomography as a Biomarker of Response for PU-H71 Plus Nab-Paclitaxel in HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 17;4. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Epichaperome network maintenance is vital to survival of tumors that express it. PU-H71 is an epichaperome inhibitor that binds to the ATP-binding site of HSP90 and has demonstrated antitumor activity in breast cancer xenograft models and clinical safety in patients. PU-positron emission tomography (PET) is a theragnostic imaging tool that allows visualization of the epichaperome target. In this phase Ib trial, we present safety and tolerability for PU-H71 plus nab-paclitaxel in HER2-negative patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and the utility of PU-PET as a noninvasive predictive biomarker.

Methods: We performed a 3 + 3 dose-escalation study with escalating PU-H71 doses and standard nab-paclitaxel. The primary objective was to establish safety and determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD)/recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary objectives were to assess pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy. Patients could enroll in a companion PU-PET protocol to measure epichaperome expression before treatment initiation to allow exploratory correlation with treatment benefit.

Results: Of the 12 patients enrolled, dose-limiting toxicity occurred in one patient (G3 neutropenic fever) at dose level 1; MTD of PU-H71 was 300 mg/m plus nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m administered every 3 weeks. Common toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, and nausea. PU-H71 systemic exposure was not altered by nab-paclitaxel administration. Two of 12 patients had partial response (overall response rate, 17%) and the clinical benefit rate was 42% (5 of 12). Time to progression was associated with baseline epichaperome positivity and PU-H71 peak standard uptake value (SUV), with more durable disease control observed with high epichaperome levels.

Conclusion: The combination of PU-H71 and nab-paclitaxel was well tolerated, with evidence of clinical activity. More durable disease control without progression was observed in patients with high baseline epichaperome expression. A phase II trial of this combination with PU-PET as a companion diagnostic for patient selection is currently planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713524PMC
November 2020

Molecular Stressors Engender Protein Connectivity Dysfunction through Aberrant N-Glycosylation of a Chaperone.

Cell Rep 2020 06;31(13):107840

Chemical Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Stresses associated with disease may pathologically remodel the proteome by both increasing interaction strength and altering interaction partners, resulting in proteome-wide connectivity dysfunctions. Chaperones play an important role in these alterations, but how these changes are executed remains largely unknown. Our study unveils a specific N-glycosylation pattern used by a chaperone, Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), to alter its conformational fitness and stabilize a state most permissive for stable interactions with proteins at the plasma membrane. This "protein assembly mutation' remodels protein networks and properties of the cell. We show in cells, human specimens, and mouse xenografts that proteome connectivity is restorable by inhibition of the N-glycosylated GRP94 variant. In summary, we provide biochemical evidence for stressor-induced chaperone-mediated protein mis-assemblies and demonstrate how these alterations are actionable in disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372946PMC
June 2020

Surface spin magnetism controls the polarized exciton emission from CdSe nanoplatelets.

Nat Nanotechnol 2020 Apr 27;15(4):277-282. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.

The surface of nominally diamagnetic colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets can demonstrate paramagnetic behaviour owing to the uncompensated spins of dangling bonds, as we reveal here by optical spectroscopy in high magnetic fields up to 15 T using the exciton spin as a probe of the surface magnetism. The strongly nonlinear magnetic field dependence of the circular polarization of the exciton emission is determined by the magnetization of the dangling-bond spins (DBSs), the exciton spin polarization as well as the spin-dependent recombination of dark excitons. The sign of the exciton-DBS exchange interaction depends on the nanoplatelet growth conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0631-7DOI Listing
April 2020

The epichaperome is a mediator of toxic hippocampal stress and leads to protein connectivity-based dysfunction.

Nat Commun 2020 01 16;11(1):319. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Chemical Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Optimal functioning of neuronal networks is critical to the complex cognitive processes of memory and executive function that deteriorate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we use cellular and animal models as well as human biospecimens to show that AD-related stressors mediate global disturbances in dynamic intra- and inter-neuronal networks through pathologic rewiring of the chaperome system into epichaperomes. These structures provide the backbone upon which proteome-wide connectivity, and in turn, protein networks become disturbed and ultimately dysfunctional. We introduce the term protein connectivity-based dysfunction (PCBD) to define this mechanism. Among most sensitive to PCBD are pathways with key roles in synaptic plasticity. We show at cellular and target organ levels that network connectivity and functional imbalances revert to normal levels upon epichaperome inhibition. In conclusion, we provide proof-of-principle to propose AD is a PCBDopathy, a disease of proteome-wide connectivity defects mediated by maladaptive epichaperomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14082-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965647PMC
January 2020

Single and Double Electron Spin-Flip Raman Scattering in CdSe Colloidal Nanoplatelets.

Nano Lett 2020 Jan 16;20(1):517-525. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Experimentelle Physik 2 , Technische Universität Dortmund , 44227 Dortmund , Germany.

CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets are studied by spin-flip Raman scattering in magnetic fields up to 5 T. We find pronounced Raman lines shifted from the excitation laser energy by an electron Zeeman splitting. Their polarization selection rules correspond to those expected for scattering mediated by excitons interacting with resident electrons. Surprisingly, Raman signals shifted by twice the electron Zeeman splitting are also observed. The theoretical analysis and experimental dependences show that the mechanism responsible for the double flip involves two resident electrons interacting with a photoexcited exciton. Effects related to various orientations of the nanoplatelets in the ensemble and different orientations of the magnetic field are analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04262DOI Listing
January 2020

Paradigms for Precision Medicine in Epichaperome Cancer Therapy.

Cancer Cell 2019 11 24;36(5):559-573.e7. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Alterations in protein-protein interaction networks are at the core of malignant transformation but have yet to be translated into appropriate diagnostic tools. We make use of the kinetic selectivity properties of an imaging probe to visualize and measure the epichaperome, a pathologic protein-protein interaction network. We are able to assay and image epichaperome networks in cancer and their engagement by inhibitor in patients' tumors at single-lesion resolution in real time, and demonstrate that quantitative evaluation at the level of individual tumors can be used to optimize dose and schedule selection. We thus provide preclinical and clinical evidence in the use of this theranostic platform for precision medicine targeting of the aberrant properties of protein networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2019.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996250PMC
November 2019

A Chemical Biology Approach to the Chaperome in Cancer-HSP90 and Beyond.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2020 04 1;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Chemical Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065.

Cancer is often associated with alterations in the chaperome, a collection of chaperones, cochaperones, and other cofactors. Changes in the expression levels of components of the chaperome, in the interaction strength among chaperome components, alterations in chaperome constituency, and in the cellular location of chaperome members, are all hallmarks of cancer. Here we aim to provide an overview on how chemical biology has played a role in deciphering such complexity in the biology of the chaperome in cancer and in other diseases. The focus here is narrow and on pathologic changes in the chaperome executed by enhancing the interaction strength between components of distinct chaperome pathways, specifically between those of HSP90 and HSP70 pathways. We will review chemical tools and chemical probe-based assays, with a focus on HSP90. We will discuss how kinetic binding, not classical equilibrium binding, is most appropriate in the development of drugs and probes for the chaperome in disease. We will then present our view on how chaperome inhibitors may become potential drugs and diagnostics in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a034116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773535PMC
April 2020

Chaperome heterogeneity and its implications for cancer study and treatment.

J Biol Chem 2019 02 8;294(6):2162-2179. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

From the Chemical Biology Program and

The chaperome is the collection of proteins in the cell that carry out molecular chaperoning functions. Changes in the interaction strength between chaperome proteins lead to an assembly that is functionally and structurally distinct from each constituent member. In this review, we discuss the epichaperome, the cellular network that forms when the chaperome components of distinct chaperome machineries come together as stable, functionally integrated, multimeric complexes. In tumors, maintenance of the epichaperome network is vital for tumor survival, rendering them vulnerable to therapeutic interventions that target critical epichaperome network components. We discuss how the epichaperome empowers an approach for precision medicine cancer trials where a new target, biomarker, and relevant drug candidates can be correlated and integrated. We introduce chemical biology methods to investigate the heterogeneity of the chaperome in a given cellular context. Lastly, we discuss how ligand-protein binding kinetics are more appropriate than equilibrium binding parameters to characterize and unravel chaperome targeting in cancer and to gauge the selectivity of ligands for specific tumor-associated chaperome pools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.REV118.002811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369301PMC
February 2019

HSP90-incorporating chaperome networks as biosensor for disease-related pathways in patient-specific midbrain dopamine neurons.

Nat Commun 2018 10 19;9(1):4345. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

The Center for Stem Cell Biology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, Box 256, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathogenesis and the associated midbrain dopamine (mDA) neuron loss. Here, we identify early PD pathogenic events by developing methodology that utilizes recent innovations in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) and chemical sensors of HSP90-incorporating chaperome networks. We show that events triggered by PD-related genetic or toxic stimuli alter the neuronal proteome, thereby altering the stress-specific chaperome networks, which produce changes detected by chemical sensors. Through this method we identify STAT3 and NF-κB signaling activation as examples of genetic stress, and phospho-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activation as an example of toxic stress-induced pathways in PD neurons. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of the stress chaperome network reversed abnormal phospho-STAT3 signaling and phospho-TH-related dopamine levels and rescued PD neuron viability. The use of chemical sensors of chaperome networks on hPSC-derived lineages may present a general strategy to identify molecular events associated with neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06486-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195591PMC
October 2018

Addressing the exciton fine structure in colloidal nanocrystals: the case of CdSe nanoplatelets.

Nanoscale 2018 Jan;10(2):646-656

Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund, Germany.

We study the band-edge exciton fine structure and in particular its bright-dark splitting in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals by four different optical methods based on fluorescence line narrowing and time-resolved measurements at various temperatures down to 2 K. We demonstrate that all these methods provide consistent splitting values and discuss their advances and limitations. Colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets with thicknesses of 3, 4 and 5 monolayers are chosen for experimental demonstrations. The bright-dark splitting of excitons varies from 3.2 to 6.0 meV and is inversely proportional to the nanoplatelet thickness. Good agreement between experimental and theoretically calculated size dependence of the bright-dark exciton splitting is achieved. The recombination rates of the bright and dark excitons and the bright to dark relaxation rate are measured by time-resolved techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7nr07206fDOI Listing
January 2018

Electron and Hole g-Factors and Spin Dynamics of Negatively Charged Excitons in CdSe/CdS Colloidal Nanoplatelets with Thick Shells.

Nano Lett 2018 01 28;18(1):373-380. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund , 44221 Dortmund, Germany.

We address spin properties and spin dynamics of carriers and charged excitons in CdSe/CdS colloidal nanoplatelets with thick shells. Magneto-optical studies are performed by time-resolved and polarization-resolved photoluminescence, spin-flip Raman scattering and picosecond pump-probe Faraday rotation in magnetic fields up to 30 T. We show that at low temperatures the nanoplatelets are negatively charged so that their photoluminescence is dominated by radiative recombination of negatively charged excitons (trions). Electron g-factor of 1.68 is measured, and heavy-hole g-factor varying with increasing magnetic field from -0.4 to -0.7 is evaluated. Hole g-factors for two-dimensional structures are calculated for various hole confining potentials for cubic- and wurtzite lattice in CdSe core. These calculations are extended for various quantum dots and nanoplatelets based on II-VI semiconductors. We developed a magneto-optical technique for the quantitative evaluation of the nanoplatelets orientation in ensemble.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04203DOI Listing
January 2018

Inhibition of Hsp90 Suppresses PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling and Has Antitumor Activity in Burkitt Lymphoma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2017 09 15;16(9):1779-1790. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that protects proteins, including oncogenic signaling complexes, from proteolytic degradation. PU-H71 is a next-generation Hsp90 inhibitor that preferentially targets the functionally distinct pool of Hsp90 present in tumor cells. Tumors that are driven by the MYC oncoprotein may be particularly sensitive to PU-H71 due to the essential role of Hsp90 in the epichaperome, which maintains the malignant phenotype in the setting of MYC. Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by MYC dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated Hsp90 as a potential therapeutic target in BL. We found that primary BL tumors overexpress Hsp90 and that Hsp90 inhibition has antitumor activity and , including potent activity in a patient-derived xenograft model of BL. To evaluate the targets of PU-H71 in BL, we performed high-affinity capture followed by proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry. We found that Hsp90 inhibition targets multiple components of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, highlighting the importance of this pathway in BL. Finally, we found that the anti-lymphoma activity of PU-H71 is synergistic with dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition and Overall, this work provides support for Hsp90 as a therapeutic target in BL and suggests the potential for combination therapy with PU-H71 and inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-16-0848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5587381PMC
September 2017

Dynamic Evolution from Negative to Positive Photocharging in Colloidal CdS Quantum Dots.

Nano Lett 2017 05 7;17(5):2844-2851. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund , 44221 Dortmund, Germany.

The optical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are largely influenced by the trapping of charge carriers on the nanocrystal surface. Different concentrations of electron and hole traps and different rates of their capture to the traps provide dynamical charging of otherwise neutral nanocrystals. We study the photocharging formation and evolution dynamics in CdS colloidal quantum dots with native oleic acid surface ligands. A time-resolved technique with three laser pulses (pump, orientation, and probe) is developed to monitor the photocharging dynamics with picosecond resolution on wide time scales ranging from picoseconds to milliseconds. The detection is based on measuring the coherent spin dynamics of electrons, allowing us to distinguish the type of carrier in the QD core (electron or hole). We find that although initially negative photocharging happens because of fast hole trapping, it eventually evolves to positive photocharging due to electron trapping and hole detrapping. The positive photocharging lasts up to hundreds of microseconds at room temperature. These findings give insight into the photocharging process and provide valuable information for understanding the mechanisms responsible for the emission blinking in colloidal nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b05305DOI Listing
May 2017

Magnetic polaron on dangling-bond spins in CdSe colloidal nanocrystals.

Nat Nanotechnol 2017 07 13;12(6):569-574. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Non-magnetic colloidal nanostructures can demonstrate magnetic properties typical for diluted magnetic semiconductors because the spins of dangling bonds at their surface can act as the localized spins of magnetic ions. Here we report the observation of dangling-bond magnetic polarons (DBMPs) in 2.8-nm diameter CdSe colloidal nanocrystals (NCs). The DBMP binding energy of 7 meV is measured from the spectral shift of the emission lines under selective laser excitation. The polaron formation at low temperatures occurs by optical orientation of the dangling-bond spins (DBSs) that result from dangling-bond-assisted radiative recombination of spin-forbidden dark excitons. Modelling of the temperature dependence of the DBMP-binding energy and emission intensity shows that the DBMP is composed of a dark exciton and about 60 DBSs. The exchange integral of one DBS with the electron confined in the NC is ∼0.12 meV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2017.22DOI Listing
July 2017

The epichaperome is an integrated chaperome network that facilitates tumour survival.

Nature 2016 Oct 5;538(7625):397-401. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Program in Chemical Biology, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA.

Transient, multi-protein complexes are important facilitators of cellular functions. This includes the chaperome, an abundant protein family comprising chaperones, co-chaperones, adaptors, and folding enzymes-dynamic complexes of which regulate cellular homeostasis together with the protein degradation machinery. Numerous studies have addressed the role of chaperome members in isolation, yet little is known about their relationships regarding how they interact and function together in malignancy. As function is probably highly dependent on endogenous conditions found in native tumours, chaperomes have resisted investigation, mainly due to the limitations of methods needed to disrupt or engineer the cellular environment to facilitate analysis. Such limitations have led to a bottleneck in our understanding of chaperome-related disease biology and in the development of chaperome-targeted cancer treatment. Here we examined the chaperome complexes in a large set of tumour specimens. The methods used maintained the endogenous native state of tumours and we exploited this to investigate the molecular characteristics and composition of the chaperome in cancer, the molecular factors that drive chaperome networks to crosstalk in tumours, the distinguishing factors of the chaperome in tumours sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition, and the characteristics of tumours that may benefit from chaperome therapy. We find that under conditions of stress, such as malignant transformation fuelled by MYC, the chaperome becomes biochemically 'rewired' to form a network of stable, survival-facilitating, high-molecular-weight complexes. The chaperones heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) are nucleating sites for these physically and functionally integrated complexes. The results indicate that these tightly integrated chaperome units, here termed the epichaperome, can function as a network to enhance cellular survival, irrespective of tissue of origin or genetic background. The epichaperome, present in over half of all cancers tested, has implications for diagnostics and also provides potential vulnerability as a target for drug intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5283383PMC
October 2016

Biexciton Auger Recombination in CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

Nano Lett 2016 Apr 15;16(4):2503-11. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Naval Research Laboratory , Washington, D.C. 20375, United States.

A theoretical study of the positive and negative trion channels in the nonradiative Auger recombination of band-edge biexcitons (BXs) in CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) is presented. The theory takes into account the BX fine-structure produced by NC asymmetry and hole-hole exchange interaction. The calculations show that growth of CdS shell upon CdSe core suppresses the rate of the Auger recombination via negative trion channel, while the more efficient Auger recombination via positive trion channel shows much weaker dependence on the shell thickness. The demonstrated oscillatory dependence of the BX Auger rate on the core and shell sizes is explained qualitatively in terms of overlap of the ground and excited carrier wave functions. The calculations show that raise of temperature accelerates the Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS NCs due to reduction of the bulk energy gaps of CdSe and CdS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00066DOI Listing
April 2016

A Hyperactive Signalosome in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Drives Addiction to a Tumor-Specific Hsp90 Species.

Cell Rep 2015 Dec 25;13(10):2159-73. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous and fatal disease with an urgent need for improved therapeutic regimens given that most patients die from relapsed disease. Irrespective of mutation status, the development of aggressive leukemias is enabled by increasing dependence on signaling networks. We demonstrate that a hyperactive signalosome drives addiction of AML cells to a tumor-specific Hsp90 species (teHsp90). Through genetic, environmental, and pharmacologic perturbations, we demonstrate a direct and quantitative link between hyperactivated signaling pathways and apoptotic sensitivity of AML to teHsp90 inhibition. Specifically, we find that hyperactive JAK-STAT and PI3K-AKT signaling networks are maintained by teHsp90 and, in fact, gradual activation of these networks drives tumors increasingly dependent on teHsp90. Thus, although clinically aggressive AML survives via signalosome activation, this addiction creates a vulnerability that can be exploited with Hsp90-directed therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.10.073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699804PMC
December 2015

Dynamics of Intraband and Interband Auger Processes in Colloidal Core-Shell Quantum Dots.

ACS Nano 2015 Oct 28;9(10):10366-76. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science , Princetonplein 1, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Conventional colloidal quantum dots (QDs) suffer from rapid energy losses by nonradiative (Auger) processes, leading to sub-ns lifetimes in all excited states but the lowest-energy single exciton. Suppression of interband Auger decay, such as biexciton Auger recombination, has been achieved with the design of heterostructured core-shell QDs. Auger-like processes are also believed to be responsible for rapid intraband hot-electron cooling in QDs. However, the simultaneous effect of shell growth on interband Auger recombination and intraband hot-electron cooling has not been addressed. Here we investigate how the growth of a CdS shell affects these two relaxation processes in CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs. Using a combination of ultrafast pump-push-probe spectroscopy on the QD ensemble and analysis of the photon statistics from single QDs, we find that Auger losses in the biexciton state are suppressed with increasing shell thickness, while hot-electron cooling remains unaffected. Calculations conducted within an eight-band k·p model confirm the experimental dependence of the biexciton Auger decay on the shell thickness, and provide insights into the factors determining the cooling rate of hot carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b04491DOI Listing
October 2015

Magnetic Properties of Nonmagnetic Nanostructures: Dangling Bond Magnetic Polaron in CdSe Nanocrystals.

Nano Lett 2015 Jun 5;15(6):4214-22. Epub 2015 May 5.

‡Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States.

We predict theoretically that nonmagnetic CdSe nanocrystals may possess macroscopic magnetic moments due to the formation of dangling-bond magnetic polarons (DBMPs). A DBMP is created in optically pumped nanocrystals by dynamic polarization of dangling bond spins (DBSs) at the nanocrystal surface during radiative recombination of the ground state "dark" exciton assisted by a spin-flip of the DBS. The formation of DBMPs suppresses the radiative recombination of the dark exciton and leads to a temperature-dependent contribution to the Stokes shift of the photoluminescence. This model consistently explains the experimentally observed low-temperature photoluminescence features of nonmagnetic CdSe nanocrystals as manifestations of their spin-related magnetic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01566DOI Listing
June 2015

Nonradiative Auger recombination in semiconductor nanocrystals.

Nano Lett 2015 Mar 26;15(3):2092-8. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology , Haifa 32000, Israel.

We calculate the rate of nonradiative Auger recombination in negatively charged CdSe nanocrystals (NCs). The rate is nonmonotonic, strongly oscillating with NC size, and sensitive to the NC surface. The oscillations result in nonexponential decay of carriers in NC ensembles. Using a standard single-exponential approximation of the decay dynamics, we determine the apparent size dependence of the Auger rate in an ensemble and derive CdSe surface parameters consistent with the experimental dependence on size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl504987hDOI Listing
March 2015

Affinity purification probes of potential use to investigate the endogenous Hsp70 interactome in cancer.

ACS Chem Biol 2014 Aug 17;9(8):1698-705. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry and Department of Medicine and §Program in Molecular Biology, Proteomics Core, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , New York, New York 10021, United States.

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a family of proteins with key roles in regulating malignancy. Cancer cells rely on Hsp70 to inhibit apoptosis, regulate senescence and autophagy, and maintain the stability of numerous onco-proteins. Despite these important biological functions in cancer, robust chemical tools that enable the analysis of the Hsp70-regulated proteome in a tumor-by-tumor manner are yet unavailable. Here we take advantage of a recently reported Hsp70 ligand to design and develop an affinity purification chemical toolset for potential use in the investigation of the endogenous Hsp70-interacting proteome in cancer. We demonstrate that these tools lock Hsp70 in complex with onco-client proteins and effectively isolate Hsp70 complexes for identification through biochemical techniques. Using these tools we provide proof-of-concept analyses that glimpse into the complex roles played by Hsp70 in maintaining a multitude of cell-specific malignancy-driving proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cb500256uDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134716PMC
August 2014

Heat shock protein 70 inhibitors. 2. 2,5'-thiodipyrimidines, 5-(phenylthio)pyrimidines, 2-(pyridin-3-ylthio)pyrimidines, and 3-(phenylthio)pyridines as reversible binders to an allosteric site on heat shock protein 70.

J Med Chem 2014 Feb 18;57(4):1208-24. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , New York, New York 10021, United States.

The discovery and development of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) inhibitors is currently a hot topic in cancer. In the preceding paper in this issue ( 10.1021/jm401551n ), we have described structure-activity relationship studies in the first Hsp70 inhibitor class rationally designed to bind to a novel allosteric pocket located in the N-terminal domain of the protein. These ligands contained an acrylamide to take advantage of an active cysteine embedded in the allosteric pocket and acted as covalent protein modifiers upon binding. Here, we perform chemical modifications around the irreversible inhibitor scaffold to demonstrate that covalent modification is not a requirement for activity within this class of compounds. The study identifies derivative 27c, which mimics the biological effects of the irreversible inhibitors at comparable concentrations. Collectively, the back-to-back manuscripts describe the first pharmacophores that favorably and selectively interact with a never explored pocket in Hsp70 and provide a novel blueprint for a cancer-oriented development of Hsp70-directed ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401552yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3983364PMC
February 2014

Heat shock protein 70 inhibitors. 1. 2,5'-thiodipyrimidine and 5-(phenylthio)pyrimidine acrylamides as irreversible binders to an allosteric site on heat shock protein 70.

J Med Chem 2014 Feb 18;57(4):1188-207. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , New York, New York 10021, United States.

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is an important emerging cancer target whose inhibition may affect multiple cancer-associated signaling pathways and, moreover, result in significant cancer cell apoptosis. Despite considerable interest from both academia and pharmaceutical companies in the discovery and development of druglike Hsp70 inhibitors, little success has been reported so far. Here we describe structure-activity relationship studies in the first rationally designed Hsp70 inhibitor class that binds to a novel allosteric pocket located in the N-terminal domain of the protein. These 2,5'-thiodipyrimidine and 5-(phenylthio)pyrimidine acrylamides take advantage of an active cysteine embedded in the allosteric pocket to act as covalent protein modifiers upon binding. The study identifies derivatives 17a and 20a, which selectively bind to Hsp70 in cancer cells. Addition of high nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations of these inhibitors to cancer cells leads to a reduction in the steady-state levels of Hsp70-sheltered oncoproteins, an effect associated with inhibition of cancer cell growth and apoptosis. In summary, the described scaffolds represent a viable starting point for the development of druglike Hsp70 inhibitors as novel anticancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401551nDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3983365PMC
February 2014

Identification of an allosteric pocket on human hsp70 reveals a mode of inhibition of this therapeutically important protein.

Chem Biol 2013 Dec 14;20(12):1469-80. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

Hsp70s are important cancer chaperones that act upstream of Hsp90 and exhibit independent anti-apoptotic activities. To develop chemical tools for the study of human Hsp70, we developed a homology model that unveils a previously unknown allosteric site located in the nucleotide binding domain of Hsp70. Combining structure-based design and phenotypic testing, we discovered a previously unknown inhibitor of this site, YK5. In cancer cells, this compound is a potent and selective binder of the cytosolic but not the organellar human Hsp70s and has biological activity partly by interfering with the formation of active oncogenic Hsp70/Hsp90/client protein complexes. YK5 is a small molecule inhibitor rationally designed to interact with an allosteric pocket of Hsp70 and represents a previously unknown chemical tool to investigate cellular mechanisms associated with Hsp70.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3985611PMC
December 2013

Experimental and structural testing module to analyze paralogue-specificity and affinity in the Hsp90 inhibitors series.

J Med Chem 2013 Sep 21;56(17):6803-18. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , New York, New York 10021, United States.

We here describe the first reported comprehensive analysis of Hsp90 paralogue affinity and selectivity in the clinical Hsp90 inhibitor chemotypes. This has been possible through the development of a versatile experimental assay based on a new FP-probe (16a) that we both describe here. The assay can test rapidly and accurately the binding affinity of all major Hsp90 chemotypes and has a testing range that spans low nanomolar to millimolar binding affinities. We couple this assay with a computational analysis that allows for rationalization of paralogue selectivity and defines not only the major binding modes that relay pan-paralogue binding or, conversely, paralogue selectivity, but also identifies molecular characteristics that impart such features. The methods developed here provide a blueprint for parsing out the contribution of the four Hsp90 paralogues to the perceived biological activity with the current Hsp90 chemotypes and set the ground for the development of paralogue selective inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm400619bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3985615PMC
September 2013

Targeting the Hsp90-associated viral oncoproteome in gammaherpesvirus-associated malignancies.

Blood 2013 Oct 13;122(16):2837-47. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and.

PU-H71 is a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor that, in contrast to other Hsp90 inhibitors, displays unique selectivity for binding the fraction of Hsp90 that is preferentially associated with oncogenic client proteins and enriched in tumor cells (teHsp90). This property allows PU-H71 to potently suppress teHsp90 without inducing toxicity in normal cells. We found that lymphoma cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus or Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) are exquisitely sensitive to this compound. Using PU-H71 affinity capture and proteomics, an unbiased approach to reveal oncogenic networks, we identified the teHsp90 interactome in KSHV(+) primary effusion lymphoma cells. Viral and cellular proteins were identified, including many involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, apoptosis, and autophagy. KSHV vFLIP is a viral oncoprotein homologous to cFLIPs, with NF-κB-activating and antiapoptotic activities. We show that teHsp90 binds vFLIP but not cFLIPs. Treatment with PU-H71 induced degradation of vFLIP and IKKγ, NF-κB downregulation, apoptosis and autophagy in vitro, and more importantly, tumor responses in mice. Analysis of the interactome revealed apoptosis as a central pathway; therefore, we tested a BCL2 family inhibitor in primary effusion lymphoma cells. We found strong activity and synergy with PU-H71. Our findings demonstrate PU-H71 affinity capture identifies actionable networks that may help design rational combinations of effective therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-01-479972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798998PMC
October 2013

Synthesis and evaluation of cell-permeable biotinylated PU-H71 derivatives as tumor Hsp90 probes.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2013 15;9:544-556. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.

The attachment of biotin to a small molecule provides a powerful tool in biology. Here, we present a systematic approach to identify biotinylated analogues of the Hsp90 inhibitor PU-H71 that are capable of permeating cell membranes so as to enable the investigation of Hsp90 complexes in live cells. The identified derivative 2g can isolate Hsp90 through affinity purification and, as we show, represents a unique and useful tool to probe tumor Hsp90 biology in live cells by affinity capture, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. To our knowledge, 2g is the only reported biotinylated Hsp90 probe to have such combined characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.9.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628991PMC
April 2013

Affinity-based proteomics reveal cancer-specific networks coordinated by Hsp90.

Nat Chem Biol 2011 Sep 25;7(11):818-26. Epub 2011 Sep 25.

Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York, USA.

Most cancers are characterized by multiple molecular alterations, but identification of the key proteins involved in these signaling pathways is currently beyond reach. We show that the inhibitor PU-H71 preferentially targets tumor-enriched Hsp90 complexes and affinity captures Hsp90-dependent oncogenic client proteins. We have used PU-H71 affinity capture to design a proteomic approach that, when combined with bioinformatic pathway analysis, identifies dysregulated signaling networks and key oncoproteins in chronic myeloid leukemia. The identified interactome overlaps with the well-characterized altered proteome in this cancer, indicating that this method can provide global insights into the biology of individual tumors, including primary patient specimens. In addition, we show that this approach can be used to identify previously uncharacterized oncoproteins and mechanisms, potentially leading to new targeted therapies. We further show that the abundance of the PU-H71-enriched Hsp90 species, which is not dictated by Hsp90 expression alone, is predictive of the cell's sensitivity to Hsp90 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265389PMC
September 2011

Design, synthesis, and evaluation of small molecule Hsp90 probes.

Bioorg Med Chem 2011 Apr 12;19(8):2603-14. Epub 2011 Mar 12.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, United States.

A number of compounds from different chemical classes are known to bind competitively to the ATP-pocket of Hsp90 and inhibit its chaperone function. The natural product geldanamycin was the first reported inhibitor of Hsp90 and since then synthetic inhibitors from purine, isoxazole and indazol-4-one chemical classes have been discovered and are currently or soon to be in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. In spite of a similar binding mode to Hsp90, distinct biological profiles were demonstrated among these molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the molecular basis for these dissimilarities, we report here the synthesis of chemical tools for three Hsp90 inhibitor classes. These agents will be useful for probing tumor-by-tumor the Hsp90 complexes isolated by specific inhibitors. Such information will lead to better understanding of tumor specific molecular markers to aid in their clinical development. It will also help to elucidate the molecular basis for the biological differences observed among Hsp90 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2011.03.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3143825PMC
April 2011