Publications by authors named "Anna Barbaro"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact shock origin of diamonds in ureilite meteorites.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Oct 28;117(41):25310-25318. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Khartoum, 11111 Khartoum, Sudan.

The origin of diamonds in ureilite meteorites is a timely topic in planetary geology as recent studies have proposed their formation at static pressures >20 GPa in a large planetary body, like diamonds formed deep within Earth's mantle. We investigated fragments of three diamond-bearing ureilites (two from the Almahata Sitta polymict ureilite and one from the NWA 7983 main group ureilite). In NWA 7983 we found an intimate association of large monocrystalline diamonds (up to at least 100 µm), nanodiamonds, nanographite, and nanometric grains of metallic iron, cohenite, troilite, and likely schreibersite. The diamonds show a striking texture pseudomorphing inferred original graphite laths. The silicates in NWA 7983 record a high degree of shock metamorphism. The coexistence of large monocrystalline diamonds and nanodiamonds in a highly shocked ureilite can be explained by catalyzed transformation from graphite during an impact shock event characterized by peak pressures possibly as low as 15 GPa for relatively long duration (on the order of 4 to 5 s). The formation of "large" (as opposed to nano) diamond crystals could have been enhanced by the catalytic effect of metallic Fe-Ni-C liquid coexisting with graphite during this shock event. We found no evidence that formation of micrometer(s)-sized diamonds or associated Fe-S-P phases in ureilites require high static pressures and long growth times, which makes it unlikely that any of the diamonds in ureilites formed in bodies as large as Mars or Mercury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919067117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568235PMC
October 2020

Women in Forensics: An international overview.

Authors:
Anna Barbaro

Forensic Sci Int 2019 24;1:137-139. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Studio Indagini Mediche E Forensi (SIMEF), President Worldwide Association of Women Forensic Experts (WAWFE), Italy.

Forensic science plays a crucial role in criminal justice. In the last few years, due to great advances in technologies and the effect of many TV shows, movies, and true crime podcasts, there has been an increased interest to forensic science by both students and professionals. In particular, forensic science appears to be a very exciting career for women, whose numbers greatly exceed men's in the field. The present study is an international overview about the role of women in forensic science with a special look to awards and international associations promoting and recognising the female role in forensic disciplines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsisyn.2019.06.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219162PMC
July 2019

The molecular characterization of a depurinated trial DNA sample can be a model to understand the reliability of the results in forensic genetics.

Electrophoresis 2014 Nov 31;35(21-22):3134-44. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy*

The role of DNA damage in PCR processivity/fidelity is a relevant topic in molecular investigation of aged/forensic samples. In order to reproduce one of the most common lesions occurring in postmortem tissues, a new protocol based on aqueous hydrolysis of the DNA was developed in vitro. Twenty-five forensic laboratories were then provided with 3.0 μg of a trial sample (TS) exhibiting, in mean, the loss of 1 base of 20, and a molecular weight below 300 bp. Each participating laboratory could freely choose any combination of methods, leading to the quantification and to the definition of the STR profile of the TS, through the documentation of each step of the analytical approaches selected. The results of the TS quantification by qPCR showed significant differences in the amount of DNA recorded by the participating laboratories using different commercial kits. These data show that only DNA quantification "relative" to the used kit (probe) is possible, being the "absolute" amount of DNA inversely related to the length of the target region (r(2) = 0.891). In addition, our results indicate that the absence of a shared stable and certified reference quantitative standard is also likely involved. STR profiling was carried out selecting five different commercial kits and amplifying the TS for a total number of 212 multiplex PCRs, thus representing an interesting overview of the different analytical protocols used by the participating laboratories. Nine laboratories decided to characterize the TS using a single kit, with a number of amplifications varying from 2 to 12, obtaining only partial STR profiles. Most of the participants determined partial or full profiles using a combination of two or more kits, and a number of amplifications varying from 2 to 27. The performance of each laboratory was described in terms of number of correctly characterized loci, dropped-out markers, unreliable genotypes, and incorrect results. The incidence of unreliable and incorrect genotypes was found to be higher for participants carrying out a limited number of amplifications, insufficient to define the correct genotypes from damaged DNA samples such as the TS. Finally, from a dataset containing about 4500 amplicons, the frequency of PCR artifacts (allele dropout, allele drop-in, and allelic imbalance) was calculated for each kit showing that the new chemistry of the kits is not able to overcome the concern of template-related factors. The results of this collaborative exercise emphasize the advantages of using a standardized degraded DNA sample in the definition of which analytical parameters are critical for the outcome of the STR profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201400141DOI Listing
November 2014

Genetic variability of the SNPforID 52-plex identification SNP panel in Italian population samples.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2012 Dec 25;6(6):e185-6. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.07.002DOI Listing
December 2012

Distribution of allele frequencies of 20 STRs loci in a population sample from Calabria, Southern Italy.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2012 Sep 18;6(5):e137-8. Epub 2012 Mar 18.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.02.006DOI Listing
September 2012

Allele frequencies of the new European Standard Set (ESS) loci in a population of Southern Italy (Calabria).

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2012 Jan 12;6(1):e37-8. Epub 2011 Mar 12.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.02.002DOI Listing
January 2012

X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans).

BMC Evol Biol 2008 Feb 29;8:75. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Due to its history, with a high number of migration events, the Mediterranean basin represents a challenging area for population genetic studies. A large number of genetic studies have been carried out in the Mediterranean area using different markers but no consensus has been reached on the genetic landscape of the Mediterranean populations. In order to further investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations, we typed 894 individuals from 11 Mediterranean populations with 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on the X-chromosome.

Results: A high overall homogeneity was found among the Mediterranean populations except for the population from Morocco, which seemed to differ genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. A very low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and most of the western part of the Mediterranean Sea.A higher migration rate in females versus males was observed by comparing data from X-chromosome, mt-DNA and Y-chromosome SNPs both in the Mediterranean and a wider geographic area.Multilocus association was observed among the 25 SNPs on the X-chromosome in the populations from Ibiza and Cosenza.

Conclusion: Our results support both the hypothesis of (1) a reduced impact of the Neolithic Wave and more recent migration movements in NW-Africa, and (2) the importance of the Strait of Gibraltar as a geographic barrier. In contrast, the high genetic homogeneity observed in the Mediterranean area could be interpreted as the result of the Neolithic wave caused by a large demic diffusion and/or more recent migration events. A differentiated contribution of males and females to the genetic landscape of the Mediterranean area was observed with a higher migration rate in females than in males. A certain level of background linkage disequilibrium in populations in Ibiza and Cosenza could be attributed to their demographic background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2315647PMC
February 2008

Validation of a large Italian Database of 15 STR loci.

Forensic Sci Int 2006 Jan 22;156(2-3):266-8. Epub 2005 Apr 22.

Center of Statistical Genetics, SS Abetone e Brennero 2, 56127 Pisa, Italy.

Results from a collaborative exercise with proficiency testing conducted by 20 Italian laboratories on the 15 loci included in the Identifiler kit were analyzed by allele sharing methods and by standard population genetics tests. The validated database, including about 1500 subjects, was merged with that of a previous exercise conducted on nine loci, and the resulting allele frequencies, subdivided by Italian region, were published on-line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.03.001DOI Listing
January 2006

Genetic study of 11 Y-STRs in the populations of Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Cosenza (Calabria--South of Italy).

Forensic Sci Int 2004 Dec;146 Suppl:S129-31

Department of Forensic Genetics, SIMEF, 89128 Reggio Calabria, Italy.

The ability to identify male-specific DNA renders Y-chromosomal STR systems an invaluable help in cases of rape, other sexual assault as well as in kinship testing. The "PowerPlex Y System" is a recent kit by Promega, that co-amplifies the repeat regions of 11 Y-STRs loci. In the present study, we analyzed the allelic distribution of Y-STRs loci in around 300 unrelated males belonging to the three populations of Calabria region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.09.038DOI Listing
December 2004