Publications by authors named "Anna Fijałkowska"

84 Publications

Parental Perceptions of Children's Weight Status in 22 Countries: The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: COSI 2015/2017.

Obes Facts 2021 Nov 5:1-17. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Observatory of Nutrition and Study of Obesity, Spanish Agency for Food Safety & Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Parents can act as important agents of change and support for healthy childhood growth and development. Studies have found that parents may not be able to accurately perceive their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to measure parental perceptions of their child's weight status and to identify predictors of potential parental misperceptions.

Methods: We used data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative and 22 countries. Parents were asked to identify their perceptions of their children's weight status as "underweight," "normal weight," "a little overweight," or "extremely overweight." We categorized children's (6-9 years; n = 124,296) body mass index (BMI) as BMI-for-age Z-scores based on the 2007 WHO-recommended growth references. For each country included in the analysis and pooled estimates (country level), we calculated the distribution of children according to the WHO weight status classification, distribution by parental perception of child's weight status, percentages of accurate, overestimating, or underestimating perceptions, misclassification levels, and predictors of parental misperceptions using a multilevel logistic regression analysis that included only children with overweight (including obesity). Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15 1.

Results: Overall, 64.1% of parents categorized their child's weight status accurately relative to the WHO growth charts. However, parents were more likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child had overweight (82.3%) or obesity (93.8%). Parents were more likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child was male (adjusted OR [adjOR]: 1.41; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.28-1.55); the parent had a lower educational level (adjOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.26-1.57); the father was asked rather than the mother (adjOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.98-1.33); and the family lived in a rural area (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.24). Overall, parents' BMI was not strongly associated with the underestimation of children's weight status, but there was a stronger association in some countries.

Discussion/conclusion: Our study supplements the current literature on factors that influence parental perceptions of their child's weight status. Public health interventions aimed at promoting healthy childhood growth and development should consider parents' knowledge and perceptions, as well as the sociocultural contexts in which children and families live.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517586DOI Listing
November 2021

Predictive value of chest HRCT for survival in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Respir Res 2021 Nov 17;22(1):293. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

1st Department of Lung Diseases, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Institute, Płocka 26, 01-138, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Little attention has been paid to chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients so far, while a couple of small studies suggested that presence of centrilobular ground-glass opacifications (GGO) on lung scans could have a significant negative prognostic value. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to assess frequency and clinical significance of GGO in IPAH, and to verify if it carries an add-on prognostic value in reference to multidimensional risk assessment tool recommended by the 2015 European pulmonary hypertension guidelines.

Methods: Chest HRCT scans of 110 IPAH patients were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into three groups: with panlobular (p)GGO, centrilobular (c)GGO, and normal lung pattern. Association of different GGO patterns with demographic, functional, haemodynamic, and biochemical parameters was tested. Survival analysis was also performed.

Results: GGO were found in 46% of the IPAH patients: pGGO in 24% and cGGO in 22%. Independent predictors of pGGO were: positive history of haemoptysis, higher number of low-risk factors, and lower cardiac output. Independent predictors of cGGO were: positive history of haemoptysis, younger age, higher right atrial pressure, and higher mixed venous blood oxygen saturation. CGGO had a negative prognostic value for outcome in a 2-year perspective. This effect was not seen in the longer term, probably due to short survival of cGGO patients.

Conclusions: Lung HRCT carries a significant independent prognostic information in IPAH, and in patients with cGGO present on the scans an early referral to lung transplantation centres should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01893-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8597242PMC
November 2021

Methodology and implementation of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI).

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 4;22 Suppl 6:e13215. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

Establishment of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) has resulted in a surveillance system which provides regular, reliable, timely, and accurate data on children's weight status-through standardized measurement of bodyweight and height-in the WHO European Region. Additional data on dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behavior, family background, and school environments are collected in several countries. In total, 45 countries in the European Region have participated in COSI. The first five data collection rounds, between 2007 and 2021, yielded measured anthropometric data on over 1.3 million children. In COSI, data are collected according to a common protocol, using standardized instruments and procedures. The systematic collection and analysis of these data enables intercountry comparisons and reveals differences in the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight, normal weight, and obesity between and within populations. Furthermore, it facilitates investigation of the relationship between overweight, obesity, and potential risk or protective factors and improves the understanding of the development of overweight and obesity in European primary-school children in order to support appropriate and effective policy responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13215DOI Listing
November 2021

Thinness, overweight, and obesity in 6- to 9-year-old children from 36 countries: The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative-COSI 2015-2017.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13214. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Center for Health Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Podgorica, Montenegro.

In 2015-2017, the fourth round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was conducted in 36 countries. National representative samples of children aged 6-9 (203,323) were measured by trained staff, with similar equipment and using a standardized protocol. This paper assesses the children's body weight status and compares the burden of childhood overweight, obesity, and thinness in Northern, Eastern, and Southern Europe and Central Asia. The results show great geographic variability in height, weight, and body mass index. On average, the children of Northern Europe were the tallest, those of Southern Europe the heaviest, and the children living in Central Asia the lightest and the shortest. Overall, 28.7% of boys and 26.5% of girls were overweight (including obesity) and 2.5% and 1.9%, respectively, were thin according to the WHO definitions. The prevalence of obesity varied from 1.8% of boys and 1.1% of girls in Tajikistan to 21.5% and 19.2%, respectively, in Cyprus, and tended to be higher for boys than for girls. Levels of thinness, stunting, and underweight were relatively low, except in Eastern Europe (for thinness) and in Central Asia. Despite the efforts to halt it, unhealthy weight status is still an important problem in the WHO European Region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13214DOI Listing
November 2021

Socioeconomic disparities in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep patterns among 6- to 9-year-old children from 24 countries in the WHO European region.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13209. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Country Office for Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep are important predictors of children's health. This paper aimed to investigate socioeconomic disparities in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep across the WHO European region. This cross-sectional study used data on 124,700 children aged 6 to 9 years from 24 countries participating in the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative between 2015 and 2017. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through parental education, parental employment status, and family perceived wealth. Overall, results showed different patterns in socioeconomic disparities in children's movement behaviors across countries. In general, high SES children were more likely to use motorized transportation. Low SES children were less likely to participate in sports clubs and more likely to have more than 2 h/day of screen time. Children with low parental education had a 2.24 [95% CI 1.94-2.58] times higher risk of practising sports for less than 2 h/week. In the pooled analysis, SES was not significantly related to active play. The relationship between SES and sleep varied by the SES indicator used. Importantly, results showed that low SES is not always associated with a higher prevalence of "less healthy" behaviors. There is a great diversity in SES patterns across countries which supports the need for country-specific, targeted public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13209DOI Listing
November 2021

Urban and rural differences in frequency of fruit, vegetable, and soft drink consumption among 6-9-year-old children from 19 countries from the WHO European region.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13207. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.

In order to address the paucity of evidence on the association between childhood eating habits and urbanization, this cross-sectional study describes urban-rural differences in frequency of fruit, vegetable, and soft drink consumption in 123,100 children aged 6-9 years from 19 countries participating in the fourth round (2015-2017) of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). Children's parents/caregivers completed food-frequency questionnaires. A multivariate multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed and revealed wide variability among countries and within macroregions for all indicators. The percentage of children attending rural schools ranged from 3% in Turkey to 70% in Turkmenistan. The prevalence of less healthy eating habits was high, with between 30-80% and 30-90% children not eating fruit or vegetables daily, respectively, and up to 45% consuming soft drinks on >3 days a week. For less than one third of the countries, children attending rural schools had higher odds (OR-range: 1.1-2.1) for not eating fruit or vegetables daily or consuming soft drinks >3 days a week compared to children attending urban schools. For the remainder of the countries no significant associations were observed. Both population-based interventions and policy strategies are necessary to improve access to healthy foods and increase healthy eating behaviors among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13207DOI Listing
November 2021

Socioeconomic differences in food habits among 6- to 9-year-old children from 23 countries-WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI 2015/2017).

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13211. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Division of Country Health Programmes, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: Socioeconomic differences in children's food habits are a key public health concern. In order to inform policy makers, cross-country surveillance studies of dietary patterns across socioeconomic groups are required. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and children's food habits.

Methods: The study was based on nationally representative data from children aged 6-9 years (n = 129,164) in 23 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Multivariate multilevel analyses were used to explore associations between children's food habits (consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugar-containing soft drinks) and parental education, perceived family wealth and parental employment status.

Results: Overall, the present study suggests that unhealthy food habits are associated with lower SES, particularly as assessed by parental education and family perceived wealth, but not parental employment status. We found cross-national and regional variation in associations between SES and food habits and differences in the extent to which the respective indicators of SES were related to children's diet.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic differences in children's food habits exist in the majority of European and Asian countries examined in this study. The results are of relevance when addressing strategies, policy actions, and interventions targeting social inequalities in children's diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13211DOI Listing
November 2021

Socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among 6- to 9-year-old children in 24 countries from the World Health Organization European region.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 28;22 Suppl 6:e13213. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Health Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Childhood overweight and obesity have significant short- and long-term negative impacts on children's health and well-being. These challenges are unequally distributed according to socioeconomic status (SES); however, previous studies have often lacked standardized and objectively measured data across national contexts to assess these differences. This study provides a cross-sectional picture of the association between SES and childhood overweight and obesity, based on data from 123,487 children aged 6-9 years in 24 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) European region. Overall, associations were found between overweight/obesity and the three SES indicators used (parental education, parental employment status, and family-perceived wealth). Our results showed an inverse relationship between the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity and parental education in high-income countries, whereas the opposite relationship was observed in most of the middle-income countries. The same applied to family-perceived wealth, although parental employment status appeared to be less associated with overweight and obesity or not associated at all. This paper highlights the need for close attention to context when designing interventions, as the association between SES and childhood overweight and obesity varies by country economic development. Population-based interventions have an important role to play, but policies that target specific SES groups are also needed to address inequalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13213DOI Listing
November 2021

Insight into the Key Points of Preeclampsia Pathophysiology: Uterine Artery Remodeling and the Role of MicroRNAs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 19;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland.

Preeclampsia affects about 3-8% of all pregnancies. It represents a complex and multifaceted syndrome with at least several potential pathways leading to the development of disease. The main dogma in preeclampsia is the two-stage model of disease. Stage 1 (placental stage) takes place in early pregnancy and is thought to be impaired placentation due to inadequate trophoblastic invasion of the maternal spiral arteries that leads to reduced placental perfusion and release of numerous biological factors causing endothelial damage and development of acute maternal syndrome with systemic multiorgan failure (stage 2-the onset of maternal clinical symptoms, maternal stage). Recently, in the light of the vast body of evidence, two-stage model of preeclampsia has been updated with a few novel pathways leading to clinical manifestation in the second part of pregnancy. This paper reviews current state of knowledge about pathophysiology of preeclampsia and places particular focus on the recent advances in understanding of uterine artery remodeling alterations, as well as the role of microRNAs in preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003365PMC
March 2021

Demographic analysis of difficulties related to remote education in Poland from the perspective of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2021 Mar 5;28(1):149-157. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic all schools in Poland were closed and obliged to conduct lessons remotely. The aim of the study is to present the demographic analysis of difficulties with remote learning, as perceived by students during coronavirus pandemic in Poland.

Material And Methods: In April 2020, a nationwide online survey was conducted among adolescents aged 11-18 (N=2408). Quantitative and qualitative data were used. Teenagers were asked about the problems connected with remote learning. In order to examine the overall level of remote learning difficulties, a scale of remote learning difficulties (RLD) was devised (range 0-23 points). Differences connected with gender, age and place of residence were analysed.

Results: More than a half of the teenagers surveyed rated the increased demands from teachers as a major problem. This answer appeared statistically more often among girls than boys (59.6% v. 53.2%). Almost every third adolescent saw the lack of consultation (31.6%) as a significant problem. Difficulties related to learning in the remote system were most often described as considerable by the oldest students (17-18-years-old) and those living in rural areas. The big problem for them was usually much higher requirements of teachers and poor organization of distance learning. The mean level on the scale of remote learning burden was M=11.9 (SD=7.1). Technical difficulties and insufficient skills in using software constituted additional problems most frequently mentioned by students.

Conclusions: There is a need to pay particular attention to organizing appropriate technical conditions for remote learning, especially in rural areas, where students have complained more often than in cities about equipment and problems with access to the Internet during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26444/aaem/133100DOI Listing
March 2021

Glacier Geometry Changes in the Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island over the Last Decades.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Faculty Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warszawa, Poland.

This paper presents changes in the range and thickness of glaciers in Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No. 128 on King George Island in the period 1956-2015. The research indicates an intensification of the glacial retreat process over the last two decades, with the rate depending on the type of glacier front. In the period 2001-2015, the average recession rate of the ice cliffs of the Ecology Glacier and the northern part of the Baranowski Glacier was estimated to be approximately 15-25 m a and 10-20 m a, respectively. Fronts of Sphinx Glacier and the southern part of the Baranowski Glacier, characterized by a gentle descent onto land, show a significantly lower rate of retreat (up to 5-10 m a 1). From 2001 to 2013, the glacier thickness in these areas decreased at an average rate of 1.7-2.5 m a for the Ecology Glacier and the northern part of the Baranowski Glacier and 0.8-2.5 m a for the southern part of the Baranowski Glacier and Sphinx Glacier. The presented deglaciation processes are related to changes of mass balance caused by the rapid temperature increase (1.0 °C since 1948). The work also contains considerations related to the important role of the longitudinal slope of the glacier surface in the connection of the glacier thickness changes and the front recession.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926820PMC
February 2021

The potential association between a new angiogenic marker fractalkine and a placental vascularization in preeclampsia.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 08 26;304(2):365-376. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: Impaired angiogenesis is one of the most common findings in preeclamptic placentas. A new angiogenetic role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) is recently recognized apart from inflammatory activity. In this study, a link between CX3CL1 and the development of placental vasculature in preeclampsia was examined.

Methods: The study comprised 52 women allocated to Group 1 (normotensive, n = 23) and Group 2 (preeclampsia, n = 29). In each group Doppler parameters, serum levels of CX3CL1, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor (PlGF) were assessed between 30 and 32 week of pregnancy. After the delivery, placental samples were taken and the vascularization and expression of CX3CR1 receptor were assessed after immunostaining.

Results: CX3CL1 and sFlt-1 serum levels were significantly higher levels in Group 2 vs Group 1, while PlGF serum levels was significantly lower in Group 2. Lower cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) was observed in Group 2. The vascular/extravascular tissue index (V/EVTI) was significantly lower in Group 2, while compared to Group 1, with the lowest value in the fetus growth restriction (FGR) subgroup (0.18 ± 0.02; 0.24 ± 0.03; 0.16 ± 0.02, respectively). The expression of examined CX3CR1 was higher in Group 2, while compared to Group 1, reaching the highest values in FGR subgroup. There was a moderate negative correlation between birth weight, V/EVTI and CX3CL1 serum level and CX3CR1 placental expression in the group of pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia.

Conclusion: The significant underdevelopment of placental vascular network in preeclampsia is associated with the change in the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 system, especially in FGR complicated pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-05966-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277623PMC
August 2021

Nutrition and physical activity environments in primary schools in Poland - COSI study.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2020 Dec 13;27(4):605-612. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Schools are important settings for the promotion of healthy diet and sufficient physical activity to prevent civilisation diseases related to lifestyle.

Objective: To describe school physical activity and nutrition environment in elementary schools in Poland, and to asses differences in school physical activity and nutrition environments, depending on school location and size.

Material And Methods: Data was used from the World Health Organisation European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) conducted in 2016 in 135 Polish schools. Logistic regression was used to asses association between the location and individual school environment indicator. On the basis of answers to 20 questions about school physical activity and nutrition environment, a positive school environmental assessment index was compiled.

Results: Large, urban schools were characterised by a significantly greater availability of sweet snacks, whereas flavoured milk with added sugar was more often available in small and rural schools. The univariate logistics analysis parameters showed that an urban-rural location had a significant association for the availability of an indoor gym and existence of a canteen and a shop. Analysing the positive schools environmental assessment index, there were no statistically significant differences in mean values due to location, but statistically significant differences were found depending on the school size, with the highest level in large schools and the lowest in small schools.

Conclusions: The factor which adversely differentiates the school environment in terms of healthy nutrition and physical activity is primarily the school size, and then the school location. Systemic and social solutions should aim at reducing the small school "exclusion syndrome", both in rural and in urban areas, also with regard to infrastructure and availability of conditions conducive to healthy nutrition and physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26444/aaem/114223DOI Listing
December 2020

Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration of Children Aged 6-9 Years in 25 Countries: An Analysis within the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) 2015-2017.

Obes Facts 2021 22;14(1):32-44. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

National Institute of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge I.P., Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Children are becoming less physically active as opportunities for safe active play, recreational activities, and active transport decrease. At the same time, sedentary screen-based activities both during school and leisure time are increasing.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA), screen time, and sleep duration of girls and boys aged 6-9 years in Europe using data from the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI).

Method: The fourth COSI data collection round was conducted in 2015-2017, using a standardized protocol that included a family form completed by parents with specific questions about their children's PA, screen time, and sleep duration.

Results: Nationally representative data from 25 countries was included and information on the PA behaviour, screen time, and sleep duration of 150,651 children was analysed. Pooled analysis showed that: 79.4% were actively playing for >1 h each day, 53.9% were not members of a sport or dancing club, 50.0% walked or cycled to school each day, 60.2% engaged in screen time for <2 h/day, and 84.9% slept for 9-11 h/night. Country-specific analyses of these behaviours showed pronounced differences, with national prevalences in the range of 61.7-98.3% actively playing for >1 h/day, 8.2-85.6% were not members of a sport or dancing club, 17.7-94.0% walked or cycled to school each day, 32.3-80.0% engaged in screen time for <2 h/day, and 50.0-95.8% slept for 9-11 h/night.

Conclusions: The prevalence of engagement in PA and the achievement of healthy screen time and sleep duration are heterogenous across the region. Policymakers and other stakeholders, including school administrators and parents, should increase opportunities for young people to participate in daily PA as well as explore solutions to address excessive screen time and short sleep duration to improve the overall physical and mental health and well-being of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983588PMC
July 2021

Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) in Poland: Implementation of Two Rounds of the Study in the Context of International Methodological Assumptions.

J Mother Child 2020 Jul 29;24(1):2-12. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Child and Adolescent Health, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the key health problems in European countries. This article presents a study that is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) implemented in the WHO European Region since 2007. The main goal of the study is to monitor obesity in early school-aged children. The methodology of the study, the thematic scope of research tools, the organisational principles and the development of research carried out in Poland in the context of existing international assumptions are presented. In Poland, two rounds of the study were financed by the National Health Program, in cooperation with the WHO Office in Poland. The first study was carried out from November to December 2016 on a group of 3,408 children aged 8 years from 135 schools and 2,298 parents, in 9 voivodeships in Poland. The second round was carried out in the last quarter of 2018 in 12 voivodeships. A group of 2691 pupils aged 8 years from the 2nd grade of 140 primary schools in Poland and 2450 parents were examined. Data on body mass index distribution and lifestyle-related behaviours of children and their families were collected. Poland is the first country where blood pressure was measured in all participants of the COSI study. Considering the growing obesity epidemic, reliable monitoring of overweight and obesity in early childhood and the study of determinants of this phenomenon should be a priority for public health. The results obtained from this type of research are a reference point for the design and implementation of accurate prevention initiatives in this age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34763/jmotherandchild.2020241.1936.000001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518109PMC
July 2020

Downregulated expression of microRNAs associated with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in physiological pregnancy and the association with echocardiographically-evaluated myocardial function.

Biomed Rep 2020 Nov 27;13(5):41. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of the present study was to analyze the profiles of cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in healthy pregnant women and non-pregnant controls. A total of 61 healthy women >18 years of age with singleton pregnancies in the third trimester were compared with 19 non-pregnant controls. Specifically, expression of miRNAs associated with cardiac hypertrophy (miR-1, miR-17-5, miR-22, miR-34a, miR-124, miR-133a, miR-195, miR-199a-3p, miR-199b, miR-210, miR-222 and miR-1249) and miRNAs associated with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-29-a, miR-29c, miR-30c, miR-101, miR-146a, miR-191, miR-208a-5p and miR-328) were analyzed and compared with echocardiographic examination results. Both groups had similar cardiac miRNA expression profiles, but differed in quantitative evaluation. Women in the third trimester of physiological pregnancy exhibited downregulation of certain profibrotic miRNAs (miR-21, miR-30c and miR-328), decreased expression of a hypertrophic and antimetabolic miRNAs (miR-146a), downregulation of an antifibrotic miRNA (miR-222), and downregulation of a hypertrophic miRNA (miR-195). In pregnant women, the indices of systolic function were associated with miR-195 expression, and an interplay between miR-17-5p and diastolic function was observed. While the profiles of cardiac miRNAs expressed in healthy pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant controls were similar, these two groups differed in terms of expression of specific miRNAs. In the third trimester of physiological pregnancy, a downregulation of miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-30c, miR-146a, miR-195, miR-222 and miR-328 was observed. The differences in the association between echocardiographic indices with miRNAs in pregnant and non-pregnant women suggest that miRNAs regulate both the structure and function of the pregnant heart, influencing cardiac muscle thickness as well as systolic and diastolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469559PMC
November 2020

A Snapshot of European Children's Eating Habits: Results from the Fourth Round of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI).

Nutrients 2020 Aug 17;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department for Organization of Health Services to Children, Mothers, Adolescents and Family Planning, Ministry of Health and Social Protection of Population, 734025 Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

Consuming a healthy diet in childhood helps to protect against malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This cross-sectional study described the diets of 132,489 children aged six to nine years from 23 countries participating in round four (2015-2017) of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). Children's parents or caregivers were asked to complete a questionnaire that contained indicators of energy-balance-related behaviors (including diet). For each country, we calculated the percentage of children who consumed breakfast, fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks or soft drinks "every day", "most days (four to six days per week)", "some days (one to three days per week)", or "never or less than once a week". We reported these results stratified by country, sex, and region. On a daily basis, most children (78.5%) consumed breakfast, fewer than half (42.5%) consumed fruit, fewer than a quarter (22.6%) consumed fresh vegetables, and around one in ten consumed sweet snacks or soft drinks (10.3% and 9.4%, respectively); however, there were large between-country differences. This paper highlights an urgent need to create healthier food and drink environments, reinforce health systems to promote healthy diets, and continue to support child nutrition and obesity surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468747PMC
August 2020

Importance of Self-Efficacy in Eating Behavior and Physical Activity Change of Overweight and Non-Overweight Adolescent Girls Participating in Healthy Me: A Lifestyle Intervention with Mobile Technology.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 17;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, 17a Kasprzaka St., 01-211 Warsaw, Poland.

Very little is known about how multicomponent interventions directed to entire populations work in selected groups of adolescents. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy Me one-year program on changes in healthy eating and physical activity among overweight and non-overweight female students. Randomization involved the allocation of full, partial or null intervention. The randomized field trial was implemented in 48 secondary schools (clusters) all over Poland among 1198 15-year-old girls. In this study, a sample of N = 1111 girls who participated in each evaluation study was analyzed. Using multimedia technologies, efforts were made to improve health behaviors and increase self-efficacy. The main outcome was a health behavior index (HBI), built on the basis of six nutritional indicators and one related to physical activity. HBI was analyzed before and immediately after intervention and at three months' follow-up, and the HBI change was modeled. Statistical analysis included nonparametric tests and generalized linear models with two-way interactions. Comparing the first and third surveys, in the overweight girls, the HBI index improved by 0.348 (SD = 3.17), while in the non-overweight girls it had worsened. After adjusting for other factors, a significant interaction between body weight status and level of self-efficacy as predictors of HBI changes was confirmed. The program turned out to be more beneficial for overweight girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12072128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400873PMC
July 2020

Changes in physical activity of adolescent girls in the context of their perception of the Healthy Me programme.

Eur J Public Health 2020 06;30(3):461-466

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: An assumption was made that results of programme evaluation lead to better understanding for whom this intervention may work. The aim of the article is to compare the changes in physical activity of the intervention programme participants depending on subjective assessment of its impact.

Methods: The data were obtained from 14- to15-year-old Polish girls (N = 1120) from 48 random selected secondary schools participating in the 1-year Healthy Me programme in the 2017/2018. Schools were randomly assigned to one of two types of intervention or to a control (null) group. Satisfaction with the programme according to 21 criteria was measured retrospectively just after the intervention. Change in MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) during the programme implementation was assessed in relation to satisfaction level, and adjusted for initial MVPA.

Results: In total, the MVPA did not change significantly comparing pre- and post-intervention surveys (3.94 ± 1.94 vs. 3.87 ± 1.93)-P = 0.093. However, the perceived notable improvement of functioning in 10 out of 21 areas was related to the unquestionable increase in MVPA (P ≤ 0.001). With respect to the four impact areas, an interaction was demonstrated between an intervention group and an improvement in the domain-specific functioning. The beneficial impact of the programme on these areas was associated with the improvement of physical activity only in case of full and null intervention.

Conclusions: Indicators related to the implementation process and the results obtained during the Healthy Me programme evaluation could represent a change in motivational and environmental factors that indirectly affects adolescent girl's physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz242DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of questionnaire as an instrument to measure the level of nutritional and weight gain knowledge in pregnant women in Poland. A pilot study.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(1):e0227682. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Pregnancy is a period in life in which women are willing to improve their lifestyle. Providing proper information for these women is crucial for their health and the health of their offspring. Clear information about weak points in their nutritional and weight gain knowledge is the first step for proper health care assistance. There are a few previous studies evaluating the nutritional and weight gain knowledge of pregnant women. In the few studies available, different approaches were taken and there was no wider discussion on the content of the questionnaires attempting to measure level of knowledge. The aim of this study, designed in a pilot fashion, was to test the adequacy of the questionnaire as a research instrument in a group of 139 pregnant Polish women. The developed instrument is a 33-item questionnaire comprising four domains: weight gain, importance of nutrients, quality and quantity of food intake. The results of this study indicate that the questionnaire is stable and internal consistency is acceptable (Cronbach's alpha > 0.7) for dimensions with more than four items. For dimensions with less than four items, internal consistency was poor (Cronbach's alpha < 0.7). The cumulative explained variance for domains weight gain, importance of nutrients, quantity and quality of food intake was 54.74%, 42.74%, 54.42% and 48.99% respectively. Results from validity, reliability and factor analysis indicate that the questionnaire is adequate for its purpose.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227682PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6961901PMC
April 2020

Non-obstetric complications in preeclampsia.

Prz Menopauzalny 2019 Jun 14;18(2):99-109. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of pregnancy that remains a leading cause of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It is still an underestimated risk factor for future cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and kidney disease, developing often in the perimenopausal period of a woman's life. It remains unclear whether preeclampsia is an individual risk factor for future cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal events or an early marker of women with high-risk profiles for these diseases. Risk factors for cardiovascular disorders and preeclampsia are very similar and include the following: obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory and hypercoagulable state, and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, the pregnancy can only be a trigger for cardiovascular alterations that manifest in development of preeclampsia. On the other hand, there is strong evidence that changes in cardiovascular, endothelial, and metabolic systems occurring in the course of preeclampsia may not fully recover after delivery and can be a cause of future disease, especially in the presence of other metabolic risk factors regarding, for example, perimenopause. In this review the authors present current knowledge about short- and long-term maternal consequences of preeclampsia, such as: cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular incidents (posterior reversible encephalopathy and stroke), kidney injury (including the risk of end-stage renal disease), liver failure, and coagulopathy (thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pm.2019.85785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719635PMC
June 2019

Behavioural factors as predictors of self-rated health among polish adolescent girls.

Dev Period Med 2019 ;23(2):109-116

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland.

Objective: Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH), an indicator which is extensively used in population studies, constitutes a measure of health closely linked to morbidity, mortality and overall health status and enjoys popularity in surveys monitoring adolescents. Most studies show that at puberty girls assess their health as worse than boys do, and the difference widens with age. Moreover, puberty is a crucial period for health, since it is the time when health risk behaviours are often initiated or become established. Aim: To analyse the associations between high scores on self-rated health among 15-year-old girls, participants of the Healthy Me programme, and their selected health behaviours.

Patients And Methods: Material and methods: The study covered a group of 1173 second-grade female students from 48 lower secondary schools located in rural and urban areas of 16 voivodeships all over Poland. The participants answered questions about chronic diseases or disability, self-rated health, diet, leisure activities, physical activity and health risk behaviours. In the statistical analysis, the association between self-rated health and individual indicators of health behaviour was examined using logistic regression.

Results: Results: Two thirds of the girls assessed their health as excellent or good. Only approximately 5% of the respondents made the "extreme negative" assessment. In the final multivariate analysis, five factors remained important predictors of high self-rated health scores: regular participation in physical education classes, vigorous physical activity, daily breakfast consumption, consumption of fruit at least once a day and sleep for at least 8 hours a day.

Conclusion: Conclusions: Regular participation in physical education classes, vigorous physical activity, consumption of breakfast and fruit every day, as well as sleep for at least 8 hours a day are powerful predictors of high scores on self-rated health of 15-year-old adolescent girls. Public health activities aimed at adolescents should focus on the positive aspects of health and a lifestyle paying special attention on pro health behaviours.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522370PMC
January 2020

Association between Characteristics at Birth, Breastfeeding and Obesity in 22 Countries: The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative - COSI 2015/2017.

Obes Facts 2019 26;12(2):226-243. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

NCD Office, WHO European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: In Europe, although the prevalence of childhood obesity seems to be plateauing in some countries, progress on tackling this important public health issue remains slow and inconsistent. Breastfeeding has been described as a protective factor, and the more exclusively and the longer children are breastfed, the greater their protection from obesity. Birth weight has been shown to have a positive association with later risk for obesity.

Objectives: It was the aim of this paper to investigate the association of early-life factors, namely breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and birth weight, with obesity among children.

Method: Data from 22 participating countries in the WHO European COSI study (round 4: 2015/2017) were collected using cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 6- to 9-year-olds (n = 100,583). The children's standardized weight and height measurements followed a common WHO protocol. Information on the children's birth weight and breastfeeding practice and duration was collected through a family record form. A multivariate multilevel logistic regression analysis regarding breastfeeding practice (both general and exclusive) and characteristics at birth was performed.

Results: The highest prevalence rates of obesity were observed in Spain (17.7%), Malta (17.2%) and Italy (16.8%). A wide between-country disparity in breastfeeding prevalence was found. Tajikistan had the highest percentage of children that were breastfed for ≥6 months (94.4%) and exclusively breastfed for ≥6 months (73.3%). In France, Ireland and Malta, only around 1 in 4 children was breastfed for ≥6 months. Italy and Malta showed the highest prevalence of obesity among children who have never been breastfed (21.2%), followed by Spain (21.0%). The pooled analysis showed that, compared to children who were breastfed for at least 6 months, the odds of being obese were higher among children never breastfed or breastfed for a shorter period, both in case of general (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] [95% CI] 1.22 [1.16-1.28] and 1.12 [1.07-1.16], respectively) and exclusive breastfeeding (adjOR [95% CI] 1.25 [1.17-1.36] and 1.05 [0.99-1.12], respectively). Higher birth weight was associated with a higher risk of being overweight, which was reported in 11 out of the 22 countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Italy, Poland and Romania showed that children who were preterm at birth had higher odds of being obese, compared to children who were full-term babies.

Conclusion: The present work confirms the beneficial effect of breastfeeding against obesity, which was highly increased if children had never been breastfed or had been breastfed for a shorter period. Nevertheless, adoption of exclusive breastfeeding is below global recommendations and far from the target endorsed by the WHO Member States at the World Health Assembly Global Targets for Nutrition of increasing the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50% by 2025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547266PMC
February 2020

Clustering of Multiple Energy Balance-Related Behaviors in School Children and its Association with Overweight and Obesity-WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI 2015⁻2017).

Nutrients 2019 Feb 27;11(3). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-course, WHO European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, 125009 Moscow, Russia.

It is unclear how dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors co-occur in school-aged children. We investigated the clustering of energy balance-related behaviors and whether the identified clusters were associated with weight status. Participants were 6- to 9-year-old children ( = 63,215, 49.9% girls) from 19 countries participating in the fourth round (2015/2017) of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Energy balance-related behaviors were parentally reported. Weight and height were objectively measured. We performed cluster analysis separately per group of countries (North Europe, East Europe, South Europe/Mediterranean countries and West-Central Asia). Seven clusters were identified in each group. Healthier clusters were common across groups. The pattern of distribution of healthy and unhealthy behaviors within each cluster was group specific. Associations between the clustering of energy balance-related behaviors and weight status varied per group. In South Europe/Mediterranean countries and East Europe, all or most of the cluster solutions were associated with higher risk of overweight/obesity when compared with the cluster 'Physically active and healthy diet'. Few or no associations were observed in North Europe and West-Central Asia, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that unfavorable weight status is associated with a particular combination of energy balance-related behavior patterns, but only in some groups of countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6471416PMC
February 2019

Pregnancy as a predictor of deviations from the recommended diagnostic pathway in women with suspected pulmonary embolism: ZATPOL registry data.

Arch Med Sci 2018 Jun 20;14(4):838-845. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Pulmonary Circulation, Thromboembolic Diseases and Cardiology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, European Health Centre, Otwock, Poland.

Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of mortality in pregnancy and a great diagnostic challenge. Deviations from the recommended diagnostic pathway in suspected PE contribute to greater mortality in the general population. The deviations from the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for diagnosis of PE were analyzed, with particular emphasis on pregnant women with suspected PE.

Material And Methods: ZATPOL is a prospective national registry including data of all patients with suspected PE admitted to 86 Polish cardiology departments between January 2007 and September 2008. We analyzed diagnostic pathways used in all 2015 patients (mean age: 67 ±15 years, 60% women) with suspected PE. Detailed analysis included diagnostic pathways used in 12 pregnant patients and 85 non-pregnant women in childbearing age.

Results: Pregnancy was the strongest predictor of deviations from the recommended diagnostic pathway in the whole study group (HR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.28-12.5, = 0.02). Pregnant patients did not differ significantly from non-pregnant women in most risk factors and symptoms of PE, and diagnostic tests used in this condition. Deviations from the recommended diagnostic pathway were found in 7 (58%) and 36 (42%) pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively ( = 0.297), and the preliminary diagnosis of PE was eventually confirmed in 42% and 67% of the patients, respectively ( = 0.086).

Conclusions: Despite the lack of significant differences in PE symptomatology in pregnant and non-pregnant women, pregnancy seems to be the strongest predictor of deviations from the diagnostic pathway recommended in PE by the ESC. Further studies are required to evaluate the adherence to current guidelines in pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.70896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6040127PMC
June 2018

Rise in antifibrotic and decrease in profibrotic microRNA protect the heart against fibrosis during pregnancy: A preliminary study.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Jul;27(7):867-872

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Mother and Child, Warszawa, Poland.

Background: Physiological pregnancy is associated with volume overload. Unlike cardiac pathologies linked with volume overload, such as mitral or aortic regurgitation, pregnancy is thought to be unrelated to fibrosis of the heart. However, changes in the cardiac extracellular matrix during pregnancy remain poorly understood.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the expression of 11 microRNAs associated with cardiac fibrosis (miR-21, miR-26a, miR-26b-5p, miR-29b-3p, miR-29c-3p, miR-101a, miR-146a, miR-208a, miR-223 and miR-328) during pregnancy and to compare them with a healthy control group.

Material And Methods: Six women in singleton pregnancy (30-36 weeks) and 6 non-pregnant women as a control group were included in the study. Each woman underwent an echocardiographic examination, and had blood pressure on both arms measured and a blood sample taken. MicroRNAs expression was analyzed using Custom TaqMan® Array MicroRNA Cards (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA).

Results: Median age of the pregnant women was 34 years (range 25-39 years) and of the control group 32 years (range 29-43 years). Median week of pregnancy was 34 years (range 31-36 years). Most of the examined microRNAs had a lower expression in the pregnancy group (fold change 1.0).

Conclusions: In the 3rd trimester of physiological pregnancy, there is a 244% increase in expression of miR-101a and a decrease by 73% in expression of miR-328. Both of these changes can protect against fibrosis during volume overload occurring in physiological pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/68945DOI Listing
July 2018

The safety of low-molecular-weight heparins in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in surgically-treated cancer patients: results of a multicentre observational study.

Contemp Oncol (Pozn) 2017 30;21(2):152-156. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Oncological Gastroenterology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland.

Aim Of The Study: Despite widespread use of pharmacological prophylaxis, venous thromboembolism (VTE) still constitutes a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to analyse the safety of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in the prevention of VTE in surgically-treated cancer patients.

Material And Methods: A total of 5207 cancer patients (44.5% men and 55.5% women) aged 16-97 years participated in a prospective observational study conducted in 13 Polish cancer centres in 2005-2008. This cohort included 4782 subjects who were treated surgically and received LMWH as a pharmacological prophylaxis for VTE prior to or after the surgery. The incidence of haemorrhagic complications and thrombocytopaenia was analysed in this cohort, along with intra-hospital mortality.

Results: Mean duration of LMWH administration was 9.4 ±7.8 days. Haemorrhagic complications: heavy ( = 15) or light bleeding ( = 299), were observed in 314 patients (6.5%). A total of 314 patients (6.5%) presented with haemorrhagic complications: heavy ( = 15, 0.3%) or light bleeding ( = 299, 6.3%). Four cases of heavy bleeding: gastrointestinal bleeding ( = 2), retroperitoneal bleeding ( = 1), and central nervous system bleeding ( = 1), were classified as definitely related to LMWH. No significant association was found between the incidence of haemorrhagic complications and the type of administered LWMH ( = 0.523). No cases of thrombocytopaenia or deaths related to administration of LMWH were reported.

Conclusions: LMWH seems to be a safe form of pharmacological prophylaxis for VTE in surgically-treated cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wo.2017.68624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5611505PMC
June 2017

Maternal serum vitamin D and parathormone concentrations during gestation and in umbilical cord blood - pilot study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Jan 23;31(2):158-163. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Institute of Mother and Child , Warsaw , Poland.

Objective: We wanted to define levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D), parathormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and the correlations between them during gestation as well as in umbilical cord blood.

Methods: The study included 37 healthy singleton pregnant women in the course of gestation with no medical history concerning systemic diseases, nor with negative obstetrics and gynecological history. Biochemical parameters were determined using commercially available kits.

Results: In the studied group, there were no significant differences in serum vitamin D, PTH, Ca and P concentrations in each trimester and during delivery. The negative significant association between serum 25(OH)D and PTH level was observed (r=-0.25; p< 0.05). Vitamin D levels during the summer season were significantly higher than observed in winter time in I (p< 0.01) and II trimester (p< 0.05), but not in III trimester. There was positive correlation between maternal serum and cord blood 25(OH)D (r= 0.74; p < 0.01). It was noted that 38-48% mothers had severe deficiency of vitamin D.

Conclusion: The study showed that regardless of the supplementation only 11-21% of studied pregnant women had optimal levels of vitamin D. The association between maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D suggested that inadequate vitamin D stores- during pregnancy may lead to a deficiency of this vitamin in newborns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2016.1277705DOI Listing
January 2018

Centrilobular nodules in high resolution computed tomography of the lung in IPAH patients - preliminary data concerning clinico-radiological correlates.

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2016 ;84(5):265-70

Ist Department of Lung Diseases National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Inhomogeneity of lung attenuation pattern is observed in high resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) in some IPAH patients despite lack of interstitial lung disease. Such radiological changes are described either as ill-defined centrilobular nodules (CN) or as focal ground glass opacities (FGGO). There is no consensus in the literature, whether they indicate the distinct type of IPAH, or pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) with subtle radiological changes. Thus the aim of the present pilot study was to assess the frequency and clinical significance of inhomogenic lung attenuation pattern in IPAH.

Material And Methods: 52 IPAH patients (38 females, 14 males, mean age 41 years ± 15 years), entered the study. All available chest CT scans were reviewed retrospectively by the experienced radiologist, not aware about the clinical data of the patients.

Results: CN were found in 10 patients (19%), FGGO - in 12 patients (23%). No lymphadenopathy or interlobular septal thickening suggestive of PVOD were found. The significant differences between CN and the remaining patients included: lower mean age - 31 and 43.5 years, (p = 0.02), lack of persistent foramen ovale (PFO) - 0% and 43% (p = 0.03), and higher mean right atrial pressure (mRAP) - 12.5 mm Hg and 7.94 mm Hg (p = 0.01). No significant survival differences were observed between the groups of CN, FGGO and the remaining patients.

Conclusion: Centrilobular nodules in IPAH were combined with lack of PFO, higher mRAP and younger age of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2016.0033DOI Listing
April 2017

Low DLCO in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension - clinical correlates and prognostic significance.

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2016 ;84(2):87-94

1st Department of Lung Diseases, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is observed in some idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients, but its clinical significance is uncertain. We aimed to assess clinical correlates and prognostic significance of low DLCO in IPAH patients.

Material And Methods: In the group of 65 IPAH patients the cut off value for low DLCO was set up based on histogram as < 55% of predicted value. Demographic data, exercise capacity, lung function tests, hemodynamic parameters and survival of the patients were compared depending on DLCO value.

Results: Low DLCO was found in 18% of the patients, and it was associated with male sex, older age, worse functional status and exercise capacity, and higher prevalence of coronary artery disease. Low DLCO carried a 4-fold increase of death risk in 5-year perspective.

Conclusions: Low DLCO was a marker of worse functional capacity and increased risk of death in studied IPAH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2016.0006DOI Listing
April 2017
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