Publications by authors named "Ann Randolph"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tissue transcriptome-driven identification of epidermal growth factor as a chronic kidney disease biomarker.

Sci Transl Med 2015 Dec;7(316):316ra193

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 8 to 16% people worldwide, with an increasing incidence and prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The effective management of CKD is confounded by the inability to identify patients at high risk of progression while in early stages of CKD. To address this challenge, a renal biopsy transcriptome-driven approach was applied to develop noninvasive prognostic biomarkers for CKD progression. Expression of intrarenal transcripts was correlated with the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in 261 patients. Proteins encoded by eGFR-associated transcripts were tested in urine for association with renal tissue injury and baseline eGFR. The ability to predict CKD progression, defined as the composite of ESKD or 40% reduction of baseline eGFR, was then determined in three independent CKD cohorts. A panel of intrarenal transcripts, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), a tubule-specific protein critical for cell differentiation and regeneration, predicted eGFR. The amount of EGF protein in urine (uEGF) showed significant correlation (P < 0.001) with intrarenal EGF mRNA, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, eGFR, and rate of eGFR loss. Prediction of the composite renal end point by age, gender, eGFR, and albuminuria was significantly (P < 0.001) improved by addition of uEGF, with an increase of the C-statistic from 0.75 to 0.87. Outcome predictions were replicated in two independent CKD cohorts. Our approach identified uEGF as an independent risk predictor of CKD progression. Addition of uEGF to standard clinical parameters improved the prediction of disease events in diverse CKD populations with a wide spectrum of causes and stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aac7071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861144PMC
December 2015

MicroRNA-21 in glomerular injury.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 Apr 21;26(4):805-16. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York;

TGF-β(1) is a pleotropic growth factor that mediates glomerulosclerosis and podocyte apoptosis, hallmarks of glomerular diseases. The expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is regulated by TGF-β(1), and miR-21 inhibits apoptosis in cancer cells. TGF-β(1)-transgenic mice exhibit accelerated podocyte loss and glomerulosclerosis. We determined that miR-21 expression increases rapidly in cultured murine podocytes after exposure to TGF-β(1) and is higher in kidneys of TGF-β(1)-transgenic mice than wild-type mice. miR-21-deficient TGF-β(1)-transgenic mice showed increased proteinuria and glomerular extracellular matrix deposition and fewer podocytes per glomerular tuft compared with miR-21 wild-type TGF-β(1)-transgenic littermates. Similarly, miR-21 expression was increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and loss of miR-21 in these mice was associated with increased albuminuria, podocyte depletion, and mesangial expansion. In cultured podocytes, inhibition of miR-21 was accompanied by increases in the rate of cell death, TGF-β/Smad3-signaling activity, and expression of known proapoptotic miR-21 target genes p53, Pdcd4, Smad7, Tgfbr2, and Timp3. In American-Indian patients with diabetic nephropathy (n=48), albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with miR-21 expression in glomerular fractions (r=0.6; P<0.001) but not tubulointerstitial fractions (P=0.80). These findings suggest that miR-21 ameliorates TGF-β(1) and hyperglycemia-induced glomerular injury through repression of proapoptotic signals, thereby inhibiting podocyte loss. This finding is in contrast to observations in murine models of tubulointerstitial kidney injury but consistent with findings in cancer models. The aggravation of glomerular disease in miR-21-deficient mice and the positive association with albumin-to-creatinine ratio in patients with diabetic nephropathy support miR-21 as a feedback inhibitor of TGF-β signaling and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013121274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378097PMC
April 2015

Integrative biology identifies shared transcriptional networks in CKD.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2014 Nov 12;25(11):2559-72. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Departments of Internal Medicine, Nephrology, and Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan;

A previous meta-analysis of genome-wide association data by the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology and CKDGen consortia identified 16 loci associated with eGFR. To define how each of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could affect renal function, we integrated GFR-associated loci with regulatory pathways, producing a molecular map of CKD. In kidney biopsy specimens from 157 European subjects representing nine different CKDs, renal transcript levels for 18 genes in proximity to the SNPs significantly correlated with GFR. These 18 genes were mapped into their biologic context by testing coregulated transcripts for enriched pathways. A network of 97 pathways linked by shared genes was constructed and characterized. Of these pathways, 56 pathways were reported previously to be associated with CKD; 41 pathways without prior association with CKD were ranked on the basis of the number of candidate genes connected to the respective pathways. All pathways aggregated into a network of two main clusters comprising inflammation- and metabolism-related pathways, with the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway serving as the hub between the two clusters. In all, 78 pathways and 95% of the connections among those pathways were verified in an independent North American biopsy cohort. Disease-specific analyses showed that most pathways are shared between sets of three diseases, with closest interconnection between lupus nephritis, IgA nephritis, and diabetic nephropathy. Taken together, the network integrates candidate genes from genome-wide association studies into their functional context, revealing interactions and defining established and novel biologic mechanisms of renal impairment in renal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013080906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4214523PMC
November 2014

Cyclodextrin protects podocytes in diabetic kidney disease.

Diabetes 2013 Nov 8;62(11):3817-27. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease despite multifactorial intervention. We demonstrated that increased cholesterol in association with downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 occurs in normal human podocytes exposed to the sera of patients with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria (DKD(+)) when compared with diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DKD(-)) and similar duration of diabetes and lipid profile. Glomerular downregulation of ABCA1 was confirmed in biopsies from patients with early DKD (n = 70) when compared with normal living donors (n = 32). Induction of cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin (CD) but not inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with simvastatin prevented podocyte injury observed in vitro after exposure to patient sera. Subcutaneous administration of CD to diabetic BTBR (black and tan, brachiuric) ob/ob mice was safe and reduced albuminuria, mesangial expansion, kidney weight, and cortical cholesterol content. This was followed by an improvement of fasting insulin, blood glucose, body weight, and glucose tolerance in vivo and improved glucose-stimulated insulin release in human islets in vitro. Our data suggest that impaired reverse cholesterol transport characterizes clinical and experimental DKD and negatively influences podocyte function. Treatment with CD is safe and effective in preserving podocyte function in vitro and in vivo and may improve the metabolic control of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806621PMC
November 2013

Divergent functions of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 in podocyte injury.

Kidney Int 2013 Nov 15;84(5):920-30. Epub 2013 May 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells with complex actin cytoskeletal architecture crucial for maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. The mammalian Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 are molecular switches that control many cellular processes, but are best known for their roles in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Here, we employed podocyte-specific Cre-lox technology and found that mice with deletion of Rac1 display normal podocyte morphology without glomerular dysfunction well into adulthood. Using the protamine sulfate model of acute podocyte injury, podocyte-specific deletion of Rac1 prevented foot process effacement. In a long-term model of chronic hypertensive glomerular damage, however, loss of Rac1 led to an exacerbation of albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. In contrast, mice with podocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 had severe proteinuria, podocyte foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis beginning as early as 10 days of age. In addition, slit diaphragm proteins nephrin and podocin were redistributed, and cofilin was dephosphorylated. Cdc42 is necessary for the maintenance of podocyte structure and function, but Rac1 is entirely dispensable in physiological steady state. However, Rac1 has either beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the context of podocyte impairment. Thus, our study highlights the divergent roles of Rac1 and Cdc42 function in podocyte maintenance and injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3815690PMC
November 2013

From single nucleotide polymorphism to transcriptional mechanism: a model for FRMD3 in diabetic nephropathy.

Diabetes 2013 Jul 22;62(7):2605-12. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

Departments of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Genome-wide association studies have proven to be highly effective at defining relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical phenotypes in complex diseases. Establishing a mechanistic link between a noncoding SNP and the clinical outcome is a significant hurdle in translating associations into biological insight. We demonstrate an approach to assess the functional context of a diabetic nephropathy (DN)-associated SNP located in the promoter region of the gene FRMD3. The approach integrates pathway analyses with transcriptional regulatory pattern-based promoter modeling and allows the identification of a transcriptional framework affected by the DN-associated SNP in the FRMD3 promoter. This framework provides a testable hypothesis for mechanisms of genomic variation and transcriptional regulation in the context of DN. Our model proposes a possible transcriptional link through which the polymorphism in the FRMD3 promoter could influence transcriptional regulation within the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. These findings provide the rationale to interrogate the biological link between FRMD3 and the BMP pathway and serve as an example of functional genomics-based hypothesis generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db12-1416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712052PMC
July 2013

Identification of cross-species shared transcriptional networks of diabetic nephropathy in human and mouse glomeruli.

Diabetes 2013 Jan 8;62(1):299-308. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Murine models are valuable instruments in defining the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but they only partially recapitulate disease manifestations of human DN, limiting their utility. To define the molecular similarities and differences between human and murine DN, we performed a cross-species comparison of glomerular transcriptional networks. Glomerular gene expression was profiled in patients with early type 2 DN and in three mouse models (streptozotocin DBA/2, C57BLKS db/db, and eNOS-deficient C57BLKS db/db mice). Species-specific transcriptional networks were generated and compared with a novel network-matching algorithm. Three shared human-mouse cross-species glomerular transcriptional networks containing 143 (Human-DBA STZ), 97 (Human-BKS db/db), and 162 (Human-BKS eNOS(-/-) db/db) gene nodes were generated. Shared nodes across all networks reflected established pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes complications, such as elements of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathways. In addition, novel pathways not previously associated with DN and cross-species gene nodes and pathways unique to each of the human-mouse networks were discovered. The human-mouse shared glomerular transcriptional networks will assist DN researchers in selecting mouse models most relevant to the human disease process of interest. Moreover, they will allow identification of new pathways shared between mice and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db11-1667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3526018PMC
January 2013

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone improves cardiometabolic risk and renal inflammation in murine lupus.

J Immunol 2009 Aug 20;183(4):2729-40. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a striking increase in the risk of premature atherosclerosis, a complication preceded by significant subclinical vascular damage. A proposed mechanism leading to accelerated vascular disease in SLE is an imbalance between vascular damage and repair, as patients with this disease display significant abnormalities in phenotype and function of endothelial progenitor cells. In addition, individuals with SLE have a higher incidence of insulin resistance which may further contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. This study examined the role of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in improving endothelial function, endothelial progenitor cell numbers and functional capacity, metabolic parameters, and disease activity in the lupus-prone murine model New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB x NZW)F(1). Ten-week-old prenephritic female NZB/NZW F(1) mice were exposed to 10 or 25 mg/kg/day of oral pioglitazone or vehicle for 15 or 24 wk. Mice exposed to pioglitazone exhibited pronounced enhancement in endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation of thoracic aortas and in endothelial progenitor cell function, as assessed by the capacity of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Pioglitazone-treated mice showed improvement in insulin resistance, adipokine, and lipid profile. Kidneys from pioglitazone-treated mice showed significant decreases in immune complex deposition, renal inflammation, T cell glomerular infiltration, and intrarenal synthesis of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and VCAM-1. These results indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists could serve as important tools in the prevention of premature cardiovascular disease and organ damage in SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0804341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2765333PMC
August 2009

SPINK1 and PRSS1 mutations in benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia.

Pancreas 2008 Jul;37(1):31-5

Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, Sant'Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Unlabelled: The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in SPINK1/PRSS1 genes are associated with benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (BPH).

Methods: Sixty-eight subjects with BPH (including 13 familial cases) were studied. In all, we sequenced germline DNA for all the exons and intro-exon boundaries of PRSS1 and SPINK1.

Results: Nine (13.2%) of the 68 subjects harbored PRSS1 or SPINK1 mutations. As to PRSS1, no hereditary pancreatitis-associated variant was detected, whereas previously undescribed mutations (p.Ala148Val and c.40+1G>A) were respectively found in 2 subjects (2.9%). SPINK1 mutations were detected in 7 subjects (10.3%). Five of them exhibited known mutations (3 p.Asn34Ser, 1 p.Pro55Ser, and 1 c.88-23A>T), whereas 2 had a newly found variant (p.Arg67Gly and c.*32C>T, respectively). Only 2 familial BPH, belonging to 2 different families, were found to carry a mutation (1 with p.Ala148Val for PRSS1 and 1 with p.Asn34Ser for SPINK1).

Conclusions: No known mutations of PRSS1 have been found in BPH, whereas the frequency of known SPINK1 variants is similar to that reported in the general population. No segregation of PRSS1/SPINK1 variants occurs in BPH families. Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia cannot be explained by mutations in genes whose variants are known to be associated with pancreatitis or by mutations in other PRSS1/SPINK1 genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0b013e31816172b7DOI Listing
July 2008

Reduced likelihood of metastases in patients with microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Jul;13(13):3831-9

Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The outcome of patients with colorectal cancer is more favorable when the tumor exhibits high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI). Although associated with earlier-stage tumors, MSI has been proposed as an independent predictor of survival. We tested the prognostic value of MSI in a large series of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the last decade.

Experimental Design: The survival of 893 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer characterized by microsatellite status was analyzed. The 89 (10%) patients with MSI cancer were classified according to tumor mismatch repair (MMR) defect, MMR germ-line mutation, hMLH1 and p16 promoter methylation, BRAF and K-ras mutations, and frameshifts of target genes.

Results: The colorectal cancer-specific survival was significantly (P = 0.02) better in patients with MSI cancer than in those with stable tumor (MSS). MSI did not predict a significantly lower risk of cancer-related death if tumor stage was included in the multivariate analysis [hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.40-1.29; P = 0.27]. Instead, MSI was strongly associated with a decreased likelihood of lymph node (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17-0.56; P < 0.001) and distant organ (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.33; P < 0.001) metastases at diagnosis, independently of tumor pathologic features. Molecular predictors of reduced metastatic risk, and then of more favorable prognosis, included TGFbetaRII mutation for all MSI tumors, hMSH2 deficiency for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, and absence of p16 methylation for sporadic hMLH1-deficient cancers.

Conclusions: Tumor MSI is a stage-dependent predictor of survival in patients with colorectal cancer. The decreased likelihood of metastases in patients with MSI cancer is associated with specific genetic and epigenetic changes of the primary tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0366DOI Listing
July 2007

3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: mutation analysis in 28 probands, 9 symptomatic and 19 detected by newborn screening.

Hum Mutat 2005 Aug;26(2):164

Division of Metabolism and Molecular Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry (TMS)-based neonatal screening programs. The phenotype is variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological involvement to asymptomatic adults. MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme composed of biotin containing alpha subunits and smaller beta subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. We report mutation analysis in 28 MCC-deficient probands, 19 of whom were asymptomatic newborns detected by TMS newborn screening, and nine presented with clinical symptoms. Ten have mutations in MCCA, and 18 in MCCB. We identified 10 novel MCCA and 14 novel MCCB mutant alleles including missense, nonsense, frameshift and splice site mutations, and show that three of the missense mutations result in severely decreased MCC activity when expressed in MCC-deficient cell lines. Our data demonstrate no clear correlation between genotype and phenotype suggesting that factors other than the genotype at the MCC loci have a major influence on the phenotype of MCC deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.9352DOI Listing
August 2005

Mutation analysis of the PLOD1 gene: an efficient multistep approach to the molecular diagnosis of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA).

Mol Genet Metab 2005 Sep-Oct;86(1-2):269-76. Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Division of Metabolism and Molecular Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA) is an inheritable connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase due to mutations in PLOD1. We describe a mutation analysis strategy for the PLOD1 gene using either cDNA or gDNA or a combination thereof, which allows for reliable, time-effective and efficient mutation detection in patients with EDS VIA. We report the results obtained in 9 index patients from 12 unrelated families: three patients were homozygous for three novel mutations (p.Ile454IlefsX2, p.Ala667Thr, and p.His706Arg), four patients were homozygous for the common duplication of exons 10-16, one patient was compound heterozygous for the common duplication and p.Ile454IlefsX2, and one patient was homozygous for p.Arg319X.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2005.04.014DOI Listing
January 2006

Nevo syndrome is allelic to the kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA).

Am J Med Genet A 2005 Mar;133A(2):158-64

Division of Metabolism & Molecular Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

We report on seven patients affected with Nevo syndrome, a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased perinatal length, kyphosis, muscular hypotonia, and joint laxity. Since its first description by Nevo et al. [1974], only a few cases have been reported. Because some of these patients present clinical features similar to those of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA), an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase due to mutations in PLOD1, we studied seven patients with Nevo syndrome, three of whom have previously been reported, and four of whom are new. In the five patients from whom urine was available, the ratio of total urinary lysyl pyridinoline (LP) to hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) was elevated (8.2, 7.8, 8.6, 3.5, and 4.8, respectively) compared with that in controls (0.20 +/- 0.05, range 0.10-0.38), and similar to that observed in patients with EDS VIA (5.97 +/- 0.99, range 4.3-8.1). Six patients were homozygous for a point mutation in exon 9 of PLOD1 causing a p.R319X nonsense mutation, while one patient was homozygous for a large deletion comprising exon 17 of PLOD1. We conclude that the Nevo syndrome is allelic to and clinically indistinguishable from EDS VIA, and present evidence that increased length at birth and wristdrop, in addition to muscular hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis, should prompt the physician to consider EDS VIA earlier than heretofore.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.30529DOI Listing
March 2005

Constraints imposed by supercoiling on in vitro amplification of polyomavirus DNA.

J Gen Virol 2004 Nov;85(Pt 11):3383-3388

Division of Gastroenterology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, USA.

Previous attempts to identify oncogenic polyomaviruses in human cancers have yielded conflicting results, even with the application of PCR technology. Here, it was considered whether the topological features of the polyomavirus genome interfere with efficient PCR amplification. Plasmid and SV40 DNAs were used as a model system for comparing the amplification efficiency of supercoiled, circular relaxed and linear templates. It was found that detection of circular templates required 10 times more molecules than detection of identical but linear templates. Supercoiling hindered the in vitro amplification of SV40 circles by a factor of 10, and erratic amplification of supercoiled SV40 occurred with subpicogram amounts of template. Accordingly, topoisomerase I treatment of DNA improved the PCR detection of supercoiled SV40, significantly decreasing the number of false-negative samples. Previously described, yet controversial, polyomavirus presence in human tissues should be reconsidered and topoisomerase I-sensitive polyomavirus amplification might help to detect polyomavirus genomes in mammalian tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.80039-0DOI Listing
November 2004

Diazepam-induced adaptive plasticity revealed by alpha1 GABAA receptor-specific expression profiling.

J Neurochem 2004 Mar;88(5):1059-67

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Benzodiazepines are in wide clinical use for their sedative and tranquilizing actions, the former being mediated via alpha1-containing GABAA receptors. The signal transduction pathways elicited beyond the receptor are only poorly understood. Changes of transcript levels in cerebral cortex induced by acute diazepam administration were therefore compared by microarray analysis between wild-type and point mutated alpha1(H101R) mice, in which the alpha1 GABAA receptor subunit had been rendered insensitive to diazepam. In wild-type animals, diazepam reduced the expression levels of the alpha subunit of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, MAP kinase phosphatase, transcription factor GIF, c-fos and nerve growth factor induced gene-A. None of these transcripts was changed in the alpha1(H101R) mice after treatment with diazepam. Thus, the sedative action of diazepam is correlated with a selective down-regulation of transcripts involved in the regulation of neuronal plasticity and neurotrophic responses. Most transcript changes were transient except for the decrease of the CaMKIIalpha transcript which persisted even 40 h after the single dose of diazepam. This long-term alteration is likely to contribute to the resetting of the neuronal responsiveness, which may be involved in rebound phenomena and, under chronic treatment, in the development of tolerance and dependence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02216.xDOI Listing
March 2004

Oxidative stress inactivates the human DNA mismatch repair system.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2002 Jul;283(1):C148-54

Department of Medicine and Cancer Center; University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 - 0688, USA.

In the human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, hMSH2 forms the hMutSalpha and hMutSbeta complexes with hMSH6 and hMSH3, respectively, whereas hMLH1 and hPMS2 form the hMutLalpha heterodimer. These complexes, together with other components in the MMR system, correct single-base mismatches and small insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs when the loops in DNA microsatellites are not corrected because of a malfunctioning MMR system. Low-frequency MSI (MSI-L) is seen in some chronically inflamed tissues in the absence of genetic inactivation of the MMR system. We hypothesize that oxidative stress associated with chronic inflammation might damage protein components of the MMR system, leading to its functional inactivation. In this study, we demonstrate that noncytotoxic levels of H2O2 inactivate both single-base mismatch and loop repair activities of the MMR system in a dose-dependent fashion. On the basis of in vitro complementation assays using recombinant MMR proteins, we show that this inactivation is most likely due to oxidative damage to hMutSalpha, hMutSbeta, and hMutLalpha protein complexes. We speculate that inactivation of the MMR function in response to oxidative stress may be responsible for the MSI-L seen in nonneoplastic and cancer tissues associated with chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00422.2001DOI Listing
July 2002

Functional analysis of hMLH1 variants and HNPCC-related mutations using a human expression system.

Gastroenterology 2002 Jan;122(1):211-9

Second Department of Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt a. M., Germany.

Background & Aims: Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 are associated with susceptibility to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Because a significant proportion of hMLH1 mutations are missense, the assessment of their pathogenic role may be difficult. To date, functional analysis of missense mutations has been performed primarily in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aim of this study was to examine the biochemical properties of hMLH1 protein variants in a human expression system.

Methods: The HNPCC-related hMLH1 mutations T117M, V185G, R217C, G244D, R265C, V326A, and K618T, the polymorphisms I219V and R265H, and a hMLH1 splicing variant lacking exon 9 and 10 (hMLH1 Delta 9/10) were cloned. On transfection of these constructs into human 293T cells, which do not express hMLH1 because of promoter hypermethylation, the hMLH1 protein variants were analyzed by Western blotting and in a MMR assay.

Results: Transfection was successful for all hMLH1 constructs. As anticipated, the mutations K618T and T117M, which affect the highly conserved domains of hMLH1 that are necessary for interaction with hPMS2 or for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding, respectively, affected protein stability or its ability to complement MMR-deficient 293T-cell extracts. The V185G, G244D, and Delta 9/10 variants were also unable to complement MMR in 293T cells, whereas hMLH1 proteins carrying the I219V, R265H, R265C, R217C, and V326A mutations were MMR competent.

Conclusions: These data show that the pathogenic role of hMLH1 missense mutations and splicing variants can be assessed by analyzing the biochemical properties of their protein products in a homologous expression system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.30296DOI Listing
January 2002