Publications by authors named "Anna Rizzello"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Risk factors and outcomes of delayed graft function in renal transplant recipients receiving a steroid sparing immunosuppression protocol.

World J Transplant 2017 Feb;7(1):34-42

Michelle Willicombe, Anna Rizzello, Dawn Goodall, Vassilios Papalois, Adam G McLean, David Taube, Imperial College Kidney and Transplant Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0HS, United Kingdom.

Aim: To analyse the risk factors and outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) in patients receiving a steroid sparing protocol.

Methods: Four hundred and twenty-seven recipients of deceased donor kidney transplants were studied of which 135 (31.6%) experienced DGF. All patients received monoclonal antibody induction with a tacrolimus based, steroid sparing immunosuppression protocol.

Results: Five year patient survival was 87.2% and 94.9% in the DGF and primary graft function (PGF) group respectively, = 0.047. Allograft survival was 77.9% and 90.2% in the DGF and PGF group respectively, < 0.001. Overall rejection free survival was no different between the DGF and PGF groups with a 1 and 5 year rejection free survival in the DGF group of 77.7% and 67.8% compared with 81.3% and 75.3% in the PGF group, = 0.19. Patients with DGF who received IL2 receptor antibody induction were at significantly higher risk of rejection in the early post-transplant period than the group with DGF who received alemtuzumab induction. On multivariate analysis, risk factors for DGF were male recipients, recipients of black ethnicity, circulatory death donation, preformed DSA, increasing cold ischaemic time, older donor age and dialysis vintage.

Conclusion: Alemtuzumab induction may be of benefit in preventing early rejection episodes associated with DGF. Prospective trials are required to determine optimal immunotherapy protocols for patients at high risk of DGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5500/wjt.v7.i1.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324026PMC
February 2017

Influence of trigger PSA and PSA kinetics on 11C-Choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy.

J Nucl Med 2009 Sep 18;50(9):1394-400. Epub 2009 Aug 18.

Nuclear Medicine Unit, Hematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Unlabelled: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at the time of (11)C-choline PET/CT (trigger PSA), PSA velocity (PSAvel), and PSA doubling time (PSAdt) on (11)C-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer, who showed biochemical failure during follow-up.

Methods: A total of 190 patients treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer who showed an increase in PSA (mean, 4.2; median, 2.1; range, 0.2-25.4 ng/mL) were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were studied with (11)C-choline PET/CT. Patients were grouped according to trigger PSA (PSA 5 ng/mL). In 106 patients, data were available for calculation of PSAvel and PSAdt. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether there was a relationship between PSA levels and PSA kinetics and the rate of detection of relapse using PET.

Results: (11)C-choline PET/CT detected disease relapse in 74 of 190 patients (38.9%). The detection rate of (11)C-choline PET/CT was 19%, 25%, 41%, and 67% in the 4 subgroups-PSA 5 ng/mL (49 patients)-respectively. Trigger PSA values were statistically different between PET-positive patients (median PSA, 4.0 ng/mL) and PET-negative patients (median PSA, 1.4 ng/mL) (P = 0.0001). Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis showed an optimal cutoff point for trigger PSA of 2.43 ng/mL (area under the curve, 0.76). In 106 patients, PSAdt and PSAvel values were statistically different between patients with PET-positive and -negative scan findings (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03). The (11)C-choline PET/CT detection rate was 12%, 34%, 42%, and 70%, respectively, in patients with PSAvel < 1 ng/mL/y (33 patients), 1 < PSAvel 5 ng/mL/y (28 patients). The (11)C-choline PET/CT detection rate was 20%, 40%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, in patients with PSAdt > 6 mo (45 patients), 4 < PSAdt
Conclusion: The (11)C-choline PET/CT detection rate is influenced by trigger PSA, PSAdt, and PSAvel. This finding could be used to improve the selection of patients for scanning by reducing the number of false-negative scans and increasing the detection rate of disease in patients with early relapse and potentially curative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.108.061507DOI Listing
September 2009

Development of a modular system for the synthesis of PET [(11)C]labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

Appl Radiat Isot 2009 Oct 27;67(10):1869-73. Epub 2009 May 27.

PET Radiopharmacy, Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

[((11))C]labelled radiopharmaceuticals as N-[(11)C]methyl-choline ([(11)C]choline), l-(S-methyl-[(11)C])methionine ([(11)C]methionine) and [(11)C]acetate have gained increasing importance in clinical PET and for the routine production of these radiopharmaceuticals, simple and reliable modules are needed to produce clinically relevant radioactivity. On the other hand, flexible devices are needed not only for the routine synthesis but also for more complex applications as the development of new tracers. The aim of this work was the adaptation of an Eckert Ziegler modular system for easy routine synthesis of [(11)C]choline, [(11)C]methionine and [(11)C]acetate using components that account for straightforward scaling up and upgrades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.05.010DOI Listing
October 2009

Synthesis and quality control of 68Ga citrate for routine clinical PET.

Nucl Med Commun 2009 Jul;30(7):542-5

Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Radiopharmacy, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Introduction And Aim: Scintigraphic imaging of infection and inflammation with 67Ga-citrate is an established and powerful diagnostic tool in the management of patients with infectious or inflammatory diseases. 68Ga is a short-lived positron-emitting radionuclide (half-life 67.6 min, positron energy 2.92 MeV), which allows better imaging qualities than 67Ga using the high spatial resolution and the quantitative features of PET. The aim of this study was to develop a method of synthesis for 68Ga citrate with high and reproducible radiochemical yield using a commercial 68Ga-labelling module. The resultant 68Ga citrate would be suitable for use in the detection of infectious or inflammatory diseases in routine clinical practice.

Methods: A simplified method of producing 68Ga citrate is described. Radiochemical purity, pyrogen testing were performed as per the standard protocols.

Results: After performing 10 syntheses of 68Ga citrate, the radiochemical yield was 64.1+/-6.0% (mean+/-standard deviation) with an average activity of 971.2+/-103.4 MBq available for labelling. Radiochemical purity determined by instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel was higher than 98%. All the synthesized products were found to be sterile and pyrogen-free. In this study, the quality control step provided good and reproducible results. This is worth noting, especially in view of the stringent new rules adopted in most European countries for the in-house good manufacturing practice (GMP) synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals.

Conclusion: The high radiochemical yield and purity showed that this method is a reliable tool for the production of 68Ga citrate to be used in the detection of inflammatory and infectious diseases using high resolution and qualitative PET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0b013e32832b9ac8DOI Listing
July 2009

Small animal PET for the evaluation of an animal model of genital infection.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2009 May;29(3):187-92

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Background: [(18)F]-FDG is a widely used tracer for the non-invasive evaluation of hypermetabolic processes like cancer and inflammation. However, [(18)F]-FDG is considered inaccurate for the diagnosis of urinary tract and genital infections because of its urinary excretion. Since the 1970s, Gallium scintigraphy is a well established test that has been used for the evaluation of inflammation and infection in human patients.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (68)Ga-Chloride small animal PET for the analysis of an animal model of genital infection, induced after the vaginal inoculum of Chlamydia muridarum. Material and Thirty mice were infected by placing 15 microl sucrose phosphate glutamic acid (SPG) 10(7) inclusion forming units of C. muridarum into the vaginal vault. As controls of inflammation, three animals were challenged with 15 microl of SPG and one healthy animal was used to assess the tracer biodistribution. Four animals died during the experiment. Eleven animals were evaluated with (68)Ga-Chloride small animal PET (GE, eXplore Vista) 3-5, 10-12, 17-19 days after infection, as well as three controls of inflammation and one healthy animal. Infection was monitored by obtaining cervical-vaginal swabs from all the animals on the day of each PET procedure. Moreover, five groups of three animals each were killed at 6, 13, 20, 27 and 34 days after infection were studied.

Results: (68)Ga-PET turned out positive in all the infected animals, concordantly to data obtained by the cervical swabs and by the ex vivo analysis. The tumour-to-background ratio (TBR) decreased over time as the inflammation tended to naturally extinguish. The controls showed a slightly increased uptake of tracer due to the aseptic inflammation caused by SPG and frequent cervical swabs. The healthy control did not show any pelvic uptake.

Conclusion: (68)Ga-Chloride is a promising tracer for the assessment of genital infection in a mouse animal model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2008.00854.xDOI Listing
May 2009

Reliability and reproducibility of N-[11C]methyl-choline and L-(S-methyl-[11C])methionine solid-phase synthesis: a useful and suitable method in clinical practice.

Nucl Med Commun 2008 Aug;29(8):736-40

Nuclear Medicine Unit, Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Background And Objective: N-[11C]methyl-choline ([11C]choline) and L-(S-methyl-[11C])methionine ([11C]methionine) are PET radiopharmaceuticals which have gained interest as oncological tracers. The increasing demand of these radiopharmaceuticals needs robust methods of synthesis with high and reproducible yield which provide enough activity for multiple patient administration in a short synthesis time.

Methods: Different synthetic approaches have been described in the literature but exhaustive reports on performance and reliability of different methods have not been described yet.

Results And Conclusion: In the present study, we demonstrated the reliability and reproducibility of the solid-phase [11C]methylation method for the synthesis of [11C]choline and [11C]methionine as a suitable tool for the routine clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0b013e3282ffb44cDOI Listing
August 2008

Comparison between 68Ga-DOTA-NOC and 18F-DOPA PET for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008 Aug 17;35(8):1431-8. Epub 2008 Apr 17.

Unità Operativa di Medicina Nucleare, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Padiglione 30, Via Massarenti 9, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) value for the assessment of neuro-endocrine tumours (NET) is limited. Preliminary studies indicate that (18)F-DOPA and (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC are more accurate for disease assessment and (68)Ga-DOTA peptides provide additional data on receptor status that are crucial for targeted radionuclide therapy. At present, there are no comparative studies investigating their role in NET.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC and (18)F-DOPA for the evaluation of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours.

Materials And Methods: Thirteen patients with biopsy-proven NET (gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary) were prospectively enrolled and scheduled for (18)F-DOPA and (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET. PET results obtained with both tracers were compared with each other, with other conventional diagnostic procedures (CT, ultrasound) and with follow-up (clinical, imaging).

Results: The most common primary tumour site was the pancreas (8/13) followed by the ileum (2/13), the lung (2/13) and the duodenum (1/13). The carcinoma was well differentiated in 10/13 and poorly differentiated in 3/13 cases. (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET was positive, showing at least one lesion, in 13/13 cases while (18)F-DOPA PET was positive in 9/13. On a lesions basis, (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC identified more lesions than (18)F-DOPA (71 vs 45), especially at liver, lung and lymph node level. (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC correctly identified the primary site in six of eight non-operated cases (in five cases, the primary was surgically removed before PET), while (18)F-DOPA identified the primary only in two of eight cases.

Conclusions: Although the patients studied are few and heterogeneous, our data show that (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC is accurate for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours in either the primary or metastatic site and that it offers several advantages over (18)F-DOPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-008-0769-2DOI Listing
August 2008

The Zuckerkandl tubercle.

Am J Surg 2007 Apr;193(4):484-5

General Surgery Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00043 Ciampino (Roma), Rome, Italy.

Identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is a major concern during thyroidectomies. The Zuckerkandl tubercle is an anatomic landmark that can be used for this purpose. It is generally found in 63% to 80% of patients undergoing thyroidectomy and is located between the superior and inferior lobes and points toward the tracheoesophageal groove. It is classified into three grades according to size: I <.5 cm, II .5 to 1 cm, III >1 cm. A grade III tubercle, present in 45% of patients, is sometimes associated with significant pressure symptoms in otherwise small-sized goiters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.06.040DOI Listing
April 2007
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