Publications by authors named "Anju Kala"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early-Life Intervention of Lactoferrin and Probiotic in Suckling Piglets: Effects on Immunoglobulins, Intestinal Integrity, and Neonatal Mortality.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2022 Jul 6. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Livestock Production and Management Section, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 (UP), India.

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early-life bovine lactoferrin and host specific probiotic interventions on growth performance, mortality, and concentrations of immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G and transforming growth factor beta 1 (a marker of intestinal integrity) in serum of neonatal piglets. A total of eight piglet litters from parity matched sows were randomly divided into four groups and assigned to one of the four interventions: control (sterile normal saline), bovine lactoferrin (100 mg bovine lactoferrin), probiotic (1 × 10 colony forming unit (cfu) of swine origin Pediococcus acidilactici FT28 probiotic), and bovine lactoferrin + probiotic (100 mg bovine lactoferrin and 1 × 10 CFU of P. acidilactici FT28 probiotic). All the interventions were given once daily through oral route for first 7 days of life. The average daily gain (p = 0.0004) and weaning weight (p < 0.0001) were significantly improved in the probiotic group. The piglet survivability was significantly higher in bovine lactoferrin and probiotic groups than control group in Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. The concentrations of immunoglobulin A on day 21 in bovine lactoferrin, probiotic, and bovine lactoferrin + probiotic groups increased significantly (p < 0.05). Immunoglobulin G concentrations on day 7 and 15 in bovine lactoferrin and bovine lactoferrin + probiotic groups and on day 15 in probiotic group were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated, whereas, the concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 was significantly (p < 0.05) increased from day 7 to 21 in all the supplemented groups. In conclusion, the early-life bovine lactoferrin and P. acidilactici FT28 probiotic interventions reduced the mortality in the suckling piglets by promoting the systemic immunity and enhancing the intestinal integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-022-09964-yDOI Listing
July 2022

Host genetics associated with gut microbiota and methane emission in cattle.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Aug 1;49(8):8153-8161. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Animal Genetics Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, 243122, India.

In livestock sector, dairy animals alone produce 18% of the total greenhouse gas emissions globally as methane (CH). This Enteric methane is the largest component of total carbon footprints produced by livestock production system and its reduction is today's new challenge to make livestock farming sustainable for earth's environment. The production of enteric methane in ruminants is a complex phenomena involving different host factors like host genotype, rumen microbiome, host physiology along with dietary factors. Efforts have been made to reduce methane emissions largely through nutritional interventions and dietary supplements, but permanent reductions can be obtained through genetic means by selecting and breeding of low methane emitting animals. From genome-wide association studies, many important genomic QTL regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in shaping the composition of the ruminal microbiome and thus their carbon footprints have been recognised, implying that methane emission traits are quantitative traits. The major bottleneck in implementation of reduced methane emission traits in the breeding programs is wide variation at phenotypic level, lack of precise methane measurements at individual level. Overall, the heritability for CH production traits is moderate, and it can be used in breeding programmes to target changes in microbial composition to reduce CH emission in the dairy industry for far-reaching environmental benefits at the cost of a minor reduction in genetic gain in production traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07718-1DOI Listing
August 2022

Efficacy of Microencapsulated Probiotic as Adjunct Therapy on Resolution of Diarrhea, Copper-Zinc Homeostasis, Immunoglobulins, and Inflammatory Markers in Serum of Spontaneous Rotavirus-Infected Diarrhoetic Calves.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Livestock Production and Management Section, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 (UP), India.

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a microencapsulated probiotic as an adjunct therapy in rotavirus-positive diarrhea of neonatal calves that received supportive treatment or supportive along with microencapsulated probiotic treatment, for 5 days. We examined whether microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC15 probiotic treatment in rotavirus-infected diarrhoetic calves led to faster resolution of diarrhea, amelioration of zinc-copper imbalance, improved the immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G, and decreased the inflammatory markers in serum. Calves with rotavirus-positive diarrhea < 4-week age and fecal scores ≥ 2 were randomly assigned into two groups. The supportive along with microencapsulated probiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased zinc and immunoglobulin A concentrations and decreased copper, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide level in serum on days 3 and 5 from pretreatment values; the immunoglobulin G concentration was elevated (p < 0.05) on day 5. The mean resolution time of abnormal fecal score was 5.3 and 3.3 days in supportive treatment and supportive along with microencapsulated probiotic groups, respectively, in log-rank Mantel-Cox test. The calves in the supportive along with microencapsulated probiotic treatment group had faster resolution of diarrhea than supportive treatment group in Dunn's multiple comparisons test. This study demonstrates that supportive treatment along with microencapsulated probiotic administered to naturally rotavirus-infected diarrhoetic calves at onset of diarrhea led to faster resolution of diarrhea, improved zinc and immunoglobulin levels, and decreased the inflammatory parameters in serum of rotavirus-infected diarrhoetic calves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-021-09862-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Insights into Metatranscriptome, and CAZymes of Buffalo Rumen Supplemented with Blend of Essential Oils.

Indian J Microbiol 2020 Dec 6;60(4):485-493. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat India.

The aim of this study was to investigate the rumen microbial diversity and functionality in buffaloes fed with a blend of essential oils (BEO) using LSD switch over design. The BEO consisting of blend of (Ajwain) oil, (lemon grass) oil and (clove bud) oleoresin mixed in equal proportion, was fed at the rate of 0, 0.75 and 1.5 ml/100 kg of body weight in 0 (control), 0.75 and 1.5 groups, respectively. The metatranscriptomic libraries of the rumen microbiome were represented by 7 domains, 84 phyla, 64 archeal genera and 663 bacterial genera with Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes constituting 80% of phyla abundance irrespective of feeding regime. Methanogenic archaea was represented by 22 phyla with as the major genus. BEO feeding reduced the abundance of and ( < 0.05) at all levels. The results revealed that the feeding of BEO shifted the archeal and bacterial population at very low magnitude. The study explored the vast diversity of buffalo rumen bacteria and archaea, and the diverse wealth of rumen enzymes (CAZymes), which revealed that a major part of CAZymes comes from the less known rumen microbes indicating alternative paths of fiber degradation along with the very well known ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-020-00894-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539254PMC
December 2020

Expression and functional role of fibroblast growth factors (FGF) in placenta during different stages of pregnancy in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

Theriogenology 2020 Feb 29;143:98-112. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Physiology & Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, 243122, India. Electronic address:

The present study documented the expression and functional role of Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) family and their receptors (Fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFRs) in placenta (Cotyledon; COT, Caruncle; CAR) during different stages of pregnancy in water buffalo. Samples were collected from Early pregnancy 1 (EP1); Early pregnancy 2 (EP2); Mid pregnancy (MP) and Late pregnancy (LP) while diestrus stage of oestrus cycle (NP) was taken as control. In addition, modulatory role of FGF2 on mRNA expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF), Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and BCL2 Associated X (BAX) were studied in cultured trophoblast cells (TCC), obtained from EP2. Real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA and protein expressions, and the localization of examined factors whereas, P4 secretion was assessed by RIA. The mRNA and protein expression of FGFs and its receptors were maximum (P < 0.05) during EP (EP1 and EP2) in COT. However, FGFR1 and FGFR4 were upregulated (P < 0.05) during EP2 and MP in COT. Similarly, the mRNA and protein expression of FGFs and its receptors were upregulated (P < 0.05) during all stages of pregnancy in CAR. FGF family members were localized in the cytoplasm of trophoblast cells as well as in fetal blood vessels. At 100 ng/ml dosage, FGF2 stimulated the transcript of vWF maximally (P < 0.05). P4 secretion in trophoblast cells treated with FGF2 was maximum with the highest dose at 72 h. These findings corroborate that FGF acts locally in the trophoblast cells to modulate steroid hormone viz. progesterone synthesis, promote angiogenesis and favors cell survivability indicating that this factor may play an essential role in the regulation of placental formation and function in buffalo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.11.034DOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of levels of total digestible nutrients on microbiome, enzyme profile and degradation of feeds in buffalo rumen.

PLoS One 2017 16;12(2):e0172051. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Dept. of Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India.

The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively. After 20 d of feeding, rumen liquor and rumen contents were sampled just before (0h) and 4h post feeding. Ruminococcus flavefaciens and R. albus (estimated with real time PCR) were higher in high roughage diets. The predominant phyla in all the three groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fibrobacteres. A core group of more than fifty rumen bacteria was present in all the animals with very little variations due to level of TDN. The most predominant bacterial genera reported in order of decreasing abundance were: Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Butyrivibrio etc. The higher diversity of the enyzmes families GH 23, GH 28, GH 39, GH 97, GH 106, and GH 127 (the enzymes active in fibre and starch degradation) were significantly higher on 100%TDN diet while CE 14 (required for the hydrolysis of bond between carbohydrate and lignin) was higher on low TDN (70%) diet, indicating ester bond cleavage was better in animals fed high roughage (wheat straw) diet.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172051PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5313230PMC
August 2017
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