Publications by authors named "Anjani Muthyala"

6 Publications

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Improving the utility of high-resolution manometry for the diagnosis of defecatory disorders in women with chronic constipation.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 10 1;32(10):e13910. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: We compared the utility of existing and modified versions of high-resolution manometry for diagnosing defecatory disorders (DD).

Methods: In 64 healthy and 136 constipated women, we compared left lateral (LL) and seated manometry, and analyzed with existing (ManoView™) and new methods, for discriminating between constipated patients with normal and prolonged rectal balloon expulsion time (BET). In both positions, the rectoanal gradient (RAG) and, for the new analysis, the pressure topography pattern during evacuation were used to discriminate between constipated patients without and with DD.

Key Results: The BET was prolonged, suggestive of a DD, in 52 patients (38%). During evacuation, rectoanal pressures and the RAG were greater in the seated than the LL position (P≤.001). The new analysis identified 4 rectoanal pressure patterns. In the seated position, the BET was associated with the pattern (P=.0001), being prolonged in, respectively, 45%, 15%, 53%, and 0% of patients with minimal change, anal relaxation, paradoxical contraction, and transmission. Within each pattern, the RAG was greater (ie, less negative, P<.0001) in patients with a normal than a prolonged BET. Compared to the ManoView™ RAG in the LL position, the integrated analysis (ie, pattern and new RAG) in the LL position (P<.01) and the seated ManoView™ gradient (P=.02) were more effective for discriminating between constipated patients without and with DD.

Conclusions & Inferences: Anorectal HRM ideally should be performed in the more physiological seated position and analyzed by a two-tier approach, which incorporates the overall pattern followed by the rectoanal gradient. These findings reinforce the utility of manometry for diagnosing DD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529936PMC
October 2020

Clinical features and disturbances of gastrointestinal transit in patients with rapid gastric emptying.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 04 20;32(4):e13779. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Aims: Some patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms have rapid gastric emptying (GE). We aimed to compare patients with normal and rapid GE and to identify phenotypes among patients with rapid GE.

Methods: Among 2798 patients who underwent GE scintigraphy, we compared patients with normal and rapid GE and separately, patients with rapid GE at 1 hour (GE1), 2 hours (GE2), or both (GE12).

Results: In 2798 patients, GE was normal (74%), delayed (18%), or rapid (8%). Among 211 patients with rapid GE, patterns were rapid GE1 (48%), 2 hours (17%), or 1 and 2 hours (35%); 42 (20%) had diseases that explain rapid GE. A combination of upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms (54%) was more common that isolated upper (17%) or lower (28%) gastrointestinal symptoms (P < .001). Constipation was more prevalent in patients with rapid GE 2 (72%) than rapid GE 1 (47%) or rapid GE12 hours (67%) (P < .05). Among 179 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, 15% had rapid GE, which was not associated with the DM phenotype. By multivariable analysis, insulin therapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.88), and weight loss (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.78) were associated with a lower risk of rapid than normal GE in DM.

Conclusions: Eight percent of patients undergoing scintigraphy had rapid GE, which is most frequently associated with upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms; constipation is common. Insulin therapy and weight loss were associated with a lower risk of rapid than normal GE in DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085445PMC
April 2020

Effects of psychosensory stimulation on anal pressures: Effects of alfuzosin.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 07 29;31(7):e13618. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Our aim is to explain the lack of clarity in the ways in which anxiety and depression, which are common in defecatory disorders (DD), may contribute to the disorder. In this study, we evaluate the effects of mental stress and relaxation on anal pressures and the mechanisms thereof.

Methods: In 38 healthy women and 36 DD patients, rectoanal pressures were assessed at rest and during mental stressors (ie, word-color conflict [Stroop] and mental arithmetic tests) and mental relaxation, before and after randomization to placebo or the adrenergic α -antagonist alfuzosin.

Key Results: During the baseline Stroop test, the anal pressure increased by 6 ± 13 mm Hg (mean ± SD, P = 0.004) in healthy women and 9 ± 10 mm Hg (P = 0.0001) in constipated women. During mental arithmetic, the anal pressure increased in healthy (4 ± 8 mm Hg, P = 0.002) and constipated women (5 ± 9 mm Hg, P = 0.004). After relaxation, anal pressure declined (P = 0.0004) by 3 ± 4 mm Hg in DD patients but not in controls. Alfuzosin reduced (P = 0.0001) anal resting pressure (by 31 ± 19 mm Hg) vs placebo (16 ± 18 mm Hg). However, during the postdrug Stroop test, anal pressure increased (P = 0.0001) in participants who received alfuzosin but not placebo.

Conclusions & Inferences: In healthy controls and DD patients, mental stressors likely increased anal pressure by contracting the internal anal sphincter; relaxation reduced anal pressure in DD patients. Alfuzosin reduced anal resting pressure but did not block the Stroop-mediated contractile response, which suggests that this response is not entirely mediated by adrenergic α receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559834PMC
July 2019

Anorectal pressures measured with high-resolution manometry in healthy people-Normal values and asymptomatic pelvic floor dysfunction.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 07 8;31(7):e13597. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: High-resolution manometry (HRM) is used to measure rectoanal pressures in defecatory disorders and fecal incontinence. This study sought to define normal values for rectoanal HRM, ascertain the effects of age and BMI on rectoanal pressures, and compare pressures in asymptomatic women with normal and prolonged balloon expulsion time (BET).

Methods: High-resolution manometry pressures and BET were measured in 163 asymptomatic healthy participants. Women (96) and men (47) with normal BET were used to estimate normal values and the effects of age/BMI on pressures using a Medtronic 4.2-mm-diameter rectoanal catheter.

Key Results: Age is associated with lower resting pressure, higher rectal pressure during evacuation, and a higher rectoanal gradient during evacuation in women and men. In women, the BET is also inversely correlated with age while the BMI is correlated with a higher threshold volume for discomfort and a longer BET. The anal squeeze pressure increment, squeeze duration, and HPZ length are higher in men than women. The rectoanal gradient during evacuation is also lower (ie, more negative) in asymptomatic women with an abnormal than a normal BET.

Conclusions & Inferences: These findings provide an expanded database of normal values for anorectal HRM in men and women. Age and sex affect anal resting and squeeze pressures, respectively; rectal pressure during evacuation is also higher in older people. Less than 15% of asymptomatic people have BET >60 seconds, which is associated with manometry features of impaired evacuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559859PMC
July 2019

Intrinsic Mode Function Complexity Index Using Empirical Mode Decomposition discriminates Normal Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation on a Single Lead ECG.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:5990-5993

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting approximately 3 million Americans, and is a prognostic marker for stroke, heart failure and even death. Current techniques to discriminate normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and AF from single lead ECG suffer several limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity using short time ECG data which distorts ECG and many are not suitable for real-time implementation. The purpose of this research was to test the feasibility of discriminating single lead ECG's with normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and AF using intrinsic mode function (IMF) complexity index. 15 sets of ECG's with NSR and AF were obtained from Physionet database. Custom MATLAB® software was written to compute IMF index for each of the data set and compared for statistical significance. The mean IMF index for NSR across 15 data sets was 0.37 ± 0.08, and the mean IMF index for ECG with AF was 0.21 ± 0.07 showing robust discrimination with statistical significance (p<0.01). IMF complexity robustly discriminates single lead ECG with normal sinus rhythm and AF. Further validation of this result is required on a larger dataset. The results also motivate the use of this technique for analysis of other complex cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513546DOI Listing
July 2018

Effects of Alfuzosin, an α-Adrenergic Antagonist, on Anal Pressures and Bowel Habits in Women With and Without Defecatory Disorders.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 05 18;17(6):1138-1147.e3. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Some patients with defecatory disorders (DD) have high anal pressures that may impede rectal evacuation. Alpha-1 adrenoreceptors mediate as much as 50% of anal resting pressure in humans. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of alfuzosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on anal pressures alone in healthy women and also on bowel symptoms in women with DD.

Methods: In a double-blind study performed from March 2013 through March 2017, anal pressures were evaluated before and after 36 women with DD (constipation for at least 1 year) and 36 healthy women (controls) were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given oral alfuzosin (2.5 mg immediate release) or placebo. Thereafter, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given oral alfuzosin (10 mg extended release) or placebo each day for 2 weeks. Participants kept daily diaries of bowel symptoms for 2 weeks before (baseline) and during administration of the test articles (treatment). Weekly questionnaires recorded the overall severity of constipation symptoms, bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting; overall satisfaction with treatment of constipation was evaluated at weeks 2 and 4. The primary endpoint was the change in the number of spontaneous (SBMs) and complete SBMs (CSBMs) between the treatment and baseline periods. We evaluated relationships between stool form, passage, and complete evacuation.

Results: Alfuzosin reduced anal resting pressure by 32 ± 3 mm Hg versus 16 ± 3 mm Hg for placebo (P = .0001) and anal pressure during evacuation by 26 ± 3 mm Hg versus 16 ± 3 mm Hg for placebo, (P = .03). However, alfuzosin did not significantly increase the rectoanal gradient, SBMs or CSBMs compared with placebo. Both formulations of alfuzosin were well tolerated. Hard stools and the ease of passage during defecation accounted for 72% and 76% of the variance in the satisfaction after defecation, respectively, during baseline and treatment periods.

Conclusions: In a randomized trial, alfuzosin reduced anal pressure at rest and during simulated evacuation in healthy and constipated women, compared with placebo, but did not improve bowel symptoms in constipated women. This could be because the drug does not improve stool form or dyssynergia, which also contribute to DD. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 01834729.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.08.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379158PMC
May 2019