Publications by authors named "Anna Guidetti"

37 Publications

Timing of high dose methotrexate CNS prophylaxis in DLBCL: a multicenter international analysis of 1,384 patients.

Blood 2022 Jan 7. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Centre Léon Bérard, lyon, France.

Prophylactic high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is often used for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients at high risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse, despite limited evidence demonstrating efficacy or the optimal delivery method. We conducted a retrospective, international analysis of 1,384 patients receiving HD-MTX CNS prophylaxis either intercalated (i-HD-MTX) (n=749) or at the end (n=635) of R-CHOP/R-CHOP-like therapy (EOT). There were 78 CNS relapses (3-year rate 5.7%), with no difference between i-HD-MTX and EOT; 5.7% vs 5.8%, p=0.98, 3-year difference: 0.04% (-2.0% to 3.1%). Conclusions were unchanged on adjusting for baseline prognostic factors or on 6-month landmark analysis (n=1,253). In patients with high CNS international prognostic index (n=600), 3-year CNS relapse rate was 9.1% with no difference between i-HD-MTX and EOT. On multivariable analysis, increasing age and renal/adrenal involvement were the only independent risk factors for CNS relapse. Concurrent intrathecal prophylaxis was not associated with reduction in CNS relapse. R-CHOP delays of ≥7 days were significantly increased with i-HD-MTX versus EOT, with 308/1573 (19.6%) i-HD-MTX treatments resulting in delay to subsequent R-CHOP (median 8 days). Increased risk of delay occurred in older patients when delivery was later than day 10 in the R-CHOP cycle. In summary, we found no evidence that EOT delivery increases CNS relapse risk versus i-HD-MTX. Findings in high-risk subgroups were unchanged. Rates of CNS relapse in this HD-MTX-treated cohort were similar to comparable cohorts receiving infrequent CNS prophylaxis. If HD-MTX is still considered for certain high-risk patients, delivery could be deferred until R-CHOP completion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021014506DOI Listing
January 2022

COVID-19 and CAR-T cells: current challenges and future directions-a report from the EPICOVIDEHA survey by EHA-IDWP.

Blood Adv 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Italy.

Patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) therapy may be particularly susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of several factors including the immunosuppression associated to the underlying disease and delayed cytopenias. Regrettably, data on outcomes of CAR-T recipients with COVID-19 are extremely scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients treated with CAR-T therapy. The European Hematology Association - Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology endorsed a survey to collect and analyze data from patients developing COVID-19 after CAR-T therapy. Overall, 459 patients treated with CAR-T cells were reported from 18 European centers. The prevalence of COVID-19 cases was 4.8%. Median time from CAR-T therapy and COVID-19 diagnosis was 169 days. Severe infection occurred in 66.7% of patients and 43.3% of the subjects required admission to ICU. The COVID-19 mortality was 33%. In multivariable analysis, the disease status at the time of COVID-19 trended marginally towards adverse outcome (P=0.075). In conclusion, we documented a high fatality rate for CAR-T patients with COVID-19, supporting the need to design successful interventions to mitigate the risk of infection in this vulnerable group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8575532PMC
November 2021

Genetic and Phenotypic Attributes of Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma.

Blood 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

University of Milan & Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) is a heterogeneous clinico-biological entity. The clinical course is variable, multiple genes are mutated with no unifying mechanism, essential regulatory pathways and surrounding microenvironments are diverse. We sought to clarify the heterogeneity of SMZL by resolving different subgroups and their underlying genomic abnormalities, pathway signatures and microenvironment compositions to uncover biomarkers and therapeutic vulnerabilities. We studied 303 SMZL spleen samples collected through the IELSG46 multicenter, international study (NCT02945319) by using a multiplatform approach. We carried out genetic and phenotypic analyses, defined self-organized signatures, validated the findings in independent primary tumor meta-data and in genetically modified mouse models, and determined correlations with outcome data. We identified two prominent genetic clusters in SMZL, termed NNK (58% of cases, harboring NF-κB, NOTCH and KLF2 modules) and DMT (32% of cases, with DNA-damage response, MAPK and TLR modules). Genetic aberrations in multiple genes as well as cytogenetic and immunogenetic features distinguished NNK- from DMT-SMZLs. These genetic clusters not only have distinct underpinning biology, as judged by differences in gene-expression signatures, but also different outcome, with inferior survival in NNK-SMZLs. Digital cytometry and in situ profiling segregated two basic types of SMZL immune microenvironments termed immune-suppressive SMZL (50% of cases, associated with inflammatory cells and immune checkpoint activation) and immune-silent SMZL (50% of cases, associated with an immune-excluded phenotype) with distinct mutational and clinical connotations. In summary, we propose a nosology of SMZL that can implement its classification and also aid in the development of rationally targeted treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012386DOI Listing
October 2021

COVID-19 infection in adult patients with hematological malignancies: a European Hematology Association Survey (EPICOVIDEHA).

J Hematol Oncol 2021 10 14;14(1):168. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Communicable Disease Center, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality.

Methods: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020.

Results: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases.

Conclusions: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01177-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515781PMC
October 2021

T-cell immune response after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is frequently detected also in the absence of seroconversion in patients with lymphoid malignancies.

Br J Haematol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

School of Medicine, University of Milano, Italy.

Patients affected by lymphoid malignancies (LM) are frequently immune-compromised, suffering increased mortality from COVID-19. This prospective study evaluated serological and T-cell responses after complete mRNA vaccination in 263 patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, B- and T-cell lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Results were compared with those of 167 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Overall, patient seroconversion rate was 64·6%: serological response was lower in those receiving anti-cancer treatments in the 12 months before vaccination: 55% vs 81·9% (P < 0·001). Anti-CD20 antibody plus chemotherapy treatment was associated with the lowest seroconversion rate: 17·6% vs. 71·2% (P < 0·001). In the multivariate analysis conducted in the subgroup of patients on active treatment, independent predictors for seroconversion were: anti-CD20 treatment (P < 0·001), aggressive B-cell lymphoma diagnosis (P = 0·002), and immunoglobulin M levels <40 mg/dl (P = 0·030). The T-cell response was evaluated in 99 patients and detected in 85 of them (86%). Of note, 74% of seronegative patients had a T-cell response, but both cellular and humoral responses were absent in 13·1% of cases. Our findings raise some concerns about the protection that patients with LM, particularly those receiving anti-CD20 antibodies, may gain from vaccination. These patients should strictly maintain all the protective measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8653177PMC
October 2021

A prognostic model for patients with lymphoma and COVID-19: a multicentre cohort study.

Blood Adv 2022 01;6(1):327-338

Hematology, Ospedale San Bortolo, Vicenza, Italy.

Lymphoma represents a heterogeneous hematological malignancy (HM), which is characterized by severe immunosuppression. Patients diagnosed of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the course of HM have been described to have poor outcome, with only few reports specifically addressing lymphoma patients. Here, we investigated the clinical behavior and clinical parameters of a large multicenter cohort of adult patients with different lymphoma subtypes, with the aim of identifying predictors of death. The study included 856 patients, of whom 619 were enrolled prospectively in a 1-year frame and were followed-up for a median of 66 days (range 1-395). Patients were managed as outpatient (not-admitted cohort, n = 388) or required hospitalization (n = 468), and median age was 63 years (range 19-94). Overall, the 30- and 100-days mortality was 13% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11% to 15%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 27%), respectively. Antilymphoma treatment, including anti-CD20 containing regimens, did not impact survival. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma had the more favorable survival, but this was partly related to significantly younger age. The time interval between lymphoma diagnosis and COVID-19 was inversely related to mortality. Multivariable analysis recognized 4 easy-to-use factors (age, gender, lymphocyte, and platelet count) that were associated with risk of death, both in the admitted and in the not-admitted cohort (HR 3.79 and 8.85 for the intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively). Overall, our study shows that patients should not be deprived of the best available treatment of their underlying disease and indicates which patients are at higher risk of death. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516438PMC
January 2022

Dose-Adjusted Epoch and Rituximab for the treatment of double expressor and double hit diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: impact of TP53 mutations on clinical outcome.

Haematologica 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano; Chair of Hematology University of Milano.

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease, including one-third of cases overexpressing MYC and BCL2 proteins (Double Expressor Lymphoma, DEL) and 5-10% of patients with chromosomal rearrangements of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL-6 (Double/Triple-Hit Lymphomas, DH/TH). TP53 mutations are detected in 20-25% of DEL. We report the efficacy of dose-adjusted EPOCH and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) in a series of 122 consecutive patients, including DEL (n=81, 66%), DEL-MYC (n=9, 7%), DEL-BCL2 (n=13, 11%), or High-Grade Lymphomas (DH/TH) (n=19, 16%). Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis included intravenous methotrexate (n=66), intrathecal chemotherapy (IT) (n=40) or no prophylaxis (n=16). Sixty-seven pts (55%) had high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index (IPI) and 30 (25%) had high CNS-IPI. The 2-year progressionfree survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire study population were 74% and 84%, respectively. There was a trend for inferior OS for DH/TH (2-year OS: 66%, p=0.058) as compared to all the others. The outcome was significantly better for the IPI 0-2 versus IPI 3-5 (OS: 98% vs. 72%, p=0.002). DA-EPOCH-R did not overcome the negative prognostic value of TP53 mutations: 2-year OS of 62% versus 88% (p=0.036) were observed for mutated as compared to wild-type cases, respectively. Systemic CNS prophylaxis conferred a better 2-year OS (94%) as compared to IT or no prophylaxis (76% and 65%, respectively; p= 0.008). DA-EPOCH-R treatment resulted in a favorable outcome in patients with DEL and DEL with single rearrangement, whereas those with multiple genetic alterations such as DEL-DH/TH and TP53 mutated cases still have an inferior outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2021.278638DOI Listing
July 2021

Methodological framework for radiomics applications in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Eur J Hybrid Imaging 2020 Jun 1;4(1). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, MI 20090, Pieve Emanuele, Italy.

Background: According to published data, radiomics features differ between lesions of refractory/relapsing HL patients from those of long-term responders. However, several methodological aspects have not been elucidated yet.

Purpose: The study aimed at setting up a methodological framework in radiomics applications in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), especially at (a) developing a novel feature selection approach, (b) evaluating radiomic intra-patient lesions' similarity, and (c) classifying relapsing refractory (R/R) vs non-(R/R) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively included 85 patients (male:female = 52:33; median age 35 years, range 19-74). LIFEx (www.lifexsoft.org) was used for [F]FDG-PET/CT segmentation and feature extraction. Features were a-priori selected if they were highly correlated or uncorrelated to the volume. Principal component analysis-transformed features were used to build the fingerprints that were tested to assess lesions' similarity, using the silhouette. For intra-patient similarity analysis, we used patients having multiple lesions only. To classify patients as non-R/R and R/R, the fingerprint considering one single lesion (fingerprint_One) and all lesions (fingerprint_All) was tested using Random Undersampling Boosting of Tree Ensemble (RUBTE).

Results: HL fingerprints included up to 15 features. Intra-patient lesion similarity analysis resulted in mean/median silhouette values below 0.5 (low similarity especially in the non-R/R group). In the test set, the fingerprint_One classification accuracy was 62% (78% sensitivity and 53% specificity); the classification by RUBTE using fingerprint_All resulted in 82% accuracy (70% sensitivity and 88% specificity).

Conclusions: Lesion similarity analysis was developed, and it allowed to demonstrate that HL lesions were not homogeneous within patients in terms of radiomics signature. Therefore, a random target lesion selection should not be adopted for radiomics applications. Moreover, the classifier to predict R/R vs non-R/R performed the best when all the lesions were used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41824-020-00078-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218114PMC
June 2020

Allogeneic transplantation after PD-1 blockade for classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leukemia 2021 09 3;35(9):2672-2683. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies yield high response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), but most patients will eventually progress. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) after PD-1 blockade may be associated with increased toxicity, raising challenging questions about the role, timing, and optimal method of transplantation in this setting. To address these questions, we assembled a retrospective cohort of 209 cHL patients who underwent alloHCT after PD-1 blockade. With a median follow-up among survivors of 24 months, the 2-year cumulative incidences (CIs) of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 14 and 18%, respectively; the 2-year graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse-free survival (GRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 47%, 69%, and 82%, respectively. The 180-day CI of grade 3-4 acute GVHD was 15%, while the 2-year CI of chronic GVHD was 34%. In multivariable analyses, a longer interval from PD-1 to alloHCT was associated with less frequent severe acute GVHD, while additional treatment between PD-1 and alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of relapse. Notably, post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based GVHD prophylaxis was associated with significant improvements in PFS and GRFS. While awaiting prospective clinical trials, PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis may be considered the optimal transplantation strategy for this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01193-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Early serum TARC reduction predicts prognosis in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with a PET-adapted strategy.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Oct 30;38(4):501-508. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.

Among patients with advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) receiving ABVD chemotherapy, PET performed after the first two treatment cycles (PET-2) has prognostic value. However, 15% of patients with a negative PET-2 will experience treatment failure. Here we prospectively evaluated serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) levels, to improve risk assessment in patients treated according to HD0607 PET-driven trial (#NCT00795613). In 266 patients with available serum samples, who have agreed to participate in a sub-study for assessment of the role of TARC monitoring, serum TARC levels were measured at baseline and at time of PET-2 by commercially available ELISA test kits. The primary end-point was to evaluate the association between TARC after 2 ABVD cycles and PFS. Median TARC-2 values were significantly higher in PET-2-positive patients compared to PET-2-negative patients (P = .001), and in patients with treatment failure compared to those in continuous CR (P = .01). The 4-year PFS significantly differed between patients with TARC-2 >800 pg/mL vs ≤800 pg/mL (64% vs 86%, P = .0001). Moreover, among PET-2-negative patients, elevated TARC-2 identified those with a worse prognosis (74% vs 89%; P = .01). In multivariable analysis, TARC-2 >800 pg/mL was a significant independent predictor of PFS in the whole study population (HR 2.39, P = .004) and among the PET-2-negative patients (HR 2.49, P = .02). In conclusion, our results indicate that TARC-2 serum levels above 800 pg/mL suggest the need for a stringent follow-up in PET-2-negative patients, and the evaluation of new drugs in PET-2-positive, who will likely fail to respond to intensification with escalated BEACOPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2775DOI Listing
October 2020

Are We Ready to Treat Diffuse Large B-cell and High-Grade Lymphoma According to Major Genetic Subtypes?

Hemasphere 2019 Oct 31;3(5):e284. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Division of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease. The revised Classification of Lymphoproliferative diseases published in 2016 (WHO, 2016) refined the previous DLBLC subtypes and identified four categories: DLBCL not otherwise specified (NOS), other lymphomas of large B cells, high grade B-cell lymphoma, and B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable. High grade B-cell lymphomas include the entities carrying MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations or cases with blastoid morphology without DH translocations. This classification also acknowledges the cell of origin (COO) classification, that has only a limited impact on the choice of frontline treatment for DLBCL, as most patients still receive R-CHOP chemoimmunotherapy. Attempts to improve the outcomes of specific subgroups, especially COO groups, have so far had limited success. Newer analyses have further subdivided DLBCL into genomically distinct subsets, not yet incorporated in the WHO classification, which may facilitate targeted approaches to therapy. In this review, we discuss the subgroups that are recognized by the WHO 2016 classification, review the newer genomic data, and speculate on how this could alter the treatment landscape of DLBCL in the future. We also discuss novel approaches to salvage therapy in the broad context of the heterogeneity of DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919463PMC
October 2019

Efficacy of antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin in treating Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2018 08 23;18(8):841-849. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

a Division of Hematology and BMT Unit, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology , Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori , Milano , Italy.

Introduction: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients refractory to first-line therapy or relapsed after autologous stem cell transplantation have a dismal prognosis, and their treatment represents an unmet medical need. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is a second-generation antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) constituted by an anti-CD30 antibody linked to the cytotoxic drug monomethyl auristatin E. The first administration of BV in relapsed and refractory HL patients in a phase I study showed an impressive antilymphoma activity and prompted development of the drug. Areas covered: This article reviews pharmaceutical characteristics of ADC and specific chemical features of BV related to mechanism of action and mechanism of resistance. Administration recommendation and main toxicities will also be described. Antilymphoma efficacy of BV alone and in combination with conventional chemotherapy and new compounds in different settings of HL patients will be examined. Expert opinion: BV seems to be an effective and safe option for treatment of HL patients. BV alone or in association with chemotherapy as salvage regimen or as bridge to autologous or allogeneic transplant showed encouraging results. Exploration of new drug combinations and new settings of treatment is warranted in order to reduce long-term therapy-related toxicities and ameliorate survival of poor prognosis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2018.1499723DOI Listing
August 2018

A phase II multicenter study of the anti-CD19 antibody drug conjugate coltuximab ravtansine (SAR3419) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma previously treated with rituximab-based immunotherapy.

Haematologica 2018 08 10;103(8):1351-1358. Epub 2018 May 10.

Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

This phase II, single-arm, multicenter study examined the efficacy and safety of coltuximab ravtansine (an anti-CD19 antibody drug conjugate) in 61 patients with histologically documented ( or transformed) relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had previously received rituximab-containing immuno-chemotherapy. Patients had received a median of 2.0 (range 0-9) prior treatment regimens for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and almost half (45.9%) had bulky disease (≥1 lesion >5 cm) at trial entry. Patients received coltuximab ravtansine (55 mg/m) in 4 weekly and 4 biweekly administrations until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Forty-one patients were eligible for inclusion in the per protocol population. Overall response rate (International Working Group criteria) in the per protocol population, the primary end point, was 18/41 [43.9%; 90% confidence interval (CI:) 30.6-57.9%]. Median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival (all treated patients) were 4.7 (range 0.0-8.8) months, 4.4 (90%CI: 3.02-5.78) months, and 9.2 (90%CI: 6.57-12.09) months, respectively. Common non-hematologic adverse events included asthenia/fatigue (30%), nausea (23%), and diarrhea (20%). Grade 3-4 adverse events were reported in 23 patients (38%), the most frequent being hepatotoxicity (3%) and abdominal pain (3%). Eye disorders occurred in 15 patients (25%); all were grade 1-2 and none required a dose modification. Coltuximab ravtansine monotherapy was well tolerated and resulted in moderate clinical responses in pre-treated patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (Registered at: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.168401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068033PMC
August 2018

Allogeneic transplantation for relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes and graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 01 1;60(1):101-109. Epub 2018 May 1.

a Division of Hematology , Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori , Milan , Italy.

This monocentric retrospective study included 70 consecutive relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (RR-HL) patients receiving reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We evaluated overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS), graft-versus host disease/relapse-free survival (GFRS), and chronic GVHD-free OS (cGVHD-free OS) defined as OS without moderate-to-severe cGVHD. Patients had a median age of 33 years (range, 18-60 years), 23% had refractory disease (SD/PD). Donors were HLA identical (39%), unrelated (30%), or haploidentical (31%). Median follow-up was 6.2 years. Five-year OS was 59% and PFS was 49%. NRM was 16% at 1 year. 44% of patients had cGVHD, and 14% moderate-to-severe cGVHD at last follow-up. GFRS and cGVHD-free OS were 26 and 48% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, resistant disease at alloSCT impacted survival and GFRS. In conclusion, disease response before alloSCT impacts survival and GFRS. GVHD outcomes may help comparing the long-term effects of the new salvage treatments that bridge patients to alloSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1459607DOI Listing
January 2019

Phase II study of perifosine and sorafenib dual-targeted therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoproliferative diseases.

Clin Cancer Res 2014 Nov 19;20(22):5641-51. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy. Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milano, Milano, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate safety and activity of perifosine and sorafenib combination therapy in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases.

Experimental Design: Patients with relapsed and refractory lymphoproliferative diseases received perifosine (50 mg twice daily) for 1 month. Patients achieving less than partial response (PR) after perifosine alone were administered the combination therapy [perifosine plus sorafenib (400 mg twice daily)] until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The pERK and pAKT in peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as serum cytokine levels were investigated as predictive biomarkers of response.

Results: Forty patients enrolled in this study. After 1 month of perifosine alone, 36 who achieved less than PR went on to combination therapy, whereas four patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who achieved PR continued with perifosine alone for a median of 10 months (range, 4-21). The most common drug-related toxicities were grade 1-2 anemia (17%), thrombocytopenia (9%), diarrhea (25%), joint pain (22%), and hand-foot skin reaction (25%). Three patients experienced grade 3 pneumonitis. Eight patients (22%) achieved PR, 15 (42%) achieved stable disease, and 13 (36%) experienced PD. A 28% PR rate was recorded for 25 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Among all patients, median overall survival and progression-free survival were 16 and 5 months, respectively. Early reductions in pERK and pAKT significantly correlated with the probability of clinical response.

Conclusions: Perifosine and sorafenib combination therapy is feasible with manageable toxicity and demonstrates promising activity in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. The predictive value of pERK and pAKT should be confirmed in a larger patient cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0770DOI Listing
November 2014

Peripheral blood CD34+ cell monitoring after cyclophosphamide and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor: an algorithm for the pre-emptive use of plerixafor.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Feb 14;55(2):331-6. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Hematology Department.

Plerixafor "on demand" after chemotherapy plus granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is efficient in peripheral stem cell mobilization, but the timing of administration and criteria for patient selection are under investigation. To devise an algorithm for the "on demand" use of plerixafor at the first mobilization attempt, we analyzed the kinetics of hematopoietic recovery and peripheral blood CD34+ cells in 107 patients treated with high-dose cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF. Fifty-one patients with myeloma were treated with cyclophosphamide 3-4 g/m(2) on day 0 followed by G-CSF 10 μg/kg from day + 6, and 56 patients with lymphoma received cyclophosphamide 6-7 g/m(2) followed by G-CSF 5 μg/kg from day + 1. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell monitoring was started on day + 8 in patients with myeloma and day + 10 in patients with lymphoma. The outcome of interest was a collection of ≤ 2 × 10(6) CD34+/kg. By a multivariate logistic regression model, CD34+ cell count < 10/μL at leukocyte recovery (> 1000/μL) or leukocyte count < 1000/μL after day + 12 in myeloma and day + 14 in lymphoma predicted the failure of mobilization by 2.7 and 2.8 times (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02) with a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 88%, respectively. Plerixafor "on demand" may be considered in patients with myeloma and lymphoma with delayed hematopoietic recovery and < 10/μL CD34+ cells, as a first-line mobilization strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.802783DOI Listing
February 2014

Sorafenib inhibits lymphoma xenografts by targeting MAPK/ERK and AKT pathways in tumor and vascular cells.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(4):e61603. Epub 2013 Apr 19.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milano, Italy.

The anti-lymphoma activity and mechanism(s) of action of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib were investigated using a panel of lymphoma cell lines, including SU-DHL-4V, Granta-519, HD-MyZ, and KMS-11 cell lines. In vitro, sorafenib significantly decreased cell proliferation and phosphorylation levels of MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways while increased apoptotic cell death. In vivo, sorafenib treatment resulted in a cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effect on tumor cell growth associated with a limited inhibition of tumor volumes. However, sorafenib induced an average 50% reduction of tumor vessel density and a 2-fold increase of necrotic areas. Upon sorafenib treatment, endothelial and tumor cells from SU-DHL-4V, Granta-519, and KMS-11 nodules showed a potent inhibition of either phospho-ERK or phospho-AKT, whereas a concomitant inhibition of phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT was only observed in HD-MyZ nodules. In conclusion, sorafenib affects the growth of lymphoid cell lines by triggering antiangiogenic mechanism(s) and directly targeting tumor cells.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0061603PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631141PMC
November 2013

Detection of minimal residual disease in hematopoietic progenitor cell harvests: lack of predictive value of peripheral blood and bone marrow analysis in mantle cell and indolent lymphoma.

Am J Blood Res 2012 15;2(2):105-12. Epub 2012 Apr 15.

Elimination of neoplastic cells from peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) is an important issue in transplantation-based high-dose chemotherapy in non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The capacity to reliably assess the presence of residual lymphoma cells in PBPCs is mandatory in designing this type of protocols. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of molecular rearrangements is widely used to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in NHL patients. Although concordant data can be obtained in most of the cases from peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, the relationship between these two compartments and the role of their analysis in predicting the molecular status of PBPCs is still an open issue. Here we report data about MRD analysis in BM, PB and PBPCs in a series of mantle cell and indolent NHL patients who underwent high-dose chemotherapy: discordant results were obtained comparing PB, BM and PBPC molecular data. In addition, differences were noted among these results if molecular analysis was performed using well-known rearrangements (i.e., bcl-1/IgH and bcl-2/IgH) or patient specific oligonucleotides. We conclude that neither BM nor PB are reliable in predicting the molecular status of PBPCs and that caution must be adopted in interpreting molecular data obtained using patient specific oligonucleotides.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3384403PMC
August 2012

Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2012 Jul 10;158(1):108-19. Epub 2012 May 10.

Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.

The safety and activity of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib were investigated in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoproliferative disorders who received sorafenib (400 mg) twice daily until disease progression or appearance of significant clinical toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Biomarkers of sorafenib activity were analysed at baseline and during treatment. Thirty patients (median age, 61 years; range, 18-74) received a median of 4 months of therapy. Grade 3-4 toxicities included hand/foot skin reactions (20%), infections (12%), neutropenia (20%) and thrombocytopenia (14%). Two patients achieved complete remission (CR), and two achieved partial remission (PR) for an ORR of 13%. Stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD) was observed in 15 (50%) and 11 patients (37%), respectively. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 16 months. For patients who achieved CR, PR and SD, the median time to progression and OS was 5 and 24 months, respectively. Compared with patients with PD, responsive patients had significantly higher baseline levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and autophagy and presented a significant reduction of these parameters after 1 month of therapy. Sorafenib was well tolerated and had a clinical activity that warrants development of combination regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09139.xDOI Listing
July 2012

Myeloablative doses of yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan and the risk of secondary myelodysplasia/acute myelogenous leukemia.

Cancer 2011 Nov 12;117(22):5074-84. Epub 2011 May 12.

Medical Oncology 3, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Because the long-term toxicity of myeloablative radioimmunotherapy remains a matter of concern, the authors evaluated the hematopoietic damage and incidence of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia (sMDS/AML) in patients who received myeloablative doses of the radiolabeled antibody yttrium-90 (⁹⁰Y)-ibritumomab tiuxetan.

Methods: The occurrence of sMDS/AML was investigated prospectively in 53 elderly patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who underwent an autograft after high-dose radioimmunotherapy (HD-RIT) myeloablative conditioning with ⁹⁰Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic progenitors and telomere length (TL) also were investigated.

Results: At a median follow-up of 49 months, 4 patients developed sMDS/AML at 6 months, 12 months, 27 months, and 36 months after HD-RIT, and the 5-year cumulative incidence of sMDS/AML was 8.29%. A significant but transient decrease in BM granulocyte-macrophage progenitors was observed; whereas multilineage, erythroid, and fibroblast progenitors were unaffected. A significant and persistent shortening of BM TL also was detected. A matched-pair analysis comparing the study patients with 55 NHL patients who underwent autografts after chemotherapy-based myeloablative conditioning demonstrated a 8.05% 5-year cumulative incidence of sMDS/AML.

Conclusions: HD-RIT for patients with NHL was associated with 1) limited toxicity on hematopoietic progenitors, 2) accelerated TL shortening, and 3) non-negligible incidence of sMDS/AML, which nevertheless was comparable to the incidence observed in a matched group of patients who received chemotherapy-based conditioning. Thus, in the current series of elderly patients with NHL, the development of sMDS/AML was not influenced substantially by HD-RIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26182DOI Listing
November 2011

Radioimmunotherapy and secondary leukemia: a case report.

Leuk Res 2010 Jan 15;34(1):e1-4. Epub 2009 May 15.

This study describes a patient with a relapsed, diffuse, large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) who 5 months later developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inversion of chromosome 16. Our data indicate that molecular biological techniques should be used in selected cases to integrate data obtained with standard cytogenetics: using RT-PCR we showed that inversion of chromosome 16 was already present before RIT, in striking contrast to the normal karyotype found with conventional cytogenetics. This approach will allow investigators to avoid misleading data and provide support for conclusions regarding the side effects of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2009.04.028DOI Listing
January 2010

High-dose yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan with tandem stem-cell reinfusion: an outpatient preparative regimen for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2008 Nov 14;26(32):5175-82. Epub 2008 Oct 14.

Cristina Gandini Medical Oncology and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: To develop high-dose myeloablative therapy for CD20(+) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a safe and widely applicable regimen.

Patients And Methods: Patients with relapsed/refractory (n = 25) or de novo high-risk (n = 5) NHL received one myeloablative dose of yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-ibritumomab tiuxetan after five chemotherapy courses, including three cycles of anthracycline- or platinum-containing regimens, one cycle of cyclophosphamide (4 to 7 g/m(2)), and one cycle of cytarabine (12 to 24 g/m(2)). The only exclusion criteria were CNS lymphoma and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of more than 3. Primary end points were overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Secondary end points included safety and applicability of high-dose (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. To minimize hematologic toxicity, stem cells were reinfused at days 7 and 14 after (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan.

Results: Thirteen patients received (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan 0.8 mCi/kg, and 17 patients received 1.2 mCi/kg. At 1.2 mCi/kg, the radiation absorbed by critical nonhematologic organs approached the protocol-defined upper safety limit, defining this as the recommended dose for subsequent studies. Hematologic toxicity was mild to moderate and of short duration. Infections occurred in 27% of patients (none had a severity grade greater than 3). After a median observation time of 30 months (range, 22 to 48 months), no myeloid secondary malignancy or chromosomal abnormality was observed, the OS rate was 87%, and the EFS rate was 69%.

Conclusion: High-dose (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan seems to be an innovative myeloablative regimen with unprecedented short-term toxicity and wide applicability. Further studies are required to assess its long-term safety and role in the management of CD20(+) NHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.16.8294DOI Listing
November 2008

Dosimetry in myeloablative (90)Y-labeled ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy: possibility of increasing administered activity on the base of biological effective dose evaluation. Preliminary results.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2007 Feb;22(1):113-20

Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy.

Aim: In our multicentric ongoing phase I activity escalation study, (90)Y-labeled ibritumomab tiuxetan (Ze-valin was administered in activity per kilo twice- and three times the maximum tolerable dose of 15 MBq/kg suggested for nonmyeloablative treatments by the U.S. registration study. The radioinduced myelodepression was overcome by stem cell autografting. The dosimetric aim was to correlate possible extramedullary toxicities to the organ-absorbed doses or to the biologic effective dose (BED). This is a conceptually more suitable parameter, as it takes into account not only the absorbed dose, but also the influence of the dose rate and of the tissue repair mechanism.

Methods: Pretreatment planar dosimetry was performed on 16 patients with a median 200 MBq of (111)In-Zevalin. Conjugate view technique, background, attenuation, and partial scatter correction were adopted. Blood samples and a planar whole body scintigram were collected at least at 0.5, 48, 96, and 120 hours. Individual organ mass correction was based on a computed tomography scan. Internal dose calculation was performed by the OLINDA/EXM software. One (1) week after dosimetry, 12 patients were treated with 30 MBq/kg and 4 patients with 45 MBq/kg of (90)Y-Zevalin.

Results: The absorbed dose per unit activity (Gy/GBq) were (median and range of 16 dosimetric studies): heart wall 3.8 [0.5, 9.7]; kidneys 4.9 [2.8, 10.5]; liver 5.5 [3.9, 8.9]; lungs 2.8 [0.4, 6.8]; red marrow 1.1 [0.8, 2.1]; spleen 6.3 [1.5, 10.9]; and testes 4.6 [3.0, 16.7]. The absorbed dose (Gy) for the 4 patients administered with 45 MBq/kg were (median and range): heart wall 17.6 [9.4, 25.1]; kidneys 16.3 [7.9, 20.3]; liver 20.9 [15.4, 24.3]; lungs 7.7 [5.6, 11.4]; red marrow 3.0 [2.4, 3.3]; spleen 28.4 [18.9, 30.8]; and testes 16.5 [12.2, 17.3]. No extramedullary toxicity was observed.

Conclusions: The administration of 45 MBq/kg of (90)Y ibritumomab tiuxetan to 4 patients with stem cell autografting was free from extramedullary toxicity. This is in agreement with both organ doses and BEDs below the corresponding toxicity thresholds. For these clinical and dosimetric reasons, a further increase in injectable activity could have been conceivable. If the more appropriate BED parameter were chosen for toxicity limit calculations, a wider margin of increase would have been possible. Our theoretical investigation demonstrates that, in this particular case of (90)Y Zevalin therapy, the uncertainty about radiobiological parameters was not a limiting factor for a BED-based calculation of the maximum injectable activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2007.302DOI Listing
February 2007

IFN-gamma enhances the antimyeloma activity of the fully human anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR monoclonal antibody 1D09C3.

Cancer Res 2007 Apr;67(7):3269-75

"Cristina Gandini" Medical Oncology Unit, Medical Oncology, University of Milano, Milan, Italy.

To investigate the therapeutic activity of the fully human anti-HLA-DR antibody 1D09C3 in multiple myeloma (MM), we reevaluated HLA-DR expression on CD138(+) cells, analyzed the capacity of IFN-gamma to up-regulate HLA-DR expression on MM cell lines, and tested the in vitro and in vivo activity of 1D09C3 alone or in combination with IFN-gamma. CD138(+)HLA-DR(+) cells were detected in 31 of 60 patients, with 15 of 60 patients having >/=20% CD138(+)HLA-DR(+) cells (median, 50%; range, 23-100). Because primary plasma cells cannot be efficiently cultured in vitro, we used a panel of MM cell lines with a dim/negative to bright HLA-DR expression to evaluate 1D09C3-induced cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining showed that 1D09C3-induced cell death correlated with constitutive HLA-DR expression. Induction of HLA-DR by IFN-gamma restored the sensitivity of HLA-DR dim cell lines to 1D09C3. In vivo, the combined IFN-gamma/1D09C3 treatment significantly increased the median survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice xenografted with KMS-11 cell line, compared with controls (147 versus 48 days, P
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3744DOI Listing
April 2007

Rituximab induces effective clearance of minimal residual disease in molecular relapses of mantle cell lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2006 Dec;12(12):1270-6

Divisione di Ematologia, Dipartimento di Medicina ed Oncologia Sperimentale, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Molecular remission (MR) is associated with improved outcome in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). If MR is not achieved, patients are at high risk of relapse. We retrospectively describe the molecular and clinical follow-ups of 4 patients with molecular relapses (M-rels) who were treated with rituximab. The 4 patients received rituximab-supplemented, high-dose sequential chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation as induction treatment and achieved clinical remission and MR. M-rel was defined as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity in 2 consecutive samples in the absence of clinical relapse. M-rels occurred at 3, 6, 39, and 52 months and were always confirmed by direct sequencing of the clonal rearrangement. Minimal residual disease was monitored by qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR. All patients received 4 courses of rituximab, with 2 additional infusions if PCR positivity remained. After 4-6 courses of rituximab, all patients re-entered MR. No clinical relapses were recorded at 3, 6, 18, and 62 months from treatment, although 1 patient had a second M-rel that was sensitive to rituximab. Our results indicate that rituximab is active against residual MCL cells and suggest that molecularly tailored maintenance therapy needs to be investigated in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2006.07.007DOI Listing
December 2006

CD52 antigen expressed by malignant plasma cells can be targeted by alemtuzumab in vivo in NOD/SCID mice.

Exp Hematol 2006 Jun;34(6):721-7

Cristina Gandini Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.

Objective: To explore new treatments specifically targeting malignant plasma cells (PCs), we examined CD52 antigen expression on primary PCs as well as multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, and investigated in vivo the antimyeloma activity of alemtuzumab.

Materials And Methods: PCs were enriched from the marrow of MM patients (n = 39) according to CD138 expression and then analyzed by 3-color flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. The in vivo activity of alemtuzumab was evaluated in a xenotransplant model of MM in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice.

Results: CD52 expression revealed a substantial heterogeneity in terms of both percentage of positive cells and fluorescence intensity, with 25/39 (64%) MM patients showing >or=30% CD138(+) PCs expressing the CD52 antigen (mean = 79%; range, 33-100%). Similarly to primary cells, cell lines showed heterogeneous CD52 expression. Expression of CD52 mRNA by quantitative PCR analysis strongly correlated with CD52 antigen detection by flow cytometry. In vivo, alemtuzumab treatment significantly increased the median survival of animals with an early- (64 vs 77 days, p
Conclusion: We conclude that: 1) CD52 is expressed on PCs of a significant proportion of MM patients; 2) alemtuzumab used as a single agent exerts a good antitumor activity in NOD/SCID mice bearing an early-stage disease; and 3) alemtuzumab might have therapeutic potential in a subset of MM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2006.03.005DOI Listing
June 2006
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