Publications by authors named "Anna Graff"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Advocating for a Collaborative Research Approach on Transgenerational Transmission of Trauma.

J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Jun 3:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Since Myers (1915) coined the term 'shell shock' to define the prolonged suffering of soldiers returning from the Great War, the psychological and physical result of distressing experiences, known as trauma, has been of academic interest. Transgenerational transmission of trauma effects has been recorded, demonstrating that on some level, the exposure to trauma of one generation can impact individuals of a subsequent generation (Yehuda & Lehrner, 2018). Observational studies on children of holocaust survivors formed the basis of this trajectory of research (Rakoff, 1966), and eventually this phenomenon became referred to as the transgenerational transmission of trauma (TTT). Since then, TTT has been observed in several contexts, including within families who have experienced high rates historical trauma (O'Neill et al., 2016), within regions high-frequencies of historical war and terrorism (Yehuda & Lehrner, 2018) and those who have undergone famine (Ahmed, 2010). This report aims to outline several pathways (biological, psychological, and sociological) by which trauma may be transmitted across generations. Moreover, it discusses several methods of trauma assessment and the related challenges and benefits. Lastly, this report advocates a biopsychosocial approach - an interdisciplinary model using the interplay of biological, psychological, and social-environmental factors - to research TTT. By promoting the benefits of such an interdisciplinary approach we attempt to break up silos between disciplines and encourage collaboration between academics from various backgrounds researching this topic to better serve individuals impacted by TTT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40653-021-00369-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172554PMC
June 2021

A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th centuries).

Parasitology 2020 11 3;147(13):1443-1451. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, The Henry Wellcome Building, Fitzwilliam Street, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK.

The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasite that infected the population of Brussels during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and determine if there was notable variation between different households within the city. We compared multiple sediment layers from cesspits beneath three different latrines dating from the 14th-17th centuries. Helminths and protozoa were detected using microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified Ascaris sp., Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia duodenalis, Taenia sp. and Trichuris sp. in Medieval samples, and continuing presence of Ascaris sp., D. dendriticum, F. hepatica, G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. into the Renaissance. While some variation existed between households, there was a broadly consistent pattern with the domination of species spread by fecal contamination of food and drink (whipworm, roundworm and protozoa that cause dysentery). These data allow us to explore diet and hygiene, together with routes for the spread of fecal-oral parasites. Key factors explaining our findings are manuring practices with human excrement in market gardens, and flooding of the polluted River Senne during the 14th-17th centuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182020001298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677898PMC
November 2020
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