Publications by authors named "Anna Cederberg"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Overexpression of Foxf2 in adipose tissue is associated with lower levels of IRS1 and decreased glucose uptake in vivo.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2010 Mar 15;298(3):E548-54. Epub 2009 Dec 15.

Dept. of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Univ. of Göteborg, Sweden.

Many members of the forkhead genes family of transcription factors have been implicated as important regulators of metabolism, in particular, glucose homeostasis, e.g., Foxo1, Foxa3, and Foxc2. The purpose of this study was to exploit the possibility that yet unknown members of this gene family play a role in regulating glucose tolerance in adipocytes. We identified Foxf2 in a screen for adipose-expressed forkhead genes. In vivo overexpression of Foxf2 in an adipose tissue-restricted fashion demonstrated that such mice display a significantly induced insulin secretion in response to an intravenous glucose load compared with wild-type littermates. In response to increased Foxf2 expression, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) mRNA and protein levels are significantly downregulated in adipocytes; however, the ratio of serine vs. tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 seems to remain unaffected. Furthermore, adipocytes overexpressing Foxf2 have a significantly lower insulin-mediated glucose uptake compared with wild-type adipocytes. These findings argue that Foxf2 is a previously unrecognized regulator of cellular and systemic whole body glucose tolerance, at least in part, due to lower levels of IRS1. Foxf2 and its downstream target genes can provide new insights with regard to identification of novel therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00395.2009DOI Listing
March 2010

In vitro differentiated adipocytes from a Foxc2 reporter knock-in mouse as screening tool.

Transgenic Res 2009 Dec 28;18(6):889-97. Epub 2009 May 28.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Box 440, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

We have developed a generic model for in vitro high-throughput screening for agents regulating transcription of genes in the mouse genome here exemplified by Foxc2, a forkhead transcription factor involved in regulation of adipocyte metabolism. We made a Foxc2-LacZ reporter "knock-in" mouse in which one of the two Foxc2 alleles has been inactivated and replaced by a LacZ reporter gene. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts, derived from such mice, were differentiated in vitro to adipocytes and used in cell-based screens. Forskolin as well as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increased levels of Foxc2nLacZ fusion protein. We could also demonstrate that this was paralleled by an increase in Foxc2 mRNA, transcribed from the wild type allele. This generic method offers a novel way of identifying both positive and negative upstream regulators of a gene, using high-throughput screening methodology. In a cell-based screen using such methodology we demonstrate efficacy by identifying NKH477 as a Foxc2 activating compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-009-9280-1DOI Listing
December 2009

On the role of FOX transcription factors in adipocyte differentiation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

J Biol Chem 2009 Apr 24;284(16):10755-63. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Departments of Molecular & Integrative Physiology and Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

In this study, we explore the effects of several FOX and mutant FOX transcription factors on adipocyte determination, differentiation, and metabolism. In addition to Foxc2 and Foxo1, we report that Foxf2, Foxp1, and Foxa1 are other members of the Fox family that show regulated expression during adipogenesis. Although enforced expression of FOXC2 inhibits adipogenesis, Foxf2 slightly enhances the rate of differentiation. Constitutively active FOXC2-VP16 inhibits adipogenesis through multiple mechanisms. FOXC2-VP16 impairs the transient induction of C/EBPbeta during adipogenesis and induces expression of the transcriptional repressor Hey1 as well as the activator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, Wnt10b. The constitutive transcriptional repressor, FOXC2-Eng, enhances adipogenesis of preadipocytes and multipotent mesenchymal precursors and determines NIH-3T3 and C2C12 cells to the adipocyte lineage. Although PPARgamma ligand or C/EBPalpha are not necessary for stimulation of adipogenesis by FOXC2-Eng, at least low levels of PPARgamma protein are absolutely required. Finally, expression of FOXC2-Eng in adipocytes increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, further expanding the profound and pleiotropic effects of FOX transcription factors on adipocyte biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M809115200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2667763PMC
April 2009

IRS1-independent defects define major nodes of insulin resistance.

Cell Metab 2008 May;7(5):421-33

Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

Insulin resistance is a common disorder caused by a wide variety of physiological insults, some of which include poor diet, inflammation, anti-inflammatory steroids, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. The common link between these diverse insults and insulin resistance is widely considered to involve impaired insulin signaling, particularly at the level of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS). To test this model, we utilized a heterologous system involving the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathway that recapitulates many aspects of insulin action independently of IRS. We comprehensively analyzed six models of insulin resistance in three experimental systems and consistently observed defects in both insulin and PDGF action despite a range of insult-specific defects within the IRS-Akt nexus. These findings indicate that while insulin resistance is associated with multiple deficiencies, the most deleterious defects and the origin of insulin resistance occur independently of IRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2008.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2443409PMC
May 2008

Glucose infusion causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of rats without changes in Akt and AS160 phosphorylation.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007 Nov 4;293(5):E1358-64. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Hyperglycemia is a defining feature of Type 1 and 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia also causes insulin resistance, and our group (Kraegen EW, Saha AK, Preston E, Wilks D, Hoy AJ, Cooney GJ, Ruderman NB. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Endocrinol Metab 290: E471-E479, 2006) has recently demonstrated that hyperglycemia generated by glucose infusion results in insulin resistance after 5 h but not after 3 h. The aim of this study was to investigate possible mechanism(s) by which glucose infusion causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and in particular to examine whether this was associated with changes in insulin signaling. Hyperglycemia (~10 mM) was produced in cannulated male Wistar rats for up to 5 h. The glucose infusion rate required to maintain this hyperglycemia progressively lessened over 5 h (by 25%, P < 0.0001 at 5 h) without any alteration in plasma insulin levels consistent with the development of insulin resistance. Muscle glucose uptake in vivo (44%; P < 0.05) and glycogen synthesis rate (52%; P < 0.001) were reduced after 5 h compared with after 3 h of infusion. Despite these changes, there was no decrease in the phosphorylation state of multiple insulin signaling intermediates [insulin receptor, Akt, AS160 (Akt substrate of 160 kDa), glycogen synthase kinase-3beta] over the same time course. In isolated soleus strips taken from control or 1- or 5-h glucose-infused animals, insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport was similar, but glycogen synthesis was significantly reduced in the 5-h muscle sample (68% vs. 1-h sample; P < 0.001). These results suggest that the reduced muscle glucose uptake in rats after 5 h of acute hyperglycemia is due more to the metabolic effects of excess glycogen storage than to a defect in insulin signaling or glucose transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00133.2007DOI Listing
November 2007

Reduced PDE4 expression and activity contributes to enhanced catecholamine-induced cAMP accumulation in adipocytes from FOXC2 transgenic mice.

FEBS Lett 2006 Jul 30;580(17):4126-30. Epub 2006 Jun 30.

Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1125 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

Overexpression of forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to a lean phenotype resistant to diet-induced obesity. This is due, in part, to enhanced catecholamine-induced cAMP-PKA signaling in FOXC2 transgenic mice. Here we show that rolipram treatment of adipocytes from FOXC2 transgenic mice did not increase isoproterenol-induced cAMP accumulation to the same extent as in wild type cells. Accordingly, phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity was reduced by 75% and PDE4A5 protein expression reduced by 30-50% in FOXC2 transgenic WAT compared to wild type. Thus, reduced PDE4 activity in adipocytes from FOXC2 transgenic mice contributes to amplified beta-AR induced cAMP responses observed in these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.06.058DOI Listing
July 2006

Lack of the central nervous system- and neural crest-expressed forkhead gene Foxs1 affects motor function and body weight.

Mol Cell Biol 2005 Jul;25(13):5616-25

Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, Medicinareg. 9A, Box 440, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

To gain insight into the expression pattern and functional importance of the forkhead transcription factor Foxs1, we constructed a Foxs1-beta-galactosidase reporter gene "knock-in" (Foxs1beta-gal/beta-gal) mouse, in which the wild-type (wt) Foxs1 allele has been inactivated and replaced by a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Staining for beta-galactosidase activity reveals an expression pattern encompassing neural crest-derived cells, e.g., cranial and dorsal root ganglia as well as several other cell populations in the central nervous system (CNS), most prominently the internal granule layer of cerebellum. Other sites of expression include the lachrymal gland, outer nuclear layer of retina, enteric ganglion neurons, and a subset of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. In the CNS, blood vessel-associated smooth muscle cells and pericytes stain positive for Foxs1. Foxs1beta-gal/beta-gal mice perform significantly better (P < 0.01) on a rotating rod than do wt littermates. We have also noted a lower body weight gain (P < 0.05) in Foxs1beta-gal/lbeta-gal males on a high-fat diet, and we speculate that dorsomedial hypothalamic neurons, expressing Foxs1, could play a role in regulating body weight via regulation of sympathetic outflow. In support of this, we observed increased levels of uncoupling protein 1 mRNA in Foxs1beta-gal/beta-gal mice. This points toward a role for Foxs1 in the integration and processing of neuronal signals of importance for energy turnover and motor function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.25.13.5616-5625.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1157007PMC
July 2005

Adipocyte-specific overexpression of FOXC2 prevents diet-induced increases in intramuscular fatty acyl CoA and insulin resistance.

Diabetes 2005 Jun;54(6):1657-63

Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of EndocrinologyMetabolism, The Anlyan Center, S269C, 300 Cedar St., P.O. Box 208020, New Haven, CT 06520-8020, USA.

Insulin resistance plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and may be causally associated with increased intracellular fat content. Transgenic mice with adipocyte-specific overexpression of FOXC2 (forkhead transcription factor) have been generated and shown to be protected against diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we examined the effects of chronic high-fat feeding on tissue-specific insulin action and glucose metabolism in the FOXC2 transgenic (Tg) mice. Whole-body fat mass were significantly reduced in the FOXC2 Tg mice fed normal diet or high-fat diet compared with the wild-type mice. Diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of the wild-type mice was associated with defects in insulin signaling and significant increases in intramuscular fatty acyl CoA levels. In contrast, FOXC2 Tg mice were completely protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and intramuscular accumulation of fatty acyl CoA. High-fat feeding also blunted insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production in the wild-type mice, whereas FOXC2 Tg mice were protected from diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. These findings demonstrate an important role of adipocyte-expressed FOXC2 on whole-body glucose metabolism and further suggest FOXC2 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.6.1657DOI Listing
June 2005

The boundary cap: a source of neural crest stem cells that generate multiple sensory neuron subtypes.

Development 2005 Jun 4;132(11):2623-32. Epub 2005 May 4.

Unit of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

The boundary cap (BC) is a transient neural crest-derived group of cells located at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) that have been shown to differentiate into sensory neurons and glia in vivo. We find that when placed in culture, BC cells self-renew, show multipotency in clonal cultures and express neural crest stem cell (NCSCs) markers. Unlike sciatic nerve NCSCs, the BC-NCSC (bNCSCs) generates sensory neurons upon differentiation. The bNCSCs constitute a common source of cells for functionally diverse types of neurons, as a single bNCSC can give rise to several types of nociceptive and thermoreceptive sensory neurons. Our data suggests that BC cells comprise a source of multipotent sensory specified stem cells that persist throughout embryogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.01852DOI Listing
June 2005

Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes--an adipocentric view.

Curr Mol Med 2003 Mar;3(2):107-25

Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, Box 440, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

As a result of selecting triglycerides as the major vehicle for storing superfluous energy, evolution came up with a specialized cell type, the adipocyte, equipped to handle triglycerides and its potentially toxic metabolites--fatty acids. For the first time in history large human populations are subjected a wealth of cheap, accessible and palatable calories. This has created a situation, on a large scale not previously encountered, in which the capacity to store triglycerides in adipocytes is an important determinant of human health. Too few adipocytes (e.g. lipodystrophia) or a situation in which all adipocytes are filled, to their maximum capacity (e.g. severe obesity), will create very similar and unfavorable metabolic situations in which ectopic triglyceride stores will appear in tissues like liver and muscle. This review sets out to discuss the adipocyte and its role in metabolism as well as the consequences of a metabolic situation, in which the adipocyte has lost its fat storing monopoly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566524033361573DOI Listing
March 2003

FOXC2 mRNA Expression and a 5' untranslated region polymorphism of the gene are associated with insulin resistance.

Diabetes 2002 Dec;51(12):3554-60

Department of Endocrinology, Lund University, Wallenberg Laboratory, University Hospital Malmö, S-205 02 Malmö, Sweden.

The human transcription factor FOXC2 has recently been shown to protect against diet-induced insulin resistance in transgenic mice. We investigated the expression of FOXC2 in fat and muscle and performed a genetic analysis in human subjects. FOXC2 mRNA levels were increased in visceral compared with subcutaneous fat from obese subjects (12 +/- 4-fold; P = 0.0001), and there was a correlation between whole-body insulin sensitivity and FOXC2 mRNA levels in visceral fat (fS-insulin R = -0.64, P = 0.01, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] R = -0.68, P = 0.007) and skeletal muscle (fS-insulin R = -0.57, P = 0.03, and HOMA-IR R = -0.55, P = 0.04). Mutation screening of the FOXC2 gene identified a common polymorphism in the 5' untranslated region (C-512T). The T allele was associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR P = 0.007) and lower plasma triglyceride levels in females (P = 0.007). Also, the higher expression of FOXC2 in visceral than in subcutaneous fat was restricted to subjects homozygous for the T allele (P = 0.03 vs. P = 0.7). Our data suggest that increased FOXC2 expression may protect against insulin resistance in human subjects and that genetic variability in the gene may influence features associated with the metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.51.12.3554DOI Listing
December 2002

Mechanisms of FOXC2- and FOXD1-mediated regulation of the RI alpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase include release of transcriptional repression and activation by protein kinase B alpha and cAMP.

J Biol Chem 2002 Jun 9;277(25):22902-8. Epub 2002 Apr 9.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

We have reported recently that mice overexpressing the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor FOXC2 are lean and show increased responsiveness to insulin due to sensitization of the beta-adrenergic cAMP-PKA(+) pathway and increased levels of the RI alpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) (Cederberg, A., Grønning, L. M., Ahren, B., Taskén, K., Carlsson, P., and Enerbäck, S. (2001) Cell 106, 563-573). In this present study, we reveal that FOXC2 and a related factor, FOXD1, specifically activate the 1b promoter of the RI alpha gene in adipocytes and testicular Sertoli cells, respectively. By deletional mapping, we discovered two different mechanisms by which the Fox proteins activated expression from the RI alpha 1b promoter. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, an upstream region represses promoter activity under basal conditions. Bandshift experiments indicate that overexpression of FOXC2 promotes the release of a potential repressor from this region. In Sertoli cells, sequences downstream of the transcription start sites mediate the activating effect of FOXD1, and protein kinase B alpha/Akt1 strongly induces this effect. Furthermore, we show that an inactive FOXD1 mutant lowers the cAMP-mediated induction of the RI alpha 1b reporter construct. In summary, winged helix transcription factors of the FOXC/FOXD families function as regulators of the RI alpha subunit of PKA and may integrate hormonal signals acting through protein kinase B and cAMP in a cell-specific manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M200131200DOI Listing
June 2002

Insulin and TNF alpha induce expression of the forkhead transcription factor gene Foxc2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via PI3K and ERK 1/2-dependent pathways.

Mol Endocrinol 2002 Apr;16(4):873-83

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

We have recently identified the winged helix/forkhead gene Foxc2 as a key regulator of adipocyte metabolism that counteracts obesity and diet-induced insulin resistance. This study was performed to elucidate the hormonal regulation of Foxc2 in adipocytes. We find that TNF alpha and insulin induce Foxc2 mRNA in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with the kinetics of an immediate early response (1-2 h with 100 ng/ml insulin or 5 ng/ml TNF alpha). This induction is, in both cases, attenuated by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin as well as the MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059. Furthermore, we show that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or 8-(4-chlorophenyl)thio-cAMP induces the expression of Foxc2. Interestingly, we find that the basal level of Foxc2 mRNA is down-regulated whereas hormonal responsiveness increases during differentiation of 3T3-L1 from preadipocytes to adipocytes. At the protein level, immunoblots with Foxc2 antibody demonstrated an induction of Foxc2 by insulin and TNF alpha in nuclear extracts of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. EMSA of nuclear proteins from phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- and TNF alpha-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a forkhead consensus oligonucleotide revealed specific binding of a Foxc2/DNA complex. In conclusion, our data suggest that insulin and TNF alpha regulate the expression of Foxc2 via a PI3K- and ERK 1/2-dependent pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Also, signaling pathways downstream of PKA and PKC induce the expression of Foxc2 mRNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/mend.16.4.0803DOI Listing
April 2002