Publications by authors named "Anna Maria Roszkowska"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Ophthalmology Clinic, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University Hospital of Messina, 98124 Messina, Italy.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory, autoimmune disease, characterized by the lymphocyte infiltration of exocrine glands, especially the lacrimal and salivary, with their consequent destruction. The onset of primary SS (pSS) may remain misunderstood for several years. It usually presents with different types of severity, e.g., dry eye and dry mouth symptoms, due to early involvement of the lacrimal and salivary glands, which may be associated with parotid enlargement and dry eye; keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is its most common ocular manifestation. It is still doubtful if the extent ocular surface manifestations are secondary to lacrimal or meibomian gland involvement or to the targeting of corneal and conjunctival autoantigens. SS is the most representative cause of aqueous deficient dry eye, and the primary role of the inflammatory process was evidenced. Recent scientific progress in understanding the numerous factors involved in the pathogenesis of pSS was registered, but the exact mechanisms involved still need to be clarified. The unquestionable role of both the innate and adaptive immune system, participating actively in the induction and evolution of the disease, was recognized. The ocular surface inflammation is a central mechanism in pSS leading to the decrease of lacrimal secretion and keratoconjunctival alterations. However, there are controversies about whether the ocular surface involvement is a direct autoimmune target or secondary to the inflammatory process in the lacrimal gland. In this review, we aimed to present actual knowledge relative to the pathogenesis of the pSS, considering the role of innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998625PMC
March 2021

Ocular morphology development and function in children with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by neonatal screening.

Endocrine 2020 Aug 27. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood, Unit of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02457-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Photorefractive keratectomy after cataract surgery in uncommon cases: long-term results.

Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(4):612-615. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology Clinic, University Hospital of Messina, Messina 98124, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the excimer laser correction of the residual refractive errors after cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in uncommon cases.

Methods: Totally 24 patients with high residual refractive error after cataract surgery with IOL implantation were examined. Twenty-two patients had a history of phacoemulsification and IOL implantation, and two had extra-capsular cataract extraction with IOL implantation. Detailed examination of preoperative medical records was done to explain the origin of the post-cataract refractive errors. All patients underwent photorefractire keratectomy (PRK) enhancement. The mean outcome measures were refraction, uncorretted visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and corneal transparency and follow up ranged from 1 to 8y.

Results: The principal causes of residual ametropia was inexact IOL calculation in abnormal eyes with high myopia and congenital lens abnormalities, followed by corneal astigmatism both suture induced and preexisting. After cataract surgery and before the laser enhancement the mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -0.56±3 D ranging from -4.62 to +2.25 D in high myopic patients, instead it was -1±1.73 D ranging from -3.25 to +3.75 D in the astigmatic eyes, with a mean cylinder of -3.75±0 ranging from -3 to +5.50 D. After laser refractive surgery the mean SE was 0.1±0.73, ranging from -0.50 to +1.50 in the myopic group, and it was -0.50±0.57 ranging from -1.25 to +0.50 in astigmatic patients, with a mean cylinder of -0.25±0.75. In myopic patients the mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.038±0.072 logMAR and 0.018±0.04 respectively, both ranging from 0.10 to 0.0. In astigmatic patients, the mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.213±0.132 and 0.00±0.0 respectively, UCVA ranging from 0.50 to 0.22 and BCVA was 0.00. All patients presented normal corneal transparency. No ocular hypertension was detected and no corneal haze was observed. All registered values remained stable also at the end line evaluation.

Conclusion: The excimer laser treatment of residual refractive errors after cataract surgery with IOL implantation in abnormal eyes resulted in satisfactory and stable visual outcome with good safety and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2018.04.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902365PMC
April 2018

Free amino acids: an innovative treatment for ocular surface disease.

Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Sep 14;787:9-19. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Sooft laboratories, Viale Andrea Doria 21, 95125 Catania, Italy.

Amino acids are the basic constituents of living organisms, and have both a structural and an active dynamic role in tissue and cell physiology. Human tears contain 23 amino acids, the relative proportion of which may change with the different physiological states of the eye surface. In this review, we present a collection of data from the published literature that indicate an active role of amino acids in the maintenance of eye surface homeostasis. Moreover, another series of published clinical data indicate that supplementation of amino acids, either as food supplements or as a topical treatment in enriched eye drops, is beneficial to the eye surface, and may improve its healing in cases of eye surface disease due to different causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.04.029DOI Listing
September 2016

4A syndrome: ocular surface investigation in an Italian young patient.

BMC Ophthalmol 2014 Dec 8;14:155. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Department of Experimental Medical-Surgical Sciences, Ocular Surface Diseases Unit, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, I-98125 Messina, Italy.

Background: Allgrove's 4A syndrome determines ocular surface changes. This is the first report providing an up-to-dated analysis of the ocular surface in an affected patient.

Case Presentation: An 18-years-old male Caucasian patient, with a complex progressive gait disorder and adrenal insufficiency, was referred for ophthalmic evaluation, as part of the clinical assessment. He underwent the following tests: best corrected visual acuity, tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer's I test, lid margin assessment, corneal sensitivity, in vivo corneal confocal microscopy, conjunctival impression cytology, tonometry and fundus exam. A dry eye condition was documented by the Schirmer's I test of 0 mm/5' in both eyes, accompanied by tear hyperosmolarity, mild meibomian gland dysfunction, reduced BUT, mucus filaments in the tear film and conjunctival epithelium metaplasic changes. The corneal confocal microscopy showed the presence of activated keratocytes, while the nerve pattern was normal.

Conclusions: The dry eye in this patient appears to be due to tear aqueous deficiency and can be considered as part of the 4A syndrome. The decreased tear production, resulting from a deterioration of the autonomic innervation of the lacrimal glands rather than an impaired corneal innervation, can be considered as part of the systemic autonomic dysfunction present in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-14-155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292834PMC
December 2014

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transglutaminase 2 expression at the ocular surface in patients with different forms of dry eye disease.

Ophthalmology 2015 Jan 18;122(1):62-71. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in different forms of dry eye.

Design: Case control study.

Participants: Seventy-five female subjects divided into 3 groups: group 1, 15 healthy controls; group 2, 30 subjects with Sjögren syndrome (SS); and group 3, 30 subjects with Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

Methods: A clinical assessment was carried out and impression cytologic specimens were processed for immunoperoxidase staining for MMP9 and TG2 and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were carried out for MMP9, TG2, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, B-cell lymphoma 2, and caspase 3. To study MMP9 and TG2 expression after anti-inflammatory treatment, patients were divided into 2 subgroups, one treated with saline and the other treated with saline plus topical corticosteroid eye drops (0.5% loteprednol etabonate) 4 times daily for 15 days. For statistical analysis, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used as appropriate.

Main Outcome Measures: Conjunctival expression of MMP9 and TG2.

Results: MMP9 and TG2 expression were higher in both patient groups than in controls (P < 0.0001). Group 2 patients showed higher expression than group 3 (P < 0.0001). The Spearman's correlation coefficient showed in group 2 a positive correlation between MMP9 and TG2 expression (ρ = 0.437; P = 0.01), but no correlation in group 3 (ρ = 0.143; P = 0.45). Corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced MMP9 and TG2 expression in both groups, ameliorating symptoms and signs. A much higher percentage reduction was observed in SS.

Conclusions: The pathogenic mechanisms of the 2 forms of dry eye give an account for the different MMP9 and TG2 expressions in the 2 groups of patients. The higher expression in SS is determined by the direct autoimmune insult to the ocular surface epithelia, whereas in MGD patients, with an epithelial damage due to an unbalanced tear secretion, the molecules expression is significantly lower, although higher than in controls. The corticosteroid treatment induced a reduction of both molecules, although higher in SS than in MGD, because of its direct inhibitory effect on inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.048DOI Listing
January 2015

Environmental light and endogenous antioxidants as the main determinants of non-cancer ocular diseases.

Mutat Res 2013 Apr-Jun;752(2):153-171. Epub 2013 Jan 19.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, I-16132, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

The human eye is constantly exposed to sunlight and artificial lighting. Exogenous sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as UV light, visible light, ionizing radiation, chemotherapeutics, and environmental toxins contribute to oxidative damage in ocular tissues. Long-term exposure to these insults places the aging eye at considerable risk for pathological consequences of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in eye tissues, mitochondria are an important endogenous source of ROS. Over time, all ocular structures, from the tear film to the retina, undergo oxidative stress, and therefore, the antioxidant defenses of each tissue assume the role of a safeguard against degenerative ocular pathologies. The ocular surface and cornea protect the other ocular tissues and are significantly exposed to oxidative stress of environmental origin. Overwhelming of antioxidant defenses in these tissues clinically manifests as pathologies including pterygium, corneal dystrophies, and endothelial Fuch's dystrophy. The crystalline lens is highly susceptible to oxidative damage in aging because its cells and their intracellular proteins are not turned over or replaced, thus providing the basis for cataractogenesis. The trabecular meshwork, which is the anterior chamber tissue devoted to aqueous humor drainage, has a particular susceptibility to mitochondrial oxidative injury that affects its endothelium and leads to an intraocular pressure increase that marks the beginning of glaucoma. Photo-oxidative stress can cause acute or chronic retinal damage. The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration involves oxidative stress and death of the retinal pigment epithelium followed by death of the overlying photoreceptors. Accordingly, converging evidence indicates that mutagenic mechanisms of environmental and endogenous sources play a fundamental pathogenic role in degenerative eye diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2013.01.001DOI Listing
April 2015

Morphological and morphometric study of the pecten oculi in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2012 Mar 20;295(3):540-50. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

Department of Biomorphology and Biotechnologies, Section of Histology and Embryology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria 1, I-98125, Messina, Italy.

The pecten oculi is a highly vascular and pigmented organ placed in the vitreous body of the avian eye. As no data are currently available on the morphological organization of the pecten in the Psittaciformes, the pecten oculi of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) was studied. The eyes from adult male budgerigars were examined by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy and a morphometric study on both light and transmission electron microscopy specimens was also performed in the different parts of the organ. In the budgerigar, the type of the pecten oculi was pleated. Its basal part had a cranio-caudal and postero-anterior course; its body consisted of 10-12-folds joined apically by a densely pigmented bridge. The pecten showed many capillaries, whose wall was thick and formed by pericytes and endothelial cells. These latter had a large number of microfolds, rectilinear on their luminal surface and tortuous on their abluminal surface. Interstitial pigment cells were placed among the capillaries, filled with melanin granules and showed many cytoplasmic processes. The morphometric analysis demonstrated significant differences among the three parts of the organ relative to the length of the endothelial processes and to the number and size of the pigment granules. The morphological and morphometric analysis showed that the bridge of the budgerigar, different from the other birds, had a large number of capillaries, so that this part of the organ could also play a trophic role for the retina in addition to the choriocapillaris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.22421DOI Listing
March 2012