Publications by authors named "Anna E van Beek"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Common haplotypes at the CFH locus and low-frequency variants in CFHR2 and CFHR5 associate with systemic FHR concentrations and age-related macular degeneration.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 08 13;108(8):1367-1384. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525EX, the Netherlands; Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6525GA, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the principal cause of blindness in the elderly population. A strong effect on AMD risk has been reported for genetic variants at the CFH locus, encompassing complement factor H (CFH) and the complement-factor-H-related (CFHR) genes, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to dissect the role of factor H (FH) and FH-related (FHR) proteins in AMD in a cohort of 202 controls and 216 individuals with AMD. We detected elevated systemic levels of FHR-1 (p = 1.84 × 10), FHR-2 (p = 1.47 × 10), FHR-3 (p = 1.05 × 10) and FHR-4A (p = 1.22 × 10) in AMD, whereas FH concentrations remained unchanged. Common AMD genetic variants and haplotypes at the CFH locus strongly associated with FHR protein concentrations (e.g., FH p.Tyr402His and FHR-2 concentrations, p = 3.68 × 10), whereas the association with FH concentrations was limited. Furthermore, in an International AMD Genomics Consortium cohort of 17,596 controls and 15,894 individuals with AMD, we found that low-frequency and rare protein-altering CFHR2 and CFHR5 variants associated with AMD independently of all previously reported genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals (p = 5.03 × 10 and p = 2.81 × 10, respectively). Low-frequency variants in CFHR2 and CFHR5 led to reduced or absent FHR-2 and FHR-5 concentrations (e.g., p.Cys72Tyr in CFHR2 and FHR-2, p = 2.46 × 10). Finally, we showed localization of FHR-2 and FHR-5 in the choriocapillaris and in drusen. Our study identifies FHR proteins as key proteins in the AMD disease mechanism. Consequently, therapies that modulate FHR proteins might be effective for treating or preventing progression of AMD. Such therapies could target specific individuals with AMD on the basis of their genotypes at the CFH locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387287PMC
August 2021

The Role of Complement in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury.

Transfus Med Rev 2019 10 18;33(4):236-242. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Amsterdam and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of acute respiratory distress occurring within 6 hours of blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of transfusion-related fatalities and specific therapies are unavailable. Neutrophils are recognized as the major pathogenic cells, whereas T regulatory cells and dendritic cells appear to be important for protection against TRALI. The pathogenesis, however, is complex and incompletely understood. It is frequently postulated that the complement system plays an important role in the TRALI pathogenesis. In this article, we assess the evidence regarding the involvement of complement in TRALI from both human and animal studies. We hypothesize about the potential connection between the complement system and neutrophils in TRALI. Additionally, we draw parallels between TRALI and other acute pulmonary disorders of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome regarding the involvement of complement. We conclude that, even though a role for complement in the TRALI pathogenesis seems plausible, studies investigating the role of complement in TRALI are remarkably limited in number and also present conflicting findings. Different types of TRALI animal models, diverse experimental conditions, and the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota may perhaps all be factors which contribute to these discrepancies. More systematic studies are warranted to shed light on the contribution of the complement cascade in TRALI. The underlying clinical condition of the patient, which influences the susceptibility to TRALI, as well as the transfusion factor (antibody-mediated vs non-antibody-mediated), will be important to take into consideration when researching the contribution of complement. This should significantly increase our understanding of the role of complement in TRALI and may potentially result in promising new treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2019.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127679PMC
October 2019

Modelling pathogen load dynamics to elucidate mechanistic determinants of host-Plasmodium falciparum interactions.

Nat Microbiol 2019 09 17;4(9):1592-1602. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Section of Paediatrics, Imperial College, London, UK.

During infection, increasing pathogen load stimulates both protective and harmful aspects of the host response. The dynamics of this interaction are hard to quantify in humans, but doing so could improve understanding of the mechanisms of disease and protection. We sought to model the contributions of the parasite multiplication rate and host response to observed parasite load in individual subjects infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, using only data obtained at the time of clinical presentation, and then to identify their mechanistic correlates. We predicted higher parasite multiplication rates and lower host responsiveness in cases of severe malaria, with severe anaemia being more insidious than cerebral malaria. We predicted that parasite-growth inhibition was associated with platelet consumption, lower expression of CXCL10 and type 1 interferon-associated genes, but increased cathepsin G and matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression. We found that cathepsin G and matrix metallopeptidase 9 directly inhibit parasite invasion into erythrocytes. The parasite multiplication rate was associated with host iron availability and higher complement factor H levels, lower expression of gametocyte-associated genes but higher expression of translation-associated genes in the parasite. Our findings demonstrate the potential of using explicit modelling of pathogen load dynamics to deepen understanding of host-pathogen interactions and identify mechanistic correlates of protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0474-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708439PMC
September 2019

Potentiation of complement regulator factor H protects human endothelial cells from complement attack in aHUS sera.

Blood Adv 2019 02;3(4):621-632

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Mutations in the gene encoding for complement regulator factor H (FH) severely disrupt its normal function to protect human cells from unwanted complement activation, resulting in diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). aHUS presents with severe hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal disease, leading to end-stage renal failure. Treatment of severe complement-mediated disease, such as aHUS, by inhibiting the terminal complement pathway, has proven to be successful but at the same time fails to preserve the protective role of complement against pathogens. To improve complement regulation on human cells without interfering with antimicrobial activity, we identified an anti-FH monoclonal antibody (mAb) that induced increased FH-mediated protection of primary human endothelial cells from complement, while preserving the complement-mediated killing of bacteria. Moreover, this FH-activating mAb restored complement regulation in sera from aHUS patients carrying various heterozygous mutations in FH known to impair FH function and dysregulate complement activation. Our data suggest that FH normally circulates in a less active conformation and can become more active, allowing enhanced complement regulation on human cells. Antibody-mediated potentiation of FH may serve as a highly effective approach to inhibit unwanted complement activation on human cells in a wide range of hematological diseases while preserving the protective role of complement against pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018025692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391659PMC
February 2019

Reference Intervals of Factor H and Factor H-Related Proteins in Healthy Children.

Front Immunol 2018 2;9:1727. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Complement is activated as part of the innate immune defense against invading pathogens. Also, it helps to remove apoptotic debris and immune complexes from the circulation. Impaired complement function due to aberrant plasma levels of complement proteins may be indicative for complement-mediated diseases or can be involved in susceptibility for infections. To determine whether plasma levels are abnormal, reference intervals (RIs) are used from adult healthy donors. Since many complement-mediated diseases have an onset during childhood, it is important to know whether these RIs can be extrapolated to children. RIs of Factor H (FH), the crucial fluid-phase regulator, and the FH-related proteins (FHRs), its homologous counterparts, are unknown in healthy children. While FH is measured to diagnose and monitor therapy of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, recent studies also implicated increased plasma levels of FHRs in disease. Here, we investigated the levels of FH and FHRs in healthy children using recently developed specific ELISAs. We found that levels of FH, FHR-2, and FHR-3 were equal to those found in healthy adults. Levels of FHR-4A and FHR-5 were lower in children than in adults. However, only the FHR-5 levels associated with age. The RIs of these FH family proteins now serve to support the interpretation of plasma levels in prospective and retrospective studies that can be used for routine diagnostic and monitoring purposes including pediatric patient samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082937PMC
October 2019

Complement Factor H Levels Associate With Malaria Susceptibility and Severity.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jul 20;5(7):ofy166. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Section of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: may evade complement-mediated host defense by hijacking complement Factor H (FH), a negative regulator of the alternative complement pathway. Plasma levels of FH vary between individuals and may therefore influence malaria susceptibility and severity.

Methods: We measured convalescent FH plasma levels in 149 Gambian children who had recovered from uncomplicated or severe malaria and in 173 healthy control children. We compared FH plasma levels between children with malaria and healthy controls, and between children with severe (n = 82) and uncomplicated malaria (n = 67). We determined associations between FH plasma levels and laboratory features of severity and used multivariate analyses to examine associations with FH when accounting for other determinants of severity.

Results: FH plasma levels differed significantly between controls, uncomplicated malaria cases, and severe malaria cases (mean [95% confidence interval], 257 [250 to 264], 288 [268 to 309], and 328 [313 to 344] µg/mL, respectively; analysis of variance < .0001). FH plasma levels correlated with severity biomarkers, including lactate, parasitemia, and parasite density, but did not correlate with levels of PfHRP2, which represent the total body parasite load. Associations with severity and lactate remained significant when adjusting for age and parasite load.

Conclusions: Natural variation in FH plasma levels is associated with malaria susceptibility and severity. A prospective study will be needed to strengthen evidence for causation, but our findings suggest that interfering with FH binding by might be useful for malaria prevention or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059171PMC
July 2018

Complement Factor H-Related Protein 4A Is the Dominant Circulating Splice Variant of .

Front Immunol 2018 17;9:729. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children's hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Recent research has elucidated circulating levels of almost all factor H-related (FHR) proteins. Some of these proteins are hypothesized to act as antagonists of the important complement regulator factor H (FH), fine-tuning complement regulation on human surfaces. For the splice variants FHR-4A and FHR-4B, the individual circulating levels are unknown, with only total levels being described. Specific reagents for FHR-4A or FHR-4B are lacking due to the fact that the unique domains in FHR-4A show high sequence similarity with FHR-4B, making it challenging to distinguish them. We developed an assay that specifically measures FHR-4A using novel, well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target unique domains in FHR-4A only. Using various FHR-4A/FHR-4B-specific mAbs, no FHR-4B was identified in any of the serum samples tested. The results demonstrate that FHR-4A is the dominant splice variant of in the circulation, while casting doubt on the presence of FHR-4B. FHR-4A levels (avg. 2.55 ± 1.46 µg/mL) were within the range of most of the previously reported levels for all other FHRs. FHR-4A was found to be highly variable among the population, suggesting a strong genetic regulation. These results shed light on the physiological relevance of the previously proposed role of FHR-4A and FHR-4B as antagonists of FH in the circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5913293PMC
June 2019

Factor H-Related (FHR)-1 and FHR-2 Form Homo- and Heterodimers, while FHR-5 Circulates Only As Homodimer in Human Plasma.

Front Immunol 2017 18;8:1328. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory of the Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The complement factor H-related (FHR) proteins are hypothesized to fine-tune the regulatory role of complement factor H (FH) in the alternative pathway of the complement system. Moreover, FHR-1, FHR-2, and FHR-5 have been proposed to be dimers, which further complicates accurate analysis. As FHRs are highly similar among themselves and toward FH, obtaining specific reagents for quantification of serum levels and functional analysis is challenging. In this study, we generated antibodies and developed ELISAs to measure FHR-1, FHR-2, and FHR-5 in serum. We used both recombinant and serum-derived proteins to show that four dimers occur in human circulation: homodimers of FHR-1, FHR-2, and FHR-5, as well as FHR-1/FHR-2 heterodimers. Heterodimers containing FHR-5 were not found. In individuals with homozygous deletions or compound heterozygous missense/nonsense mutations identified in this study, the respective FHR-1 and FHR-2 homo- and heterodimers were absent. Using FRET, we found that recombinant FHR dimers exchange monomers rapidly. This was confirmed , using FHR-1- and FHR-2-deficient sera. Of all FHR dimers, FHR-5/5 homodimers demonstrated strong binding affinity toward heparin. Specific ELISAs demonstrated that serum levels of FHR-1/1, FHR-1/2, FHR-2/2, and FHR-5/5 dimers were low compared to FH, which circulates at a 10- to 200-fold molar excess. In summary, FHR-1, FHR-2, and FHR-5 homodimerize, with FHR-1 and FHR-2 forming heterodimers as well, and equilibrate quickly in plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5651247PMC
October 2017

Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells continuously patrol skin epithelia to quickly recognize local antigen.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Nov 12;109(48):19739-44. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Division of Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Recent work has demonstrated that following the clearance of infection a stable population of memory T cells remains present in peripheral organs and contributes to the control of secondary infections. However, little is known about how tissue-resident memory T cells behave in situ and how they encounter newly infected target cells. Here we demonstrate that antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells that remain in skin following herpes simplex virus infection show a steady-state crawling behavior in between keratinocytes. Spatially explicit simulations of the migration of these tissue-resident memory T cells indicate that the migratory dendritic behavior of these cells allows the detection of antigen-expressing target cells in physiologically relevant time frames of minutes to hours. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence for the identification of rare antigen-expressing epithelial cells by skin-patrolling memory T cells in vivo. These data demonstrate the existence of skin patrol by memory T cells and reveal the value of this patrol in the rapid detection of renewed infections at a previously infected site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1208927109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511734PMC
November 2012
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