Publications by authors named "Anna Iljicsov"

16 Publications

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Age and gender characteristics of patients affected with multiple sclerosis in Hungary between 2004 and 2016

Orv Hetil 2021 05 9;162(19):746-753. Epub 2021 May 9.

1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Neurológiai Klinika, Budapest, Balassa u. 6., 1083.

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Mivel hazánkban a sclerosis multiplex gyakoriságáról, valamint életkori és nemi jellegzetességeiről az elmúlt évtizedekben - egészen 2020-ig - csak regionális jellegű felmérések készültek egy-egy centrum betegforgalma alapján, az újonnan diagnosztizált és már ismert betegek országos koreloszlásáról és annak időbeli változásairól nincsenek ismereteink. Célkitűzés: Jelen munkánkban több mint 14 000 beteg adatainak elemzésével a prevalens és incidens betegek koreloszlásának változását vizsgáljuk 2004-2016 során, és eredményeinket összevetjük az elmúlt évtizedekben közölt hazai adatokkal. Módszer: Munkacsoportunk az egészségbiztosítási pénztár anonimizált NEUROHUN adatbázisát elemezte, amely tartalmazza a 2004 és 2016 között az összes hazai, államilag finanszírozott, a fekvő- és járóbeteg-szakellátásból neurológiai diagnózissal jelentett esetet. A sclerosis multiplex BNO-kódjának előfordulása alapján korábban létrehoztuk a betegség adminisztratív definícióját, és megbecsültük a sclerosis multiplex országos prevalenciáját és incidenciáját. Eredmények: A prevalens betegek átlagéletkora 2015-ben 47,9 év, ugyanebben az évben az incidens betegek átlagéletkora 37,4 év volt. Vizsgálatunk szerint a prevalens betegek átlagéletkora szignifikánsan - évente egyötöd-egyharmad évvel (p<0,001) - emelkedik, mégpedig a nők esetében nagyobb mértékben. A nők átlagosan fél évvel idősebbek, mint a férfi páciensek (szignifikáns különbség: p = 0,002). A prevalens betegekben a legnépesebb korosztály az ötvenévesek felől a fiatalabb, 35-40 éves korosztály felé mozdul. Az incidens betegek átlagéletkora lassan, de szignifikánsan - évente átlagosan egyharmad évvel (p<0,001) - csökken. Következtetés: Eredményeink szerint az újonnan diagnosztizált sclerosis multiplexes páciensek átlagosan egyre fiatalabbak, és a prevalens betegek között is egyre fiatalabb korosztályok a legnépesebbek, de a javuló túlélés és a hosszabb élettartam miatt a prevalens betegek átlagéletkora összességében valószínűleg fokozatosan emelkedik. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(19): 746-753.

Summary:

Introduction: The nationwide age and gender distribution of newly diagnosed and prevalent multiple sclerosis patients has been unknown in Hungary, as until 2020 only regional studies had been reported about the frequency and age characteristics of subjects with multiple sclerosis, based on single-center patient registries.

Objective: In the present study with the analysis of over 14 000 patients, we describe the changes in age distribution of prevalent and incident subjects between 2004 and 2016 and compare our results with the data published on the subject during the last decades in Hungary.

Method: We have analyzed the pseudonymized NEUROHUN database provided by the single-payer National Health Insurance Fund, that contains each claim submitted by public hospitals and outpatient services for neurologic diseases between 2004 and 2016. Using the ICD10-code of multiple sclerosis, we have previously established the administrative definition of the illness and estimated its prevalence and incidence in the country.

Results: The mean age of prevalent patients was 47.9 years in 2015, whereas in the same year the mean age of incident cases was 37.4 years. The average age of prevalent patients shows a significant rise - with an annual increase of one fifth-one third year (p<0.001) - with a more pronounced increase among women. The age of women is higher by half a year (p = 0.002). The most populous age groups among prevalent subjects shift from the fifties towards the younger generations between 35-40 years of age. The average age of incident subjects slowly, but significantly decreases, with a mean annual decrease of about one third year (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that though new patients are younger year-by-year and the most populous age groups are also younger, altogether the average age of prevalent subjects continuously increases, probably due to the longer survival and lifespan of patients with multiple sclerosis. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(19): 746-753.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2021.32100DOI Listing
May 2021

Population-based head-to-head comparison of the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of AQP4 antibody-positive NMOSD between two European countries.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 3;51:102879. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neurology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Population-based clinical studies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and epidemiological and clinical comparisons of White ethnicities are missing. In a large population-based international cohort, we extensively characterized aquaporin-4 antibody seropositive (AQP4-Ab+) NMOSD, and also compared the clinical, radiological and epidemiological features between two European populations residing in different areas.

Methods: Between self-reported Danish and Hungarian ethnicities, we compared the population-based clinical features, disability outcomes, and death of 134 AQP4-Ab+ NMOSD cases fulfilling the 2015 International Panel for NMO Diagnosis (IPND) criteria. For precise comparison of epidemiology, we conducted a population-based head-to-head comparative study of the age-standardized prevalence (January 1, 2014) and incidence (2007-2013) of AQP4-Ab+ NMO/NMOSD among adults (≥16 years) in Denmark (4.6 million) and Hungary (6.4 million) by applying 2015 IPND (NMOSD) criteria and 2006 Wingerchuk (NMO).

Results: Danes were more likely to present with transverse myelitis and were more affected by spinal cord damage on long-term disability. Hungarians presented most often with optic neuritis, although visual outcome was similar in the groups. No differences were observed in sex, disease course, relapse rate, autoimmune comorbidity, mortality, brain MRI, and treatment strategies. The age-standardized prevalence estimates of AQP4-Ab+ NMOSD (2015 IPND criteria) in Denmark vs. Hungary were 0.66 vs. 1.43 (/100,000) while incidence rates were 0.04 vs. 0.11 (/100,000 person-years); similar differences were found based on the 2006 NMO criteria.

Conclusions: This head-to-head comparative study indicates different disease characteristics and epidemiology among White populations in Europe, and substantiates the need for population-based genetic and environmental studies in NMOSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102879DOI Listing
June 2021

Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Hungary based on record linkage of nationwide multiple healthcare administrative data.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(7):e0236432. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Objectives: As there were only regional studies in Hungary about the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS), we aimed to estimate its epidemiological features using data of Hungary's single-payer health insurance system.

Methods: Pseudonymized database of claims reported by hospitals and outpatient services between 2004-2016 was analyzed and linked with an independent database of outpatient pharmacy refills between 2010-2016. We established an administrative case definition of MS and validated it on medical records of 309 consecutive patients. A subject was defined as MS-patient if received MS diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, code G35) on three or more occasions at least in 2 calendar years and at least once documented by a neurologist. Patients were counted as incident cases in the year of the first submitted claim for MS. We allowed a 6-year-long run-in period, so only data between 2010-2015 are discussed.

Results: Sensitivity of the administrative case definition turned out to be 99%, while specificity was >99%. Crude prevalence of MS has increased from 109.3/100,000 in 2010 to 130.8/100,000 in 2015 (p-value = 0.000003). Crude incidence declined from 7.1/100,000 (2010) to 5.4/100,000 (2015) (p-value = 0.018). Direct standardization - based on European standard population and results of nationwide Hungarian census of 2011 - revealed that age standardized prevalence was 105.2/100,000 (2010), which has grown to 127.2/100,000 (2015) (p-value = 0.000001). Age standardized incidence rate declined from 6.7/100,000 (2010) to 5.1/100,000 (2015) (p-value = 0.016). The ratio of MS-patients receiving ≥1 prescription for disease modifying treatment increased from 0.19 (2010) to 0.29 (2015) (p-value = 0.0051). The female/male ratio of prevalent cases remained 2.6.

Discussion: The prevalence of MS in Hungary is higher than previously reported, the incidence rate is moderate. The prevalence is rising, the incidence rate shows decline. The proportion of patients receiving disease modifying treatment grows but was still around 30% in 2015.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236432PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384662PMC
September 2020

Neuropsychological characteristics of benign multiple sclerosis patients: A two-year matched cohort study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Oct 27;35:150-155. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University, Balassa J. u. 6., 1083 Budapest, Hungary.

Background: The definition of benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) is still debated. It is mainly based on physical status, however, there is an attempt to involve cognitive functioning or paraclinical factors in order to avoid unnecessary long-term treatment with disease-modifying therapies and to identify these subjects in the early stages of the disease. Therefore the aim of our two-year follow-up study was to investigate the pattern of cognitive functioning and depression in patients with BMS compared to treated relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and healthy controls.

Methods: A group of 22 BMS patients was tested against matched RRMS patients and healthy controls. All individuals underwent neuropsychological evaluation exploring mood and the cognitive domains most frequently impaired in MS. MS patients were retested at two-year follow-up.

Results: In terms of cognitive functions there were no differences between BMS and RRMS patients either at baseline or at two-year follow-up. Compared to healthy controls BMS patients showed poorer performance in long-term visuo-spatial memory and information processing speed, whereas, complex attention, working memory, long-term verbal memory - despite slower verbal learning - and executive function were found to be intact. RRMS patients showed significant difference in complex attention, long-term visual memory and information processing speed. Cognitive impairment differed in the patient groups in terms of severity. Both patient groups were depressed compared to controls, but significant differences were found only between BMS and healthy individuals.

Conclusion: The results of our study confirm that cognitive functions and mood can be affected in MS independent of disease course and disease modifying treatment. The "benign" label should be treated as only a reference to physical status and non-motor symptoms should be routinely monitored. Without receiving therapy it is an existing entity with longstanding minimal disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.07.022DOI Listing
October 2019

[Multiple sclerosis in central Hungary: experiences and future possibilities of developing a local database].

Orv Hetil 2019 Jan;160(4):131-137

Neurológiai Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Balassa u. 6., 1083.

Introduction: Data during routine patient care are created in multiple digital and paper-based hardcopy systems, therefore their retrieval is cumbersome in the follow-up of patients. Multiple sclerosis is the most prevalent neurological disorder in the young age, with major consequences on health and socio-economic status.

Aim: We set forth to create a user-friendly, detailed local database where it is easy to access, register and analyze data. Based on our experiences during building this registry, we develop the model of a modern type of database.

Method: First we established a local registry in Excel, then data were transferred to the worldwide used iMed system. Separate pages were used to register basic data, follow-up visits, relapses, accompanying diseases, results of neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid, evoked response and other tests, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments.

Results: The database currently contains data of 316 patients. MRI was performed in 96%, cerebrospinal fluid examination in 45% of the patients. The rate of primary progressive disease at disease onset is 9%. Disease modifying treatments were applied in 82% of the patients.

Conclusion: The traditional manual data entry and data export in PDF format is obsolete and time-consuming. The development of local disease-specific databases appropriate for clinical and research purposes requires continuous and mostly automatic data entry. In future local registries the establishment of uniform documentational language and structure, and automatic transfer of information among different digital systems are required. We present the model of such a registry, which is based on a healthcare data lake. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(4): 131-137.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2019.31274DOI Listing
January 2019

[Databases in neurological diseases: overview of international examples in multiple sclerosis].

Orv Hetil 2019 Jan;160(4):123-130

Neurológiai Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Balassa u. 6., 1083.

Vast amounts of data are created during routine patient care which are stored in unstructured digital and hardcopy formats in healthcare institutions. Analysis of large databases help to define the healthcare needs of the population and to organize healthcare services for specific diseases. As a model, we selected multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease with well-defined diagnostic criteria, a usually inpatient initial diagnosis, and a need for regular outpatient check-up. Using multiple sclerosis as an example, we set forth to screen and analyze international and Hungarian databases. In the framework of the initiation of the data lake system of Semmelweis University, we aim to define features of the data system needed for disease-specific databases for future applications. To determine essential data-entry criteria for such a database, we review the most important multiple sclerosis registries. We evaluate the type of registered data, structure of database, privacy issues, the availability and ways of application of the databases. Initially, the MS databases were created locally, aiming for better care of patients. As a further step, data were collected for scientific research by national and international co-operations. Disease-specific databases have become of high priority for national healthcare providers, and long-term information on a population ("real-world" data) is extremely important to assess the effectivity and safety of a treatment at the population level. Our analysis contributes to a project which focuses on the aspects of developing a data lake at a service provider level including clinical, diagnostic and digital healthcare departments of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(4): 123-130.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2019.31273DOI Listing
January 2019

[Role of peginterferon-β-1a in the therapy of multiplex sclerosis].

Ideggyogy Sz 2017 Nov;70(11-12):365-368

Semmelweis Egyetem, Neurológiai Klinika, Budapest.

The subcutaneous peginterferon-b-1a is recently introduced in the therapy of relapsing-remitting multiplex sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Pegylation of IFN b-1a improved pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in, increased biologic activity and a longer half-life. The efficacy of peginterferon-b-1a was proved by the ADVANCE study - a 2-year Phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study with a 1-year placebocontrolled period evaluating the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous peginterferon-b-1a administered every 2 or 4 weeks in patients with RRMS. Peginterferon-b-1a efficacy was maintained during the two years, with greater effects observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing. Annualized relapse rate and confirmed disability progression was reduced comparing with patients on delayed treatment. Patients treated with continuous peginterferon-b-1a had fewer new or newly enlarging T2 lesions over 2 years than patients in the delayed treatment group. Adverse events were consistent with the known profiles of IFN b therapies in MS. The most commonly reported adverse events were injection site erythema, influenza-like illness. The less frequent administration is associated with fewer flu-like adverse events, which may improve patients' compliance and adherence. Peginter-feron-b-1a could be an effective and safe treatment option for RRMS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.70.0365DOI Listing
November 2017

[Experience with natalizumab-treatment at Semmelweis University].

Ideggyogy Sz 2017 May;70(5-6):185-191

Semmelweis Egyetem, Neurológiai Klinika, Budapest.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. During the last two decades, numerous disease modifying drugs have been introduced for the treatment of the relapsing-remitting form of the disease. Since 2010, natalizumab (NTZ) treatment has been used as a second-line therapy for patients with breakthrough disease. In comparison to conventional immunomodulant drugs, NTZ has a more specific effect in that it prevents the entry of immune cells into the central nervous system without interfering with systemic immune response. The efficacy and the safety of NTZ have been confirmed by several studies. The most severe side-effect of NTZ is progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, which has been associated with an increased incidence in patients with anti-JCV antibody positivity, and in those who have been undergoing NTZ treatment for over two years and who have received prior immunosuppressive therapy. In the present study, our experience with natalizumab treatment of 37 patients at the Department of Neurology of Semmelweis University during the last 6 years is presented. We have observed a significant decrease of disease activity in our patients; in many cases the disease has become inactive both clinically (36/37) and radiologically (34/37). The patients' quality of life has improved significantly during the treatment. In accordance with the literature, we confirm that NTZ is a highly effective treatment in a carefully selected patient group, and can be administered without significant inconvenience to the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.70.0185DOI Listing
May 2017

[Oral disease-modifying agents in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

Neuropsychopharmacol Hung 2015 Dec;17(4):197-205

Semmelweis University Department of Neurology, Budapest, Hungary.

In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, only parenteral immunomodulatory treatments existed for 15 years, until 2010. In recent years, novel disease-modifying agents became available with new mechanisms of action and oral application, which expanded therapeutic options. Thus, when making therapeutic decisions, more and new aspects should be considered, and the daily practice of patient management has been changed due to the different profile of possible side-effects. The authors review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, studies regarding efficacy, side-effects of first- and second line oral disease-modifying treatments and provide practical guide of their everyday usage.
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December 2015

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis During Pregnancy: A Case Report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Jul;94(26):e1034

From the Department of Neurology, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers (SM, JCP, AI, ML, JPN); Department of Neurology, Hôpital d'Angoulême, Angoulême France (CP); and Department of Gynecology, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers, France (FP).

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-MMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated encephalitis mainly affecting young women.We describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who developed a classical form of anti-NMDAR encephalitis during the 10th week of gestation. The patient had been treated with methylpredinsolone and intravenous immunoglobulins. Birth history of the child was normal, with normal APGAR score. The clinical symptoms of the patient have improved after a few months.This rare occurrence during pregnancy (only 9 other cases described) presents an opportunity to highlight the importance of making the earliest possible diagnosis of this treatable and potentially reversible encephalitis, and to educate gynecologists, psychiatrists, anesthetists, and neurologists on this potential cause of psychiatric and neurological manifestations during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000001034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504573PMC
July 2015

Multiple simultaneous intracranial hemorrhages due to hornet stings.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2015 Jan 3;128:53-5. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Department of Neurology, CHU Poitiers, University of Poitiers, 2 rue de la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.10.014DOI Listing
January 2015

Paroxysmal sneezing at the onset of syncopes and transient ischemic attack revealing a papillary cardiac fibroelastoma.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2014 17;2014:734849. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers, 2 Rue de la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers Cedex 05, France.

Sneezing can at times be associated with neurological disorders. The "sneeze center" is localized in the lateral medulla. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented three episodes of sneezing, two of them followed by an episode of transient gait instability and dizziness and the third one followed by an episode of transient left hemiparesis due to fibroelastoma of the aortic cardiac valve. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a transient ischemic attack due to cardiac papillary fibroelastoma and revealed by violent episodes of sneezing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/734849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086253PMC
July 2014

Apathy in Parkinson's disease: an electrophysiological study.

Neurol Res Int 2014 7;2014:290513. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, CHU Poitiers, University of Poitiers, 2 rue de la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers, France.

In Parkinson's disease (PD), apathy (or loss of motivation) is frequent. Nevertheless, the contribution of attentional disorders to its genesis is still not clearly known. We want to determine the relation existing between apathy and attentional disorders by using P300a (or novelty P3) as a marker of the attentional process. The study included 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) with PD for whom we have determined the relationship between automatic attention (represented by P300a) and motor status, apathy, executive dysfunction, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and depression/anxiety. We have found a correlation between the apathy score and amplitude of novelty P300 during the ON period and also a correlation of the apathy score with a decrease in amplitude of P300 during the OFF period. In a linear regression model, changes in the P300a predicted the severity of apathy independently of any other variable. We concluded firstly that the reduction in amplitude of the P300a wave was a neurophysiological marker of apathy in PD and secondly that apathy led to both dopaminergic denervation (mesolimbic) and nondopaminergic (dorsolateral prefrontal-subcortical) dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/290513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3996982PMC
May 2014

Health status and costs of ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary.

Ideggyogy Sz 2012 Sep;65(9-10):316-24

Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment Research Centre, Corvinus University of Budapest.

Background And Purpose: Data on disease burden of multiple sclerosis from Eastern-Central Europe are very limited. Our aim was to explore the quality of life, resource utilisation and costs of ambulating patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary.

Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed in two outpatient neurology centres in 2009. Clinical history, health care utilisation in the past 12 months were surveyed, the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was conducted from the societal perspective.

Results: Sixty-eight patients (female 70.6%) aged 38.0 (SD 9.1) with disease duration of 7.8 (SD 6.7) years were involved. Fifty-five (80.9%) had relapsing-remitting form and 52 (76.5%) were taking immunomodulatory drug. The average scores were: Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.9 (SD 1.7), EQ-5D 0.67 (SD 0.28). Mean total cost amounted to 10 902 Euros/patient/year (direct medical 67%, direct nonmedical 13%, indirect costs 20%). Drugs, disability pension and informal care were the highest cost items. Costs of mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale 0-3.5) and moderate (Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0-6.5) disease were 9 218 and 17 634 Euros/patient/year respectively (p<0.01), that is lower than results from Western European countries.

Conclusion: Our study provides current inputs for policy making and contributes to understanding variation of cost-of-illness of multiple sclerosis in Europe.
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September 2012

In vivo evaluation of retinal neurodegeneration in patients with multiple sclerosis.

PLoS One 2012 26;7(1):e30922. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Objective: To evaluate macular morphology in the eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with or without optic neuritis (ON) in previous history.

Methods: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination was performed in thirty-nine patients with MS and in thirty-three healthy subjects. The raw macular OCT data were processed using OCTRIMA software. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and the weighted mean thickness of the total retina and 6 intraretinal layers were obtained for each eye. The eyes of MS patients were divided into a group of 39 ON-affected eyes, and into a group of 34 eyes with no history of ON for the statistical analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine which parameter can discriminate best between the non-affected group and controls.

Results: The circumpapillary RNFL thickness was significantly decreased in the non-affected eyes compared to controls group only in the temporal quadrant (p = 0.001) while it was decreased in the affected eyes of the MS patients in all quadrants compared to the non-affected eyes (p<0.05 in each comparison). The thickness of the total retina, RNFL, ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer complex (GCL+IPL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC, comprising the RNFL and GCL+IPL) in the macula was significantly decreased in the non-affected eyes compared to controls (p<0.05 for each comparison) and in the ON-affected eyes compared to the non-affected eyes (p<0.001 for each comparison). The largest area under the ROC curve (0.892) was obtained for the weighted mean thickness of the GCC. The EDSS score showed the strongest correlation with the GCL+IPL and GCC thickness (p = 0.007, r = 0.43 for both variables).

Conclusions: Thinning of the inner retinal layers is present in eyes of MS patients regardless of previous ON. Macular OCT image segmentation might provide a better insight into the pathology of neuronal loss and could therefore play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with MS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0030922PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266905PMC
June 2012

[Devic syndrome--case report, current principles of diagnosis and therapy].

Ideggyogy Sz 2010 Sep;63(9-10):320-6

Semmelweis Egyetem, Neurológiai Klinika, Budapest.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic-syndrome) is a rare, relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which is distinguished from other demyelinating disorders by a recently identified, specific autoantibody. By demonstrating the anti-aquaporin-4 IgG in the serum, a heterogenous group of syndromes can be defined, called NMO-spectrum. In the future, optical coherence tomography may support this diagnosis besides the clinical features, imaging examinations and presence of serum antibody. Early recognition and treatment can improve clinical outcome even in serious condition. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy is advised to prevent further relapses and to stabilize or improve clinical status. Hereby, we report a case of a 51-year-old woman, under treatment for one and a half years. We summarize the current knowledge about the pathomechanism, diagnostic strategy and therapy of neuromyelitis optica. We review recent findings and the diagnostic value of a new, non-invasive ophtalmological examination, the optical coherence tomography. According to the first results, this method may be helpful in the early differential diagnosis of optic neuritis.
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September 2010
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