Publications by authors named "Anjali Sharma"

235 Publications

A rapid and non-destructive ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method supported by chemometrics for discriminating between facial creams and the classification into herbal and non-herbal brands.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 17;258:119803. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Institute of Forensic Science & Criminology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Facial creams are considered to be essential beauty items and are used by both females and males on an everyday basis. These can be encountered as an evidentiary material in criminal investigations, particularly in cases related to sexual and physical assaults against women. These are found in trace amounts and therefore their analysis is difficult and also, it must be through non-destructive methods. In the present work ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was employed for the discrimination of 57 samples of face creams out of which 31 were non-herbal and 26 were from herbal category. Visual analysis of the obtained Spectra was done for discrimination purposes but the method was prone to human error and laborious too. The spectroscopic results were analyzed with PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS-DA (Partial least square discriminant analysis) methods. A segregation of samples was seen in the PCA plots to some extent. The class separation and prediction of the samples was performed using PLS-DA method. A good classification was achieved between herbal and non-herbal samples using PLS-DA method. Further, validation of the model was also performed by testing 10 unknown samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119803DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary intake is associated with neuropsychological impairment in women with HIV.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine, Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Diet is a modifiable risk factor that may influence cognition in people with HIV.

Objectives: We examined the association between dietary intake and cognition in women with HIV (WWH) and HIV-seronegative women.

Methods: An 18-item dietary National Cancer Institute screener was completed by 729 WWH and 346 HIV-seronegative Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Daily intake frequencies of processed meats, sweet beverages, fish, whole milk, and vegetables were calculated. Participants completed biennial neuropsychological (NP) testing. NP domains included attention/working memory, executive function, processing speed, memory, learning, fluency, and motor function. NP impairment was defined as demographically adjusted T-scores (mean = 50; SD = 10) ≤40 at ≥1 visit after completing the dietary screener. Multivariable logistic regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, examined associations between intake frequency tertile (referent = lowest intake) and NP performance.

Results: Dietary intake frequencies of individual food line items were similar between WWH and HIV-seronegative women, except for sweet beverages, for which HIV-seronegative women reported higher intake frequencies than WWH (P values < 0.05). In WWH, multivariable-adjusted models indicated higher odds of NP impairment with higher intake frequencies of processed meat [P = 0.006; ORupper tertile = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.23-2.95; P = 0.003); ORmiddle tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.01)], sweet beverages [P = 0.02; ORupper tertile = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64; P = 0.007)], fish [P = 0.01; ORupper tertile = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.10-2.64; P = 0.02)], and whole milk [P = 0.029; ORupper tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.008)]. Lower odds of NP impairment [P = 0.005; ORupper tertile = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45-0.95; P = 0.02); ORmiddle tertile = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.24-0.73; P = 0.002)] were associated with higher vegetable intakes. In HIV-seronegative women, multivariable-adjusted models did not show associations between food line items/diet quality score and NP outcomes.

Conclusions: Intakes of processed meat, sweet beverages, whole milk, fish, and vegetables may be associated with NP functions among WWH. Associations among WWH are not directly comparable to those among HIV-seronegative women, because models were conducted on each group separately given controls for HIV-specific covariates in WWH. Further studies are needed using more rigorous dietary assessment methods and lengthier longitudinal follow-ups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab038DOI Listing
April 2021

Engagement of ethics and regulatory authorities on human infection studies: Proceedings of an engagement workshop in Zambia.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 12;6:31. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Research Department, The centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, 10101, Zambia.

Human infection studies (HIS) have generally been used as a tool in the pathway for vaccine development in high income settings. Over the last decade, this model has been implemented in LMICs with the aim of accelerating development of next generation vaccines that would perform better in these settings. However, in most LMICs, the ethics and regulatory framework for the conduct of these studies are not in place. In Zambia, these studies are yet to be conducted and thus we conducted a stakeholder engagement workshop in October 2019. We engaged with bioethicists, regulatory authority, and scientists from within Zambia and other African countries to anticipate and address foreseeable ethical and regulatory issues when conducting HIS in Zambia for the first time. The workshop largely focused on sensitizing the stakeholders on the benefits of these studies with the following main points for consideration on the implementation of these studies in Zambia: need for in-country legal framework and guidelines; need for adequate informed consent based on comprehensive understanding of the concept of HIS and study requirements; and requirements for heightened vigilance to assure participant safety including good ethical and clinical practice with regulatory, ethical, data safety, and community oversight. Additionally, the workshop emphasized the need for rigorous health screening prior to enrolment; suitable infrastructure for containment; and personnel to provide appropriate treatment including emergency resuscitation and evacuation if indicated. Specific recommendations included compensation for burden of participation; access to care and provision for study related injury (e.g. no-fault insurance); and withdrawal and exit procedures to preserve individual and community safety. Finally, the meeting concluded that researchers should actively engage key gate keepers including civic leaders such as parliamentarians, universities, researchers, potential participants and laypersons to avoid circulation of misinformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16432.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993625PMC
February 2021

Identification and probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from camel milk.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 24;28(3):1622-1632. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Microbial Biotechnology, Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India.

In the present study, a total of 80 presumed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk. Selected LAB were identified as (cam 12), (cam 14) and (cam 15) and their potential were tested by tolerance & de-conjugation of bile salts, antimicrobial activity, surface hydrophobicity and adhesion potential) along with this of probiotics were evaluated for curd formation and assessed for sensory properties and syneresis. Selected LABs showed antimicrobial activity against wide range of pathogenic bacteria ( and . LAB (cam 12, cam 14 and cam15) were highly sceptible to chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and tetracyclin. In vitro adhesion studies with Caco-2 cells demonstrated strong adhesion activity with hydrophobicity (99%) was observed. Acute oral toxicity of . and . showed non-toxic, non-virulent and safe for industrial application. The study provides potential LAB which may act as a substitute of functional food, synthetic feed and industrial curd formulation with in the shortest span (240 min at 28-32 °C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938203PMC
March 2021

Effect of vitamin D and calcium carbonate supplementation on muscle strength in postmenopausal women living with HIV.

Antivir Ther 2020 ;25(8):411-418

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Both falls and fractures are increased in older persons living with HIV (PLWH). Low serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels have been associated with falls, fractures and poor muscle strength. We hypothesized that vitamin D (VitD) supplementation would improve muscle strength in postmenopausal PLWH.

Methods: In a 12-month prospective, randomized, double-blind, study of 69 African American and Hispanic postmenopausal PLWH on antiretroviral therapy with 25-OHD ≥10 ng/ml and ≤32 ng/ml, we investigated the effects of daily low (1,000 IU; n=31) and moderate (3,000 IU; n=38) cholecalciferol doses on lean mass and strength. Change in lean body mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in the dominant lower extremity was assessed using the Biodex System 4 Pro.

Results: Mean age was 56 ±5 years, median CD4 T-cell count 722 cells/mm and 74% had HIV RNA≤50 copies/ml. Serum 25-OHD did not differ at baseline, but was higher in the moderate than low VitD group at 6 and 12 months. In both groups, there were significant increases in lower extremity isokinetic torque, work and power at 12 months, with no change in lean mass.

Conclusions: VitD supplementation was associated with a modest increase in lower extremity strength in postmenopausal PLWH, without a concomitant increase in muscle mass. Magnitude of increase in strength were similar with 3,000 IU and 1,000 IU daily. Future larger studies will be required to determine the optimal dose of VitD to improve muscle strength and to determine whether supplementation reduces the risk of falls and fractures in PLWH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3386DOI Listing
January 2020

NO₂ Gas Sensor Based on SnSe/SnSe₂ Hetrojunction.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Sep;21(9):4779-4785

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Air pollution is a big concern as it causes harm to human health as well as environment. NO₂ can cause several respiratory diseases even in low concentration and therefore an efficient sensor for detecting NO₂ at room temperature has become one of the priorities of the scientific community. Although two dimensional (2D) materials (MoS₂ etc.) have shown potential for NO₂ sensing at lower temperatures, but these have poor desorption kinetics. However, these limitations posed by slow desorption can be overcome, if a material in the form of a junction can be suitably employed. In this work, ~150 nm thick SnSe₂ thin film has been deposited by thermally evaporating in-house made SnSe₂ powder. The film has been studied for its morphological, structural and gas sensing applications. The morphology of the film showed that the film consists of interconnected nanostructures. Detailed Raman studies further revealed that SnSe₂ film had 31% SnSe. The SnSe-SnSe₂ nanostructured sensor showed a response of ~112% towards 5 ppm NO₂ at room temperature (30 °C). The response and recovery times were ~15 seconds and 10 seconds, respectively. Limit of detection for NO₂ was in sub-parts per million (sub-ppm) range. The device demonstrated a better response towards NO₂ compared to NH₃, CH₄, and H₂. The mechanism of room temperature fast response, recovery and selective detection of NO₂ independent of humidity conditions has been discussed based on physisorption, charge transfer, and formation of SnSe-SnSe₂ nano-junctions. Depositing a nanostructured film consisting of nano-junctions using an industrially viable thermal evaporation technique for sensing a very low concentration of NO₂ is the novelty of this work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19278DOI Listing
September 2021

Low-grade Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasm: a Tumor in Disguise of Appendicitis.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms are a rare malignancy, but it is an important diagnostic entity. Ultrasonography and CT scan represent useful method for diagnosis; however, diagnosis is often incidental or intraoperative finding at resection for suspicion of appendicitis. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is commonly misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis, adnexal mass, or retroperitoneal tumors. Our case represents the importance of developing a high index of suspicion of appendiceal malignancy and mucocele rupture in patients who are planned for appendectomy. There is risk of second malignancy mostly of ovary, breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract simultaneously in about 30% of patients of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. Low-grade mucinous neoplasm has excellent prognosis after standard appendectomy. Advanced stage low-grade mucinous neoplasm involving periappendiceal area or with nodal metastasis is treated by appendectomy with right hemicolectomy and lymph node dissection. We report a case of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm in a 65-year-old female with past history of surgery for benign bilateral adnexal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12029-021-00593-2DOI Listing
February 2021

High Frequency of Recurrent Falls among Pre-frail and Frail Women with and without HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Statistics and Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA. School of Health Sciences and Practice, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA. Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY, USA. Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Cook County Health and Hospitals System/Hektoen Institute of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; School of Nursing, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; University of Miami Health System, Miami, FL, USA; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Emory School of Nursing, Atlanta, GA, USA; Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Frailty may occur at younger ages among HIV+ populations. We evaluated associations of frailty status with self-reported single and recurrent falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

Methods: Frailty status was defined using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) among 897 HIV+ and 392 HIV- women; median age 53 years. Women were classified as robust (FFP 0), prefrail (FFP 1-2) and frail (FFP 3-5). Stepwise logistic regression models adjusting for HIV status and study site were fit to evaluate associations of FFP with self-reported single (1 vs. 0) and recurrent falls (≥2 vs. 0) over the prior 12 months.

Results: HIV+ women were less likely to be frail (9% vs.14% vs. p=0.009), but frequency of falls did not differ by HIV status. In multivariate analyses, recurrent falls were more common among prefrail [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.23, 95%CI: 1.40 - 3.57, p=0.0008] and frail (AOR 3.61, 95%CI: 1.90 - 6.89, p<0.0001) than robust women. Among HIV+ women, single (AOR 2.88, 95%CI: 1.16-7.20, p=0.023) and recurrent falls (AOR 3.50, 95%CI: 1.24-9.88, p= 0.018) were more common among those who were frail; recurrent, but not single falls, were more common among prefrail than robust HIV+ women (AOR 2.00, 95%CI: 1.03- 3.91, p= 0.042).

Conclusions: HIV+ women were less likely to be frail. Compared to robust women, prefrail and frail women with and without HIV were more likely to experience single or recurrent falls within a 12-month period. Additional studies are needed to develop interventions that decrease development of frailty and reduce risk of recurrent falls among HIV+ women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002651DOI Listing
February 2021

Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya-A Review.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India.

Ethnomedicinal plants have a significant role in the lives of people of rural and tribal areas. Thousands of medicinal plant species are used to treat various diseases, including jaundice, and are considered an important therapeutic resource to minimize these diseases. Jaundice (icterus) is a chronic disease that occurs when the amount of bilirubin in the blood increases. This review describes different ethnomedicinal plants used for curing jaundice by tribal and rural people of Himachal Pradesh. The study reveals 87 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 51 different families, which are used for treating jaundice in Himachal Pradesh. These plants are arranged in a systematic way, which includes a description of their common name, botanical name, along with its family, plant parts used, region, and mode of use in tabulated form. Some of the plant extracts have already been explored for their phytochemical and pharmacological significance and proved their potential in the preparation of new medicines or drugs against the treatment of jaundice. This review is an attempt to highlight the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants, which are specifically used for the treatment of jaundice. The data mentioned in the present review is compiled from various sources like existing literature, books, Google Scholar, and Scopus publications. Among all the observed plant species, most used medicinal plants for the treatment of jaundice include , , , , , , and Plants that are mostly utilized for the treatment of jaundice need to be scientifically validated by pharmacological analysis and should be subsequently used for the preparation of new drugs, which may prove far more beneficial than the existing one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910824PMC
January 2021

Dendrimer-tesaglitazar conjugate induces a phenotype shift of microglia and enhances β-amyloid phagocytosis.

Nanoscale 2021 Jan;13(2):939-952

Center for Nanomedicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA. and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA and Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Inc., Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Switching microglia from a disease exacerbating, 'pro-inflammatory' state into a neuroprotective, 'anti-inflammatory' phenotype is a promising strategy for addressing multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory microglia contribute to disease progression by releasing neurotoxic substances and accelerating pathogenic protein accumulation. PPARα and PPARγ agonists have both been shown to shift microglia from a pro-inflammatory ('M1-like') to an alternatively activated ('M2-like') phenotype. Such strategies have been explored in clinical trials for neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but have likely failed due to their poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Hydroxyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers (without the attachment of any targeting ligands) have been shown to cross the impaired BBB at the site of neuroinflammation and accumulate in activated microglia. Therefore, dendrimer conjugation of a PPARα/γ dual agonist may enable targeted phenotype switching of activated microglia. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a novel dendrimer-PPARα/γ dual agonist conjugate (D-tesaglitazar). In vitro, D-tesaglitazar induces an 'M1 to M2' phenotype shift, decreases secretion of reactive oxygen species, increases expression of genes for phagocytosis and enzymatic degradation of pathogenic proteins (e.g. β-amyloid, α-synuclein), and increases β-amyloid phagocytosis. These results support further development of D-tesaglitazar towards translation for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr05958gDOI Listing
January 2021

Menopausal status and observed differences in the gut microbiome in women with and without HIV infection.

Menopause 2021 01 11;28(5):491-501. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Objective: Gut microbiota respond to host physiological phenomena, yet little is known regarding shifts in the gut microbiome due to menopausal hormonal and metabolic changes in women. HIV infection impacts menopause and may also cause gut dysbiosis. We therefore sought to determine the association between menopausal status and gut microbiome composition in women with and without HIV.

Methods: Gut microbiome composition was assessed in stool from 432 women (99 premenopausal HIV+, 71 premenopausal HIV-, 182 postmenopausal HIV+, 80 postmenopausal HIV-) via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We examined cross-sectional associations of menopause with gut microbiota overall diversity and composition, and taxon and inferred metagenomic pathway abundance. Models were stratified by HIV serostatus and adjusted for age, HIV-related variables, and other potential confounders.

Results: Menopause, ie post- versus premenopausal status, was associated with overall microbial composition only in women with HIV (permutational MANOVA of Jensen Shannon Divergence: P = 0.01). In women with HIV, menopause was associated with enrichment of gram-negative order Enterobacteriales, depletion of highly abundant taxa within Prevotella copri, and alterations in other low-abundance taxa. Additionally, menopause in women with HIV was associated with enrichment of metagenomic pathways related to Enterobacteriales, including degradation of amino acids and phenolic compounds, biosynthesis of enterobactin, and energy metabolism pathways. Menopause-related differences in some low-abundance taxa were also observed in women without HIV.

Conclusions: A changing gut microbiome may be an overlooked phenomenon of reproductive aging in women with HIV. Longitudinal assessments across all reproductive stages are necessary to confirm these findings and identify health implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068580PMC
January 2021

Plasma Lipidomic Profiles and Risk of Diabetes: 2 Prospective Cohorts of HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar;106(4):999-1010

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Objectives: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with disrupted lipid and glucose metabolism in people with HIV infection. We aimed to identify plasma lipid species associated with risk of diabetes in the context of HIV infection.

Research Design And Methods: We profiled 211 plasma lipid species in 491 HIV-infected and 203 HIV-uninfected participants aged 35 to 55 years from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine associations between baseline lipid species and incident diabetes (166 diabetes cases were identified during a median follow-up of 12.6 years).

Results: We identified 11 lipid species, representing independent signals for 8 lipid classes/subclasses, associated with risk of diabetes (P < 0.05 after FDR correction). After adjustment for multiple covariates, cholesteryl ester (CE) (22:4), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (18:2), phosphatidylcholine (PC) (36:4), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (34:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (38:2) were associated with decreased risk of diabetes (HRs = 0.70 to 0.82 per SD increment), while diacylglycerol (32:0), LPC (14:0), PC (38:3), PE (36:1), and triacylglycerol (50:1) were associated with increased risk of diabetes (HRs = 1.26 to 1.56 per SD increment). HIV serostatus did not modify any lipid-diabetes associations; however, most of these lipid species were positively associated with HIV and/or ART use, including 3 diabetes-decreased ( CE [22:4], LPC [18:2], PE [38:2]) and all 5 diabetes-increased lipid species.

Conclusions: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with incident diabetes. Regardless of the directions of their associations with diabetes, most diabetes-associated lipid species were elevated in ART-treated people with HIV infection. This suggests a complex role of lipids in the link between ART and diabetes in HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993589PMC
March 2021

Selfie consents, remote rapport, and Zoom debriefings: collecting qualitative data amid a pandemic in four resource-constrained settings.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 01;6(1)

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Ruprechts-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

In-person interactions have traditionally been the gold standard for qualitative data collection. The COVID-19 pandemic required researchers to consider if remote data collection can meet research objectives, while retaining the same level of data quality and participant protections. We use four case studies from the Philippines, Zambia, India and Uganda to assess the challenges and opportunities of remote data collection during COVID-19. We present lessons learned that may inform practice in similar settings, as well as reflections for the field of qualitative inquiry in the post-COVID-19 era. Key challenges and strategies to overcome them included the need for adapted researcher training in the use of technologies and consent procedures, preparation for abbreviated interviews due to connectivity concerns, and the adoption of regular researcher debriefings. Participant outreach to allay suspicions ranged from communicating study information through multiple channels to highlighting associations with local institutions to boost credibility. Interviews were largely successful, and contained a meaningful level of depth, nuance and conviction that allowed teams to meet study objectives. Rapport still benefitted from conventional interviewer skills, including attentiveness and fluency with interview guides. While differently abled populations may encounter different barriers, the included case studies, which varied in geography and aims, all experienced more rapid recruitment and robust enrollment. Reduced in-person travel lowered interview costs and increased participation among groups who may not have otherwise attended. In our view, remote data collection is not a replacement for in-person endeavours, but a highly beneficial complement. It may increase accessibility and equity in participant contributions and lower costs, while maintaining rich data collection in multiple study target populations and settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798410PMC
January 2021

Change in Circulating Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin (ucOCN) Is Associated With Fat Accumulation in HIV-Seropositive Women.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 04;86(5):e139-e145

Department of Cell and Molecular Medicine; and.

Background: Bone mineral density loss and fat accumulation are common in people living with HIV. The bone-derived hormone, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOCN) regulates fat metabolism. We investigated the relationship between ucOCN change and body fat change among perimenopausal/postmenopausal HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive women on long-term antiretrovirals.

Methods: Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study MSK substudy underwent trunk and total fat assessment by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at study enrollment (index visit) and again 2 years later. Circulating ucOCN and cOCN were also measured at the index and 2-year visits. The correlation between the 2-year change in ucOCN and cOCN and change in trunk and total fat was assessed as a function of HIV serostatus using linear regression modeling. Multivariate linear regression assessed the association between ucOCN and cOCN change and total and trunk fat change after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Linear regression models restricted to HIV-seropositive women were performed to examine the contributions of HIV-specific factors (index CD4 count, viral load, and combined antiretroviral therapy use) on the associations.

Results: Increased ucOCN over the 2-year follow-up was associated with less trunk and total fat accumulation in models adjusting for HIV serostatus and participants sociodemographics, whereas there was no association with cOCN and the fat parameters. None of the HIV-specific factors evaluated influenced the association between ucOCN and fat parameters.

Conclusion: The current study suggests that increases in ucOCN are associated with decreased fat accumulation in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive postmenopausal women on long-term antiretroviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933097PMC
April 2021

Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor Start or Switch Impacts Learning in Women With HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 04;86(5):593-599

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are first-line regimens for HIV treatment. We aimed to examine their impact on cognitive performance and depressive symptoms in women with HIV (WWH).

Setting: Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite, prospective, cohort study.

Methods: WWH who started or switched to INSTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and completed neuropsychological testing and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale before and after INSTI start/switch were included in the analyses. Primary outcomes were demographically corrected cognitive domain T-scores. Linear mixed-effects models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to examine effects of start/switch of any INSTI and individual INSTI drugs on cognition and CES-D scores.

Results: Six hundred thirty-nine WWH, median age 49 (interquartile range 12) years, 66% Black non-Hispanic, had neuropsychological and CES-D scale data before and after INSTI start/switch. Although 14% started INSTI-based ART, the remainder switched to INSTI-based ART from another regimen. Overall, any INSTI use was associated with poorer learning post-INSTI. Specifically, use of dolutegravir and elvitegravir, but not raltegravir, was associated with poorer learning. In analyses restricted to INSTI switch, any INSTI use, and dolutegravir use, was associated with poorer learning. Among those switching from a PI-based regimen, INSTIs overall and dolutegravir remained associated with poorer learning; switching from a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor to dolutegravir was also associated with poorer learning. INSTI start/switch was not related to depressive symptom changes.

Conclusions: INSTI use was associated with poorer learning among WWH. These changes were mainly observed in elvitegravir and dolutegravir users, indicating that the impact of INSTI on cognition in WWH may not be a class effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002608DOI Listing
April 2021

Photo-Isomerization Kinetics of Azobenzene Containing Surfactant Conjugated with Polyelectrolyte.

Molecules 2020 Dec 22;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

Ionic complexation of azobenzene-containing surfactants with any type of oppositely charged soft objects allows for making them photo-responsive in terms of their size, shape and surface energy. Investigation of the photo-isomerization kinetic and isomer composition at a photo-stationary state of the photo-sensitive surfactant conjugated with charged objects is a necessary prerequisite for understanding the structural response of photo-sensitive complexes. Here, we report on photo-isomerization kinetics of a photo-sensitive surfactant in the presence of poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt). We show that the photo-isomerization of the azobenzene-containing cationic surfactant is slower in a polymer complex compared to being purely dissolved in aqueous solution. In a photo-stationary state, the ratio between the and isomers is shifted to a higher -isomer concentration for all irradiation wavelengths. This is explained by the formation of surfactant aggregates near the polyelectrolyte chains at concentrations much lower than the bulk critical micelle concentration and inhibition of the photo-isomerization kinetics due to steric hindrance within the densely packed aggregates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793112PMC
December 2020

NMDA Receptor Antagonism for Neuroprotection in a Canine Model of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 18;260:177-189. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background: Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is associated with neurologic morbidity, in part mediated by activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor causing excitotoxicity and neuronal apoptosis. Using a canine model, we hypothesized that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 would provide neuroprotection and that MK801 conjugation to dendrimer nanoparticles would improve efficacy.

Materials And Methods: Male hound dogs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, cooled to 18°C, and underwent 90 min of HCA. Dendrimer conjugates (d-MK801) were prepared by covalently linking dendrimer surface OH groups to MK801. Six experimental groups received either saline (control), medium- (0.15 mg/kg) or high-dose (1.56 mg/kg) MK801, or low- (0.05 mg/kg), medium-, or high-dose d-MK801. At 24, 48, and 72 h after HCA, animals were scored by a standardized neurobehavioral paradigm (higher scores indicate increasing deficits). Cerebrospinal fluid was obtained at baseline, eight, 24, 48, and 72 h after HCA. At 72 h, brains were examined for histopathologic injury in a blinded manner (higher scores indicate more injury).

Results: Neurobehavioral deficit scores were reduced by low-dose d-MK801 on postoperative day two (P < 0.05) and by medium-dose d-MK801 on postoperative day 3 (P = 0.05) compared with saline controls, but free drug had no effect. In contrast, high-dose free MK801 significantly improved histopathology scores compared with saline (P < 0.05) and altered biomarkers of injury in cerebrospinal fluid, with a significant reduction in phosphorylated neurofilament-H for high-dose MK801 versus saline (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Treatment with MK-801 demonstrated significant improvement in neurobehavioral and histopathology scores after HCA, although not consistently across doses and conjugates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.11.075DOI Listing
April 2021

Autophagic Dysfunction in Dementia: Scope for Development of Potential Remedies.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 Dec 8. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, P.O.BOX 1982, Dammam, 31441. Saudi Arabia.

Dementia is a diverse category of a chronic and progressive disorder, which is commonly associated with loss of memory, difficulty in judgment, impaired language, cognitive impairment, and various other symptoms that affects a person's daily routine life and social life. Dementia affects about 50 million people around the globe. Dementia exists in varied forms and is associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease dementia is the most common form which accords for about 60% cases. Abnormal agglomeration of proteins in the brain has been linked to the pathogenesis of dementia. Autophagy is a necessary protein clearance mechanism, which is dependent on lysosomes. It is a basic physiological process that performs the crucial function of maintaining protein homeostasis within the cells. The autophagic dysfunction in dementia further complicates the disease by hampering the degradation and removal of abnormal pathogenic proteins. In order to understand autophagic dysfunction, it is essential to know the genetics of autophagy as well as the mutations which cause autophagic dysfunction. This understanding at the genetic level helps to define the relationship between dementia and autophagic dysfunction for developing the potential remedies for the treatment of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527319666201209112256DOI Listing
December 2020

Systemic dendrimer delivery of triptolide to tumor-associated macrophages improves anti-tumor efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity in glioblastoma.

J Control Release 2021 Jan 5;329:434-444. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Center for Nanomedicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA; Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Inc., Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Novel delivery strategies are necessary to effectively address glioblastoma without systemic toxicities. Triptolide is a therapy derived from the thunder god vine that has shown potent anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive properties but exhibits significant adverse systemic effects. Dendrimer-based nanomedicines have shown great potential for clinical translation of systemic therapies targeting neuroinflammation and brain tumors. Here we present a novel dendrimer-triptolide conjugate that specifically targets tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in glioblastoma from systemic administration and exhibits triggered release under intracellular and intratumor conditions. This targeted delivery improves phenotype switching of TAMs from pro- towards anti-tumor expression in vitro. In an orthotopic model of glioblastoma, dendrimer-triptolide achieved significantly improved amelioration of tumor burden compared to free triptolide. Notably, the triggered release mechanism of dendrimer-mediated triptolide delivery significantly reduced triptolide-associated hepatic and cardiac toxicities. These results demonstrate that dendrimers are a promising targeted delivery platform to achieve effective glioblastoma treatment by improving efficacy while reducing systemic toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904646PMC
January 2021

Dihydropyrimidinones Scaffold as a Promising Nucleus for Synthetic Profile and Various Therapeutic Targets: A Review.

Curr Org Synth 2021 ;18(3):270-293

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), DPSRU, Sector-3, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi, India.

Background: This review elaborates the updated synthetic and pharmacological approaches of a known group of dihydropyrimidinones/thiones from the multi-component reaction like Biginelli reaction, which was named Pietro Biginelli in 1891. This review consists of the reaction of an aromatic aldehyde, urea and ethyl acetoacetate leading to dihydropyrimidinone/thione. Currently, the scientific movement to develop economically viable green methods using compounds that are reusable, non-volatile, easily obtained, etc. Objective: This review covers the recent synthesis and pharmacological advancement of dihydropyrimidinones/ thiones moiety, along with covering the structure-activity relationship of the most potent compounds, which may prove to become better, more efficacious and safer agents. Thus, this review may help the researchers in drug designing and development of new Dihydropyrimidinones entities.

Conclusion: This review focuses on the wide application of dihydropyrimidinone/thione review reports the design, synthesis and pharmacological activities of nitrogen-sulphur containing dihydropyrimidinone moiety by using multi-component reaction. Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPM) pharmacophore is an important heterocyclic ring in medicinal chemistry. It is derived from multi-component reactions, "Biginelli reaction" and plays a critical role as anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and anti-tubercular agents. Exhaustive research has led to its vast biological profile, with a wide range of therapeutic application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570179417666201207215710DOI Listing
January 2021

Food Insecurity and T-cell Dysregulation in Women Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Antiretroviral Therapy.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 03;72(5):e112-e119

Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Food insecurity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on antiretroviral therapy, but its relationship with immune dysregulation, a hallmark of HIV infection and comorbidity, is unknown.

Methods: In 241 women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were characterized by flow cytometry to identify cell subsets, comprising surface markers of activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and co-stimulation (%CD57- CD28+) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of food insecurity with immune outcomes, accounting for repeated measures at ≤3 study visits and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors.

Results: At the baseline study visit, 71% of participants identified as non-Hispanic Black, 75% were virally suppressed, and 43% experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with increased activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased senescence of CD8+ T cells, and decreased co-stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (all P < .05), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, substance use, smoking, HIV viral load, and CD4 count. In stratified analyses, the association of food insecurity with CD4+ T-cell activation was more pronounced in women with uncontrolled HIV (viral load >40 copies/mL and CD4 <500 cells/mm3) but remained statistically significant in those with controlled HIV.

Conclusions: Food insecurity may contribute to the persistent immune activation and senescence in women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, independently of HIV control. Reducing food insecurity may be important for decreasing non-AIDS-related disease risk in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935377PMC
March 2021

Weight and Body Mass Index Change After Switching to Integrase Inhibitors or Tenofovir Alafenamide Among Women Living with HIV.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Weight and body mass index (BMI) change was assessed among women after switch to integrase inhibitors (INSTIs) and/or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). From 2006 to 2019, 1,458 women living with HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with ≥1 study visit before and after switching to INSTIs and/or TAF were included. Weight and BMI were compared pre- and postswitch to INSTI (by class and type) and/or TAF using multivariable linear mixed effects models; all models were also stratified by preswitch presence or absence of obesity (BMI ≥30 vs. <30 kg/m). Mean age preswitch was 47 ± 6 years, 64% were black, mean CD4 = 475 ± 201 cells/mm, 56% had HIV RNA <200 copies/mL, 36% switched to TAF but not INSTI, 60% to INSTI but not TAF, and 3.5% to TAF+INSTI. Time from pre- to postswitch was 12.8 ± 11.8 months. The INSTI-only group but not TAF groups had small but significant increases in weight and BMI: mean 79.2-80.6 kg and 30.2-30.7 kg/m, s < .001, respectively, with congruent findings by INSTI type (s ≤ .01). In stratified (preswitch BMI) analyses, only nonobese subgroups experienced increases in weight and BMI across all ART treatment groups (s < .05). Significant, although small-to-medium, increases in weight and BMI occurred among nonobese women who switched to INSTIs and/or TAF over short follow-up. Given long-term health consequences of obesity particularly as a low-grade inflammatory condition, identifying women at highest risk of ART-associated weight gain is imperative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0197DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of adjuvant frequency-specific microcurrents on pain and disability in patients treated with physical rehabilitation for neck and low back pain.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2020 Oct 30;24(4):168-175. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

QI Spine Clinic, Pune, India.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant frequency-specific microcurrent (FSM) application on pain and disability in patients treated with physical rehabilitation for mechanical low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP).

Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, pre- and post-treatment numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score, neck disability index (NDI) score, disability categories, and treatment outcome categories were compared between 213 patients in the FSM group (167 patients with LBP, 46 patients with NP) and 78 patients in the control group (61 patients with LBP, 17 patients with NP).

Results: In LBP patients, mean post-treatment NPRS score was significantly lower (p = 0.02) and a significantly higher percentage of patients were in the ≤3 NPRS score (p = 0.02), in the minimal disability (p = 0.01), and the full success (p = 0.006) categories post-treatment in the FSM group when compared to the control group. In NP patients, there was no significant difference in the post-treatment pain intensity, disability or treatment outcome when the 2 groups were compared.

Conclusions: The use of adjuvant FSM application in patients treated with physical rehabilitation for LBP significantly improved pain and disability when compared to patients in the control group. Frequency specific microcurrent could be a useful adjuvant in the rehabilitation treatment of patients with low back pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.07.013DOI Listing
October 2020

COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV in the US: the MACS/WIHS combined cohort study.

HIV Res Clin Pract 2020 10 19;21(5):130-139. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, UNC School Division of Medicine, The Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described.

Objective: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

Methods: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity.

Results: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%,  = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85,  = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40).

Conclusion: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/25787489.2020.1844521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682380PMC
October 2020

G-computation for policy-relevant effects of interventions on time-to-event outcomes.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jan;49(6):2021-2029

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Parametric g-computation is an analytic technique that can be used to estimate the effects of exposures, treatments and interventions; it relies on a different set of assumptions than more commonly used inverse probability weighted estimators. Whereas prior work has demonstrated implementations for binary exposures and continuous outcomes, use of parametric g-computation has been limited due to difficulty in implementation in more typical complex scenarios.

Methods: We provide an easy-to-implement algorithm for parametric g-computation in the setting of a dynamic baseline intervention of a baseline exposure and a time-to-event outcome. To demonstrate the use of our algorithm, we apply it to estimate the effects of interventions to reduce area deprivation on the cumulative incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs: gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis) among women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

Results: We found that reducing area deprivation by a maximum of 1 tertile for all women would lead to a 2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1%, 4.3%] reduction in 4-year STI incidence, and reducing deprivation by a maximum of 2 tertiles would lead to a 4.3% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.4%) reduction.

Conclusions: As analytic methods such as parametric g-computation become more accessible, epidemiologists will be able to estimate policy-relevant effects of interventions to better inform clinical and public health practice and policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825964PMC
January 2021

Dendrimer-Mediated Targeted Delivery of Rapamycin to Tumor-Associated Macrophages Improves Systemic Treatment of Glioblastoma.

Biomacromolecules 2020 12 28;21(12):5148-5161. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Center for Nanomedicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, United States.

Glioblastoma exhibits high mortality rates due to challenges with drug delivery to the brain and into solid tumors. This two-pronged barrier necessitates high doses of systemic therapies, resulting in significant off-target toxicities. Recently, dendrimer-nanomedicines (without ligands) have shown promise for targeting specific cells in brain tumors from systemic circulation, for improved efficacy and amelioration of systemic toxicities. A dendrimer-rapamycin conjugate (D-Rapa) is presented here that specifically targets tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in glioblastoma from systemic administration. D-Rapa improves suppression of pro-tumor expression in activated TAMs and antiproliferative properties of rapamycin in glioma cells . , D-Rapa localizes specifically within TAMs, acting as depots to release rapamycin into the tumor microenvironment. This targeted delivery strategy yields improved reduction in tumor burden and systemic toxicities in a challenging, clinically relevant orthotopic syngeneic model of glioblastoma, demonstrating the significant potential of dendrimers as targeted immunotherapies for improving glioblastoma treatment, still an unmet need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c01270DOI Listing
December 2020

Optimization of a process for microgreen and fruit-based functional beverage.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 23;92(3):e20190596. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Lovely Professional University, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Jalandhar-Delhi, G.T. Road, Phagwara, 144411, Punjab, India.

Microgreen based functional juice blends containing fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and aloe vera (Aloe brobadensis) in different ratios were blended with sorbitol and stevia. The different ratios of juice blends were analyzed for total soluble solids, sedimentation, viscosity and titrable acidity. They were also screened for total phenolic content, total carotenoid content and antioxidant properties such as DPPH, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The formulation with highest TPC, TCC and antioxidant property was selected to optimize a microgreen based functional juice. The optimized microgreen blend formulation had 20 ml 100-1 ml microgreen juice, 40 ml 100-1 ml kinnow juice, 8.5 ml 100-1 ml sorbitol, 1.78 g 100-1 ml stevia and 29.72 ml 100-1 ml aloe vera juice. It had high protein, minerals (sodium and potassium) and vitamin (vitamin C) content as well as good source beta-carotene, phenols and antioxidants. Antioxidant helps in reducing diabetic complications by reducing the oxidative stress and because of their protective action against reactive oxygen species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020190596DOI Listing
November 2020

Exposure of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Biochemical and Pathological Alterations.

Neurol India 2020 Sep-Oct;68(5):1092-1100

UNESCO-Trace Element Satellite Centre, School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Introduction: In the era of globalization, too much dependency on mobile phones is a cause of concern.

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the risk assessment of microwave radiation (MWR) at 1800 MHz frequency and specific absorption rate 0.433 (W/kg) on male Wistar rats.

Methodology: Animals were divided into two groups: the first group is the control group, and the second group was exposed to 1800 MHz radiation for 90 days at 4 h/5 days/week in a month.

Results: Chronic exposure of MWR may alter GSH homeostasis due to alteration in various GSH cycle regulating enzymes such as GR, GPx, GST, and G6PDH which showed an imbalance in GSH content and causes an increase in the oxidative stress and release of inflammatory cytokines. A remarkable increase in the DNA damage was seen due to disorganization and pyknosis of neurons in exposed animal's brain when compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). There was also a significant decline in AChE level.

Conclusion: The study concludes that MWR may cause neurochemical and pathophysiological damage by initiating the inflammatory process in various brain regions, especially in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These effects are further associated with a remarkable elevation in the genotoxicity of neurons with reference to the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.294554DOI Listing
October 2020

Applications of Exosomes in Targeted Drug Delivery for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Recent Advances and Clinical Challenges.

Curr Top Med Chem 2020 ;20(30):2777-2788

Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sector-3, MB Road, PushpVihar, Delhi-110017, India.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent and severe neurodegenerative disease affecting more than 6.1 million people globally. It is characterized by age-related progressive deterioration of neurological functions caused by neuronal damage or neuronal death. During PD, the dopamineproducing cells in the substantia nigra region of the brain degenerate, which leads to symptoms like resting tremors and rigidity. Treatment of PD is very challenging due to the blood-brain barrier, which restricts the drug from reaching the brain. Conventional drug delivery systems possess a limited capacity to cross the blood barrier, leading to low bioavailability and high toxicity (due to off-site drug release). Therefore, it becomes necessary to accelerate the development of novel drug delivery systems, including nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, and solid lipid nanoparticles for the treatment of PD. Exosomes are biological lipid bilayer membrane vesicles produced by nearly all mammalian cells. The characteristics of vesicles are unique to their cell of origin and are primarily involved in intracellular communication. Exosomes, due to their nanoscale size, could easily permeate across the central nervous system, which makes them ideal for targeting the neurons in the substantia nigra. Exosomes could be efficient drug carrier systems for brain targeting, which can increase the efficacy of the drug and minimize the side effects. The review aims at providing a broad updated view of exosomes and their application in the treatment of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026620666201019112557DOI Listing
January 2020