Publications by authors named "Anjuman Arif"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic basis of some physiological traits and yield in early and late sowing conditions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

J Appl Genet 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Wheat Breeding Group, Plant Breeding and Genetics Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The rise in human population necessitates the use of all available tools to enhance wheat productivity. In this regard, pre-breeding has mobilized novel underutilized genetic variation into breeding programs. However, this germplasm needs to be characterized for its efficient utilization. This investigation was initiated to evaluate the early and late sown wheat pre-breeding germplasm for physiology- and yield-related traits and to associate the mapped SNPs using association mapping approach. Our results indicate that the germplasm performed better in early sowing in comparison to late planting where grain yield (Yd) was found positively correlated with water use efficiency (WUE), heading time, and chlorophyll contents (Chl). We discovered a total of 210 associations involving 155 SNPs. Taking into consideration either early or late sowing and the mean values, only 12 marker traits were associated with trait germination, plant height, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, Chl, carotenoids, and Yd. Our correlations and mapping results indicate that higher WUE along with Chl can be targeted as indirect physiological markers to enhance wheat yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-021-00643-2DOI Listing
June 2021

A Comparative Study for Assessing the Drought-Tolerance of Chickpea Under Varying Natural Growth Environments.

Front Plant Sci 2020 15;11:607869. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

This study was planned with the purpose of evaluating the drought tolerance of advanced breeding lines of chickpea in natural field conditions. Two methods were employed to impose field conditions; the first: simulating drought stress by growing chickpea genotypes at five rainfed areas, with Faisalabad as the non-stressed control environment; and the second: planting chickpea genotypes in spring to simulate a drought stress environment, with winter-sowing serving as the non-stressed environment. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and generalized linear models (GLM) models were both found to be equally effective in extracting main effects in the rainfed experiment. Results demonstrated that environment influenced seed yield, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods, and number of seeds most predominantly; however, genotype was the main source of variation in 100 seed weight and plant height. The GGE biplot showed that Faisalabad, Kallur Kot, and Bhakkar were contributing the most in the GEI, respectively, while Bahawalpur, Bhawana, and Karor were relatively stable environments, respectively. Faisalabad was the most, and Bhakkar the least productive in terms of seed yield. The best genotypes to grow in non-stressed environments were CH39/08, CH40/09, and CH15/11, whereas CH28/07 and CH39/08 were found suitable for both conditions. CH55/09 displayed the best performance in stress conditions only. The AMMI stability and drought-tolerance indices enabled us to select genotypes with differential performance in both conditions. It is therefore concluded that the spring-sown experiment revealed a high-grade drought stress imposition on plants, and that the genotypes selected by both methods shared quite similar rankings, and also that manually computed drought-tolerance indices are also comparable for usage for better genotypic selections. This study could provide sufficient evidence for using the aforementioned as drought-tolerance evaluation methods, especially for countries and research organizations who have limited resources and funding for conducting multilocation trials, and performing sophisticated analyses on expensive software.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.607869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928316PMC
February 2021

A comparative metabolomic study on desi and kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes under rainfed and irrigated field conditions.

Sci Rep 2020 08 18;10(1):13919. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Chickpea is considered among the most important leguminous crops in the world. However, in recent years drought conditions and/or limited availability of water have significantly reduced the production of chickpea. The current study was aimed to understand the legume stress response at the metabolic level for the determination of chickpea genotypes which can resist yield losses and could be cultivated with limited water availability. Here, we have analyzed two genotypes of chickpea, desi and kabuli under rainfed condition using a GC-MS based untargeted metabolomics approach. Results revealed significant differences in several metabolite features including oxalic acid, threonic acid, inositol, maltose and L-proline between studied groups. Accumulation of plant osmoprotectants such as L-proline, sugars and sugar alcohols was higher in desi genotype than kabuli genotype of chickpea when grown under the rainfed condition. Metabolic pathway analysis suggests that the inositol phosphate metabolism was involved in plant defense mechanisms against the limited water availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70963-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434909PMC
August 2020

Mapping of QTLs Associated with Yield and Yield Related Traits in Durum Wheat ( Desf.) Under Irrigated and Drought Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 30;21(7). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstr. 3, Seeland OT, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany.

Global durum wheat consumption ( Desf.) is ahead of its production. One reason for this is abiotic stress, e.g., drought. Breeding for resistance to drought is complicated by the lack of fast, reproducible screening techniques and the inability to routinely create defined and repeatable water stress conditions. Here, we report the first analysis of dissection of yield and yield-related traits in durum wheat in Pakistan, seeking to elucidate the genetic components of yield and agronomic traits. Analysis of several traits revealed a total of 221 (160 with logarithm of odds (LOD) > 2 ≤ 3 and 61 with LOD > 3) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) distributed on all fourteen durum wheat chromosomes, of which 109 (78 with LOD > 2 ≤ 3 and 31 with LOD > 3) were observed in 2016-17 (S1) and 112 (82 with LOD > 2 ≤ 3 and 30 with LOD > 3) were observed in 2017-18 (S2). Allelic profiles of yield QTLs on chromosome 2A and 7B indicate that allele A of and allele B of can enhance the Yd up to 6.16% in control and 5.27% under drought. Moreover, if combined, a yield gain of up to 11% would be possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177892PMC
March 2020

Genome-wide variation patterns between landraces and cultivars uncover divergent selection during modern wheat breeding.

Theor Appl Genet 2019 Sep 28;132(9):2509-2523. Epub 2019 May 28.

Institute of Crop Science, National Wheat Improvement Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

Key Message: Genetic diversity, population structure, LD decay, and selective sweeps in 687 wheat accessions were analyzed, providing relevant guidelines to facilitate the use of the germplasm in wheat breeding. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown crops in the world. Landraces were subjected to strong human-mediated selection in developing high-yielding, good quality, and widely adapted cultivars. To investigate the genome-wide patterns of allelic variation, population structure and patterns of selective sweeps during modern wheat breeding, we tested 687 wheat accessions, including landraces (148) and cultivars (539) mainly from China and Pakistan in a wheat 90 K single nucleotide polymorphism array. Population structure analysis revealed that cultivars and landraces from China and Pakistan comprised three relatively independent genetic clusters. Cultivars displayed lower nucleotide diversity and a wider average LD decay across whole genome, indicating allelic erosion and a diversity bottleneck due to the modern breeding. Analysis of genetic differentiation between landraces and cultivars from China and Pakistan identified allelic variants subjected to selection during modern breeding. In total, 477 unique genome regions showed signatures of selection, where 109 were identified in both China and Pakistan germplasm. The majority of genomic regions were located in the B genome (225), followed by the A genome (175), and only 77 regions were located in the D genome. EigenGWAS was further used to identify key selection loci in modern wheat cultivars from China and Pakistan by comparing with global winter wheat and spring wheat diversity panels, respectively. A few known functional genes or loci found within these genome regions corresponded to known phenotypes for disease resistance, vernalization, quality, adaptability and yield-related traits. This study uncovered molecular footprints of modern wheat breeding and explained the genetic basis of polygenic adaptation in wheat. The results will be useful for understanding targets of modern wheat breeding, and in devising future breeding strategies to target beneficial alleles currently not pursued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03367-4DOI Listing
September 2019

A fungal transcription factor gene is expressed in plants from its own promoter and improves drought tolerance.

Planta 2015 Jul 26;242(1):39-52. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-CSIC, Camino de Vera, 46022, Valencia, Spain.

Main Conclusion: A fungal gene encoding a transcription factor is expressed from its own promoter in Arabidopsis phloem and improves drought tolerance by reducing transpiration and increasing osmotic potential. Horizontal gene transfer from unrelated organisms has occurred in the course of plant evolution, suggesting that some foreign genes may be useful to plants. The CtHSR1 gene, previously isolated from the halophytic yeast Candida tropicalis, encodes a heat-shock transcription factor-related protein. CtHSR1, with expression driven by its own promoter or by the Arabidopsis UBQ10 promoter, was introduced into the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and the resulting transgenic plants were more tolerant to drought than controls. Fusions of the CtHSR1 promoter with β-glucuronidase reporter gene indicated that this fungal promoter drives expression to phloem tissues. A chimera of CtHSR1 and green fluorescence protein is localized at the cell nucleus. The physiological mechanism of drought tolerance in transgenic plants is based on reduced transpiration (which correlates with decreased opening of stomata and increased levels of jasmonic acid) and increased osmotic potential (which correlates with increased proline accumulation). Transcriptomic analysis indicates that the CtHSR1 transgenic plants overexpressed a hundred of genes, including many relevant to stress defense such as LOX4 (involved in jasmonic acid synthesis) and P5CS1 (involved in proline biosynthesis). The promoters of the induced genes were enriched in upstream activating sequences for water stress induction. These results demonstrate that genes from unrelated organisms can have functional expression in plants from its own promoter and expand the possibilities of useful transgenes for plant biotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-015-2285-5DOI Listing
July 2015

Improved growth, drought tolerance, and ultrastructural evidence of increased turgidity in tobacco plants overexpressing Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1).

Mol Biotechnol 2013 Jun;54(2):379-92

National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

An increasing volume of evidence indicating the mechanisms of drought tolerance of AVP1-overexpressing transgenic plants has been reported. In the present study, we are reporting the experiments conducted for the drought tolerance of AVP1 overexpressing plants and WT tobacco plants in three water regimes named as "fully watered," "less-watered," and "desiccated". Results suggest that AVP1 plants exhibited greater vigor and drought tolerance in quantitative terms i.e., increase in size and weight of shoots and capsules. AVP1 plants produced more seeds than WT across all three water regimes. The less-watered regime was found to produce the greatest contrast. AVP1 overexpression enhanced solute accumulation in vacuoles resulting in an increase in water retention and turgor of the cell. The ultrastructure study of AVP1 overexpressing cells and WT leaf cells revealed that AVP1 plants displayed more turgid and hyperosmotic cells than WT. Moreover, guard cells in the AVP1 plants exhibited thick cell walls, few vacuoles, and deep and close stomata, whereas WT plants showed larger vacuoles and relatively open stomata aperture with no significant difference in size and number of the cells per unit area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-012-9577-9DOI Listing
June 2013

Enhanced expression of AtNHX1, in transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improves salt and drought tolerence.

Mol Biotechnol 2011 Nov;49(3):250-6

National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Salinity and drought are main threat to agriculture productivity, to avoid further losses it is necessary to improve the genetic material of crops against these stresses In this present study, AtNHX1, a vacuolar type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene driven by 35S promoter was introduced into groundnut using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system. The stable integration of the AtNHX1 gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blot analysis. It was found that transgenic plants having AtNHX1 gene are more resistant to high concentration of salt and water deprivation than the wild type plants. Salt and proline level in the leaves of the transgenic plants were also much higher than that of wild type plants. The results showed that overexpression of AtNHX1 gene not only improved salt tolerance but also drought tolerance in transgenic groundnut. Our results suggest that these plants could be cultivated in salt and drought-affected soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-011-9399-1DOI Listing
November 2011