Publications by authors named "Anna L Guarnieri"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of a core TP53 transcriptional program with highly distributed tumor suppressive activity.

Genome Res 2017 10 13;27(10):1645-1657. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

The tumor suppressor TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene product in human cancer. Close to half of all solid tumors carry inactivating mutations in the gene, while in the remaining cases, TP53 activity is abrogated by other oncogenic events, such as hyperactivation of its endogenous repressors MDM2 or MDM4. Despite identification of hundreds of genes regulated by this transcription factor, it remains unclear which direct target genes and downstream pathways are essential for the tumor suppressive function of TP53. We set out to address this problem by generating multiple genomic data sets for three different cancer cell lines, allowing the identification of distinct sets of TP53-regulated genes, from early transcriptional targets through to late targets controlled at the translational level. We found that although TP53 elicits vastly divergent signaling cascades across cell lines, it directly activates a core transcriptional program of ∼100 genes with diverse biological functions, regardless of cell type or cellular response to TP53 activation. This core program is associated with high-occupancy TP53 enhancers, high levels of paused RNA polymerases, and accessible chromatin. Interestingly, two different shRNA screens failed to identify a single TP53 target gene required for the anti-proliferative effects of TP53 during pharmacological activation in vitro. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis of thousands of cancer genomes revealed that none of these core target genes are frequently inactivated in tumors expressing wild-type TP53. These results support the hypothesis that TP53 activates a genetically robust transcriptional program with highly distributed tumor suppressive functions acting in diverse cellular contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.220533.117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5630028PMC
October 2017

The Six1 oncoprotein downregulates p53 via concomitant regulation of RPL26 and microRNA-27a-3p.

Nat Commun 2015 Dec 21;6:10077. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Program in Molecular Biology, University of Colorado, Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, 12800 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

TP53 is mutated in 50% of all cancers, and its function is often compromised in cancers where it is not mutated. Here we demonstrate that the pro-tumorigenic/metastatic Six1 homeoprotein decreases p53 levels through a mechanism that does not involve the negative regulator of p53, MDM2. Instead, Six1 regulates p53 via a dual mechanism involving upregulation of microRNA-27a and downregulation of ribosomal protein L26 (RPL26). Mutation analysis confirms that RPL26 inhibits miR-27a binding and prevents microRNA-mediated downregulation of p53. The clinical relevance of this interaction is underscored by the finding that Six1 expression strongly correlates with decreased RPL26 across numerous tumour types. Importantly, we find that Six1 expression leads to marked resistance to therapies targeting the p53-MDM2 interaction. Thus, we identify a competitive mechanism of p53 regulation, which may have consequences for drugs aimed at reinstating p53 function in tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4703841PMC
December 2015

TWIST1-Induced miR-424 Reversibly Drives Mesenchymal Programming while Inhibiting Tumor Initiation.

Cancer Res 2015 May 25;75(9):1908-21. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

Program in Molecular Biology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado. Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process that relies on cellular plasticity. Recently, the process of an oncogenic EMT, followed by a reverse mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), has been implicated as critical in the metastatic colonization of carcinomas. Unlike governance of epithelial programming, regulation of mesenchymal programming is not well understood in EMT. Here, we describe and characterize the first microRNA that enhances exclusively mesenchymal programming. We demonstrate that miR-424 is upregulated early during a TWIST1 or SNAI1-induced EMT, and that it causes cells to express mesenchymal genes without affecting epithelial genes, resulting in a mixed/intermediate EMT. Furthermore, miR-424 increases motility, decreases adhesion, and induces a growth arrest, changes associated with a complete EMT that can be reversed when miR-424 expression is lowered, concomitant with an MET-like process. Breast cancer patient miR-424 levels positively associate with TWIST1/2 and EMT-like gene signatures, and miR-424 is increased in primary tumors versus matched normal breast. However, miR-424 is downregulated in patient metastases versus matched primary tumors. Correspondingly, miR-424 decreases tumor initiation and is posttranscriptionally downregulated in macrometastases in mice, suggesting the need for biphasic expression of miR-424 to transit the EMT-MET axis. Next-generation RNA sequencing revealed miR-424 regulates numerous EMT and cancer stemness-associated genes, including TGFBR3, whose downregulation promotes mesenchymal phenotypes, but not tumor-initiating phenotypes. Instead, we demonstrate that increased MAPK-ERK signaling is critical for miR-424-mediated decreases in tumor-initiating phenotypes. These findings suggest miR-424 plays distinct roles in tumor progression, potentially facilitating earlier, but repressing later, stages of metastasis by regulating an EMT-MET axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-2394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417413PMC
May 2015

Back to bases: how a nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme controls p53 activation.

Mol Cell 2014 Feb;53(3):365-7

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue, Reddy et al. (2014) reveal a new twist in the molecular mechanism leading to p53 activation upon cellular stress, illuminating an unexpected nuclear role for a nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme in regulation of a potent tumor suppressor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2014.01.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3966567PMC
February 2014