Publications by authors named "Anna Herman"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The role of the intestinal microbiota in eating disorders - bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 4;300:113923. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Child Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, 61 Żwirki i Wigury St., 02-091 Warsaw, Poland.

Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are both eating disorders (EDs) characterised by episodes of overeating in which large amounts of food are consumed in short periods. The aetiology of BN and BED is not fully understood. Psychological and social factors influence the development of BN and BED, but biological factors such as neurohormones that regulate hunger and satiety, or neurotransmitters responsible for mood and anxiety play a significant role in sustaining symptoms. Increasing numbers of studies confirm the relationship between the composition of intestinal microbiota and the regulation of appetite, mood, and body mass. In this manuscript, we will describe the mechanisms by which intestinal dysbiosis can play an important role in the aetiology of binge eating episodes based on current understanding. Understanding the two-way relationship between BN and BED and alterations in the intestinal microbiota suggest the utility of new treatment methods of these disorders aimed at improving the composition of the intestinal microflora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113923DOI Listing
April 2021

Anandamide Influences Interleukin-1β Synthesis and System Gene Expressions in the Ovine Hypothalamus during Endo-Toxin-Induced Inflammation.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Genetic Engineering, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland.

This study evaluated the effect of anandamide (AEA) on interleukin (IL)-1β synthesis and gene expression of , its type I () and II () receptors, and IL-1 receptor antagonist () in the hypothalamic structures, involved in the central control of reproduction, during inflammation. Animals were intravenously (i.v.) injected with bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (400 ng/kg) or saline, and two hours after LPS administration., a third group received i.v. injection of AEA (10 μg/kg). Ewes were euthanized one hour later. AEA injection ( < 0.05) suppressed LPS-induced expression of IL-1β protein in the hypothalamus. The gene expression of , , and in the hypothalamic structures was higher ( < 0.05) in animals treated with both LPS and AEA in comparison to other experimental groups. AEA administration did not influence LPS-stimulated gene expression. Our study shows that AEA suppressed IL-1β synthesis in the hypothalamus, likely affecting posttranscriptional levels of this cytokine synthesis. However, anti-inflammatory effect of AEA might also result from its stimulating action on and gene expression. These results indicate the potential of endocannabinoids and/or their metabolites in the inhibition of inflammatory process at the level of central nervous system, and therefore their usefulness in the therapy of inflammation-induced neuroendocrine disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918765PMC
February 2021

Herbal Products in Postsurgical Wound Healing - Incision, Excision and Dead Space Wound Models.

Planta Med 2020 Jul 18;86(11):732-748. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Genetic Engineering, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna near Warsaw, Poland.

The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge acquired on preclinical (incision, excision, and dead space wound models) and clinical studies regarding topically used herbal products with wound healing activity. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant mechanisms of their action as well as the adverse effects of herbal therapy will be described. Numerous preclinical and few clinical trials have confirmed the activity of herbal products in the stimulation of wound healing. In contrast to synthetic drugs, for which chemical compositions, purity, efficacy, minimal active concentration, and toxicity are well specified, several herbal formulations require further investigations. Nevertheless, it cannot be precluded that herbal products may be considered as an important support during conventional wound healing therapy or even as synthetic medicament replacements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1162-9988DOI Listing
July 2020

Herbal Products for Treatment of Burn Wounds.

J Burn Care Res 2020 05;41(3):457-465

Department of Genetic Engineering, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna near Warsaw, Poland.

The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge acquired during preclinical and clinical studies regarding topically used herbal products with burn wound-healing activity. Moreover, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant mechanisms of their action as well as adverse effects of herbal therapy will be also described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa010DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of Central Injection of Neostigmine on the Bacterial Endotoxin Induced Suppression of GnRH/LH Secretion in Ewes during the Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 17;20(18). Epub 2019 Sep 17.

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-100 Jabłonna, Poland.

Induced by a bacterial infection, an immune/inflammatory challenge is a potent negative regulator of the reproduction process in females. The reduction of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine is considered as an effective strategy in the treatment of inflammatory induced neuroendocrine disorders. Therefore, the effect of direct administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor-neostigmine-into the third ventricle of the brain on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretions under basal and immune stress conditions was evaluated in this study. In the study, 24 adult, 2-years-old Blackhead ewes during the follicular phase of their estrous cycle were used. Immune stress was induced by the intravenous injection of LPS in a dose of 400 ng/kg. Animals received an intracerebroventricular injection of neostigmine (1 mg/animal) 0.5 h before LPS/saline treatment. It was shown that central administration of neostigmine might prevent the inflammatory-dependent decrease of GnRH/LH secretion in ewes and it had a stimulatory effect on LH release. This central action of neostigmine is connected with its inhibitory action on local pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α synthesis in the hypothalamus, which indicates the importance of this mediator in the inhibition of GnRH secretion during acute inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769544PMC
September 2019

Probiotics supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders - a review of current research.

Authors:
Anna Herman

Psychiatr Pol 2019 Apr 30;53(2):459-473. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego.

In recent years increased interest in the connection of intestinal microflora and the state of human health resulted in a great deal of research on the influence of intestinal microflora in particular on mental health, including works on affective functions of the central nervous system (CNS). Previous studies on animals have revealed the existence of a bi-directional communication system between the gastrointestinal microbiota and the central nervous system, the so-called .gut-brain axis' which modulates functioning of CNS through immunological, endocrine and neuronal mechanisms. Clinical studies have shown a connection between supplementation of probiotics containing specific species and strains of bacteria and the regulation of the body's response to stress and with the exacerbation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in humans. Studies have also demonstrated differences in the composition of the intestinal microflora of patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in comparison with the healthy population. The aim of this article is to present the current state of knowledge on the relationship between composition of intestinal microflora and affective functions of CNS and on effects of supplementation of probiotics on depressive and anxiety symptoms in humans. Previous studies on the use of probiotics in the prophylaxis and treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders included too small groups of persons, especially in groups of patients diagnosed with depression, to be able to clearly determine the effectiveness of probiotics in prevention and, in particular, treatment of these disorders in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/92392DOI Listing
April 2019

Involvement of 5-HT and 5-HT Receptors but Not -Adrenoceptors in the Acute Electrophysiological Effects of Cariprazine in the Rat Brain In Vivo.

Mol Pharmacol 2018 12 15;94(6):1363-1370. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Mood Disorders Research Unit, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (A.H., M.E.M., P.B.); Allergan, Madison, New Jersey, United States (N.A.); and Gedeon Richter Plc, Budapest, Hungary (B.K., B.F.).

Cariprazine, an orally active and potent dopamine D-preferring D/D receptor partial agonist, is approved to treat adults with schizophrenia (in the United States and Europe) and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (in the United States). Cariprazine also displays partial agonism at serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] 5-HT receptors and antagonism at 5-HT and 5-HT receptors in vitro. The study objective was to determine whether cariprazine leads to functional alterations of monoamine systems in vivo via electrophysiological recordings from anesthetized rats. Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), locus coeruleus (LC), and hippocampus pyramidal neurons were recorded, and cariprazine was administered systemically or locally through iontophoresis. In the DRN, cariprazine completely inhibited the firing activity of 5-HT neurons, which was fully reversed by the 5-HT receptor antagonist, WAY100635. In the LC, cariprazine reversed the inhibitory effect of the preferential 5-HT receptor agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, on norepinephrine (NE) neurons (ED = 66 g/kg) but did not block the inhibitory effect of the -adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine. Cariprazine, iontophorized into the hippocampus, diminished pyramidal neuronal firing through activation of 5-HT receptors, while its concomitant administration did not dampen the suppressant effect of 5-HT. These results indicate that, in vivo, cariprazine acted as a 5-HT autoreceptor agonist in the DRN, a 5-HT receptor antagonist in modulating the firing activity of LC NE neurons, and a full agonist at 5-HT receptors mediating the electrophysiological effect of 5-HT on pyramidal neurons. The modulatory actions of cariprazine on these monoaminergic systems may contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness in patients with depressive episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.118.113290DOI Listing
December 2018

Antimicrobial peptides activity in the skin.

Skin Res Technol 2019 Mar 15;25(2):111-117. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Genetic Engineering, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna, Warsaw, Poland.

This review presents the current state of knowledge regarding multifunctional role of human skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including (a) protection from microbial infection, (b) improvement of skin barrier homoeostasis, (c) modulation of inflammation responses, and (d) promotion of wound healing. In addition, association of AMPs with skin diseases as well as challenges and future prospects for AMP therapeutics has also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12626DOI Listing
March 2019

Antimicrobial Ingredients as Preservative Booster and Components of Self-Preserving Cosmetic Products.

Authors:
Anna Herman

Curr Microbiol 2019 Jun 12;76(6):744-754. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Faculty of Cosmetology, The Academy of Cosmetics and Health Care, Podwale 13 Street, 00-252, Warsaw, Poland.

This review reports cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial activity including synthetic and natural (plant and microbial) origin as alternative for preservatives used in cosmetics as well described mechanism of their action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-018-1492-2DOI Listing
June 2019

Peripheral Inhibitor of AChE, Neostigmine, Prevents the Inflammatory Dependent Suppression of GnRH/LH Secretion during the Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

Biomed Res Int 2017 15;2017:6823209. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna, Poland.

The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal) will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal). An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg). Peripheral treatment with Donepezil and Neostigmine prevented the LPS-induced decrease ( < 0.05) in LH gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) and in LH release. Moreover, Donepezil completely abolished ( < 0.05) the suppressory effect of inflammation on GnRH synthesis in the preoptic area, when pretreatment with Neostigmine reduced ( < 0.05) the decrease in GnRH content in this hypothalamic structure. Moreover, administration of both AChE inhibitors diminished ( < 0.05) the inhibitory effect of LPS treatment on the expression of GnRH receptor in the AP. Our study shows that inflammatory dependent changes in the GnRH/LH secretion may be eliminated or reduced by AChE inhibitors suppressing inflammatory reaction only at the periphery such as Neostigmine, without the need for interfering in the central nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6823209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574266PMC
May 2018

Endotoxin-induced inflammation disturbs melatonin secretion in ewe.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Dec 27;30(12):1784-1795. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna 05-110, Poland.

Objective: The study examined the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short-night (SN; n = 12) and long-night (LN; n = 12).

Methods: In both experiments, animals (n = 12) were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 6) and LPS-treated (n = 6) one. Two hours after sunset, animals received an injection of LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected starting one hour after sunset and continuing for 3 hours after the treatment. The ewes were euthanized 3 hours after LPS/saline treatment. The concentration of hormones in plasma was assayed by radioimmunoassay. In the pineal gland, the content of serotonin and its metabolite was determined by HPLC; whereas the expression of examined genes and protein was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively.

Results: Endotoxin administration lowered (p<0.05) levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection. Inflammation more substantially suppressed biosynthesis of melatonin in ewes from SN photoperiod, which were also characterised by lower (p<0.05) cortisol concentrations after LPS treatment compared with animals from LN photoperiod. In the pineal gland of ewes subjected to SN photoperiod, LPS reduced (p<0.05) serotonin content and the expression of melatonin biosynthetic pathway enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Pineal activity may be disturbed by circulating LPS and proinflammatory cytokines because the expression of mRNAs encoding their corresponding receptors was determined in this gland.

Conclusion: The present study showed that peripheral inflammation reduces the secretion of melatonin, but this effect may be influenced by the photoperiod.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666183PMC
December 2017

Topically used herbal products for the treatment of hair loss: preclinical and clinical studies.

Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Oct 10;309(8):595-610. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Department of Genetic Engineering, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3 Street, 05-110, Jablonna, Poland.

Currently available conventional therapies of hair loss using synthetic drugs are still imperfect and have a number of limitations. Their effectiveness as well as the safety of their use is often questioned. It has led to an increased interest in alternative treatments with fewer side-effects such as formulations containing herbs and/or their active constituents. For this purpose several electronic databases and hand-searched references were used to summarize current knowledge regarding topically used herbal products for the treatment of hair loss acquired on the basis of preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, mechanism of their action, follicular penetration and possible adverse effect of herbal products will be also described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-017-1759-7DOI Listing
October 2017

Topically Used Herbal Products for the Treatment of Psoriasis - Mechanism of Action, Drug Delivery, Clinical Studies.

Planta Med 2016 Nov 30;82(17):1447-1455. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna, Poland.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized histologically by hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. A wide range of conventional medical therapies to treat psoriasis is established, from topical therapies and systemic medications through to phototherapy or combinations of those. However, most of these therapies have a limited efficacy and may cause a number of side effects, including cutaneous atrophy, organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, and broadband immunosuppression, which are restricting their long-term use. Therefore, it would be desirable to use herbal products as an alternative treatment for psoriasis that causes fewer side effects. For this purpose, several electronic databases and literature references were used to summarize the current knowledge acquired on the basis of animal studies and clinical trials regarding herbal products used to treat psoriasis topically. This review discusses the mechanisms of herbal products activities through (1) inhibition of the keratinocyte hyperproliferation and inducing apoptosis, (2) inhibition of immune-inflammatory reaction, (3) suppression of phosphorylase kinase (PhK) activity, and (4) inhibition of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Moreover, the penetration of herbal products through the psoriatic skin barrier, novel herbal drug delivery systems in psoriasis treatment, and possible adverse effects of herbal therapy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-115177DOI Listing
November 2016

Mechanism of action of herbs and their active constituents used in hair loss treatment.

Fitoterapia 2016 Oct 20;114:18-25. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3 street, 05-110 Jabłonna, near Warsaw, Poland.

This article discusses the mechanisms via topically applied products containing herbs and their active constituents affect the hair growth process. It was reported that the mechanisms involving (1) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), (2) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), (3) epidermal growth factor (EGF), (4) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), (5) endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), (6) Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, (7) prostaglandin E (PGE), (8) prostaglandin F (PGF) stimulate hair growth, whereas the mechanisms engaging (1) 5α-reductase and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), (2) transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), (3) fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF-5), (4) prostaglandin D (PGD) inhibit hair growth. The knowledge summarized in the paper may be an inspiration to create new preparations for the treatment of hair loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2016.08.008DOI Listing
October 2016

Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

Curr Microbiol 2016 Feb 9;72(2):165-172. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jablonna, Poland.

The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-015-0933-4DOI Listing
February 2016

Caffeine stimulates in vitro pituitary LH secretion in lipopolysaccharide-treated ewes.

Reprod Biol 2015 Mar 15;15(1):20-6. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Polish Academy of Sciences, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland.

The study was designed to determine the effects of caffeine on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and gene expression of caffeine-associated receptors in anterior pituitary (AP) explants obtained from saline- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated ewes. Animals had been treated with LPS or saline daily for seven days. Three hours after the last injection of LPS/saline, the AP were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with: 1/medium-199 (control explants), 2/gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 100 pmol/mL; a positive control), 3/caffeine (10 mmol/L), or 4/GnRH+caffeine. Caffeine stimulated (p<0.05) LH release by explants from both saline (19.7 vs. control 12.6 ng/mg) and LPS (28.3 vs. control 13.9 ng/mg) treated animals. The effect of caffeine on LH secretion was stronger in the LPS-treated group than in saline-treated group, and the observed LH release was similar to that induced by GnRH alone (27.2 ng/mg). Caffeine increased (p<0.05) LHβ gene expression only in explants from LPS-treated animals. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated a stimulatory in vitro effect of caffeine on LH secretion by ovine pituitary explants. The potency of the caffeine-induced LH secretion was affected by in vivo treatment of the animals with endotoxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2014.12.001DOI Listing
March 2015

Essential oils and their constituents as skin penetration enhancer for transdermal drug delivery: a review.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2015 Apr 31;67(4):473-85. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Academy of Cosmetics and Health Care, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: In this paper, we focused on essential oils and their constituents as skin penetration enhancers for transdermal drug delivery, mechanism of their action as well as their possible toxicity.

Key Findings: Essential oils and their volatile constituents can penetrate through the skin as well as enhance penetration of different drug from topical formulation into the lower skin layers using different mechanisms of action based on (1) disintegration of the highly ordered intercellular lipid structure between corneocytes in stratum corneum, (2) interaction with intercellular domain of protein, which induces their conformational modification, (3) increase the partitioning of a drug. After application to the skin, essential oils and their components are rapidly metabolized, not accumulated in the organism and fast excreted what strongly suggest that they can be successfully use as safe penetration enhancers.

Summary: Essential oils and their constituents may be preferred over the traditionally used synthetics materials as safe and suitable permeation enhancers to promote the percutaneous absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs from topical formulation into the lower skin layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12334DOI Listing
April 2015

Involvement of prolactin in the meloxicam-dependent inflammatory response of the gonadotropic axis to prolonged lipopolysaccharide treatment in anoestrous ewes.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2016 Jun;28(7):914-923

Polish Academy of Sciences, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, 05-110 Jab?onna, Poland.

An immune challenge can affect the reproductive process in females. Peripheral administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) decreases LH secretion and disrupts ovarian cyclicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor (meloxicam) on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in anoestrous ewes during systemic inflammation induced by LPS. LPS (400ngkg per day) suppressed LH release. In three individuals, meloxicam (500μgkg, i.v.) abolished LPS-induced LH suppression. In another three ewes LH was ineffective. Similar changes were observed in hypothalamic GnRH expression. The effect of meloxicam depended on the circulating level of prolactin: meloxicam abolished inflammatory-dependent suppression of GnRH and LH secretion when plasma prolactin levels were similar to those in untreated animals, but was ineffective in those with elevated levels of prolactin. We conclude that COX-2 inhibitors minimise the negative effect of inflammation on the reproductive system but that this effect may be antagonised by prolactin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD13435DOI Listing
June 2016

Peripheral injection of SB203580 inhibits the inflammatory-dependent synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus.

Biomed Res Int 2014 4;2014:475152. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Polish Academy of Sciences, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland.

The study was designed to determine the effects of peripheral injection of SB203580 on the synthesis of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in the hypothalamus of ewes during prolonged inflammation. Inflammation was induced by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (400 ng/kg) over 7 days. SB203580 is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is involved in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα synthesis. Intravenous injection of SB203580 successfully inhibited (P < 0.01) synthesis of IL-1β and reduced (P < 0.01) the production of IL-6 in the hypothalamus. The p38 MAPK inhibitor decreased (P < 0.01) gene expression of TNFα but its effect was not observed at the level of TNFα protein synthesis. SB203580 also reduced (P < 0.01) LPS-stimulated IL-1 receptor type 1 gene expression. The conclusion that inhibition of p38 MAPK blocks LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine synthesis seems to initiate new perspectives in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases also within the central nervous system. However, potential proinflammatory effects of SB203580 treatment suggest that all therapies using p38 MAPK inhibitors should be introduced very carefully with analysis of all expected and unexpected consequences of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/475152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065737PMC
February 2015

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

Authors:
Anna Herman

Indian J Microbiol 2014 Sep 12;54(3):361-4. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Academy of Cosmetics and Health Care, Podwale 13 street, 00-252 Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-014-0454-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4039727PMC
September 2014

Nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: their toxicity and mechanisms of action.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014 Jan;14(1):946-57

Bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics have become serious public health problems that increase the need to develop new bactericidal materials. Therefore, nanoparticles have gained importance in the field of chemotherapy. This review is focused on the unique properties of nanoparticles and their mechanism of action as antibacterial agents. The activities of nanoparticles on drug-resistant bacteria and risks of using them as antibacterial agents also have been documented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2014.9054DOI Listing
January 2014

Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

Indian J Microbiol 2013 Jun 3;53(2):232-7. Epub 2012 Nov 3.

Departament of Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-012-0329-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3626961PMC
June 2013

LPS-induced inflammation potentiates the IL-1β-mediated reduction of LH secretion from the anterior pituitary explants.

Clin Dev Immunol 2013 17;2013:926937. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Polish Academy of Sciences, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland.

Acting at the level of the brain, interleukin- (IL-)1 β is considered to be one of the most potent downregulators of reproduction processes during immune/inflammatory challenge. IL-1 β suppresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus resulting in the inhibition of the luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the anterior pituitary (AP). However, the presence of IL-1 β receptors in the AP suggests the possible direct action of this cytokine on LH secretion. The study was designed to determine the effect of IL-1 β on the LH secretion from the AP explants collected from saline and LPS-treated ewes in the follicular phase. It was found that IL-1 β suppressed (P ≤ 0.01) GnRH-stimulated LH release and LH β gene expression in AP explants in both groups. However, IL-1 β action was more potent in the explants collected from LPS-treated animals. Pituitaries from LPS-treated animals were characterized by increased (P ≤ 0.01) IL-1 type I receptor and decreased (P ≤ 0.01) GnRH receptor gene expression level compared to the saline-treated group. IL-1 β also affected the GnRH-R gene expression in explants collected from LPS-treated animals. Our results show that direct action of IL-1 β on the pituitary gonadotropes could be one of the reasons of the reproductive processes disorders accompanying an inflammatory state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/926937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3730224PMC
February 2014

The effect of valproate (VPA) treatment on inositol phosphates (IPs) accumulation in non-stimulated and GnRH-treated female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2013 ;34(4):302-8

Neuroendocrinology Department, The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, 01-813 Warsaw, Poland.

Objective: Mechanism(s) responsible for VPA-induced effects on reproductive axis activity are not fully recognized. Previously we reported that VPA suppressed only GnRH-stimulated but not the basal LH release from rat anterior pituitary (AP) cells in vitro. Since the inhibitory effect of VPA was exerted only in GnRH-activated cells, potential VPA impact on GnRH-R-coupled IP3/PKC signaling could not be excluded. In this study the effect of VPA on IPs synthesis in non-stimulated and GnRH-treated rat AP cells was examined.

Material And Methods: In the first experiment 5 × 105 cells/ml were incubated for 3h with VPA (10 nM-10 μM), PMA (100 nM), GnRH (100 nM), PMA (100 nM) + VPA (10 nM-10 μM), GnRH (100 nM) + VPA (10 nM-10 μM). In the second experiment cells were preincubated for 24h with 1μCi myo-[23 H]-inositol, then for 30 min with 10 mM LiCl and finally for 3hr with GnRH (100 nM) VPA (1 μM, 10 μM), GnRH (100 nM) + VPA (1 μM, 10 μM). LH concentration was measured by RIA and intracellular IPs accumulation by ion-exchange chromatography analysis.

Results: VPA diminished GnRH-stimulated LH release without affecting PMA-induced LH release at any dose tested. Moreover, VPA-induced increase of IPs accumulation occurred in both non-stimulated and GnRH-treated cells and intensity of cellular response was similar in both groups.

Conclusion: VPA affects IP3/PKC pathway activity through its up-regulatory effect on IPs synthesis in AP cells. VPA-induced inhibition of GnRH-stimulated LH release from gonadotrope cells appears to be the result of still unrecognized cellular mechanism.
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September 2013