Publications by authors named "Anis Kausar Ghazali"

7 Publications

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Development and validation of a new questionnaire to measure mistreatment of women during childbirth, satisfaction of care, and perceived quality of care.

Midwifery 2021 Jun 24;102:103076. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objective: This study aims to develop and validate a new questionnaire to measure mistreatment of women during childbirth and its association with satisfaction and perceived quality of care among women in West Bank, Palestine.

Research Design /setting: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in middle and south of West Bank from February 2019 to June 2020. Two-hundred postpartum women were given self-administered and online questionnaire. Content and face validity were assessed. The "satisfaction of care" and "perceived quality of care" domains were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, while items in "experience of mistreatment" domain were evaluated descriptively. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire items.

Findings: The new questionnaire consisted of three domains: "satisfaction of care", "perceived quality of care", and "experience of mistreatment" during childbirth. Five new items were added and two items were removed during content validation. Another two items were deleted through face validation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the "satisfaction of care" and "perceived quality of care" domains. Two factors were identified for each domain, with a factor loading of more than 0.5. Twelve items were deleted from "satisfaction of care" domain and two items from "perceived quality of care" domain. The Cronbach's alpha values for the two factors in both domains were more than 0.87. The items in the "experience of mistreatment during childbirth" domain were evaluated descriptively.

Key Conclusions: The new questionnaire is valid and reliable. The final questionnaire consists of 11 items for "satisfaction of care", 16 items for "perceived quality of care" and 43 items for "experience of mistreatment of women during childbirth".
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June 2021

Minocycline alleviates nociceptive response through modulating the expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in spinal cord of rat model of painful diabetic neuropathy.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 3;20(1):793-803. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: It has been reported that neuropathic pain can be overcome by targeting the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NR2B). This study aimed to investigate the effects of minocycline on phosphorylated and total expression of NR2B in the spinal cord of rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

Methods: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 8); control healthy, control diabetic (PDN), and PDN rats that received 80 µg or 160 µg intrathecal minocycline respectively. The rats were induced to develop diabetes and allowed to develop into the early phase of PDN for two weeks. Hot-plate and formalin tests were conducted. Intrathecal treatment of minocycline or normal saline was conducted for 7 days. The rats were sacrificed to obtain the lumbar enlargement region of the spinal cord (L4-L5) for immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses to determine the expression of phosphorylated (pNR2B) and total NR2B (NR2B).

Results: PDN rats showed enhanced flinching (phase 1: p < 0.001, early phase 2: p < 0.001, and late phase 2: p < 0.05) and licking responses (phase 1: p < 0.001 and early phase 2: p < 0.05). PDN rats were also associated with higher spinal expressions of pNR2B and NR2B (p < 0.001) but no significant effect on thermal hyperalgesia. Minocycline inhibited formalin-induced flinching and licking responses (phase 1: p < 0.001, early phase 2: p < 0.001, and late phase 2: p < 0.05) in PDN rats with lowered spinal expressions of pNR2B (p < 0.01) and NR2B (p < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Minocycline alleviates nociceptive responses in PDN rats, possibly via suppression of NR2B activation. Therefore, minocycline could be one of the potential therapeutic antinociceptive drugs for the management of neuropathic pain.
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June 2021

Knowledge, Awareness, Attitude and Preventive Behaviour on the Transmission of the Pandemic Novel Coronavirus Among Malaysians.

Malays J Med Sci 2021 Apr 21;28(2):106-118. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Background: Restricted movement and preventive actions have been introduced to break the chain of transmission of a new coronavirus. This study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, awareness, attitude and preventive behaviour regarding the transmission of the COVID-19.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malaysians aged 20 years old and over, who had accessed the internet and used the WhatsApp application. The sampling method was a convenient snowball from 14 Malaysian states. This study was conducted online using questionnaires during the Movement Control Order due to the pandemic.

Results: Approximately 40.0%, 46.1% and 47.4% of 1,290 participants had a score above the median (good score) for preventive behaviour, attitude and knowledge, respectively. Age was significantly associated with poor knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 0.99; = 0.026). Males (AOR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.74; = 0.021), Malays (AOR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.98; = 0.043) and Chinese (AOR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.13; = 0.015) were the associated factors for poor attitude. Chinese ethnicity was significantly associated with poor preventive behaviour (AOR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.39, 5.61; = 0.004).

Conclusion: The level of knowledge, attitude and practices were high except for a few questions. The young, males and Malay and Chinese individuals need health education.
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April 2021

Spatial Variation of Survival for Colorectal Cancer in Malaysia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 25;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Blackpool Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool FY3 8NR, UK.

A patient's survival may depend on several known and unknown factors and it may also vary spatially across a region. Socioeconomic status, accessibility to healthcare and other environmental factors are likely to contribute to survival rates. The aim of the study was to model the spatial variation in survival for colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia, accounting for individual and socioeconomic risk factors. We conducted a retrospective study of 4412 colorectal cancer (ICD-10, C18-C20) patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2013 to model survival in CRC patients. We used the data recorded in the database of the Malaysian National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer (NCPR-CRC). Spatial location was assigned based on the patients' central district location, which involves 144 administrative districts of Malaysia. We fitted a parametric proportional hazards model in which the spatially correlated frailties were modelled by a log-Gaussian stochastic process to analyse the spatially referenced survival data, which is also known as a spatial survival model. After controlling for individual and area level characteristics, our findings indicate wide spatial variation in colorectal cancer survival across Malaysia. Better healthcare provision and higher socioeconomic index in the districts where patients live decreased the risk of death from colorectal cancer, but these associations were not statistically significant. Reliable measurement of environmental factors is needed to provide good insight into the effects of potential risk factors for the disease. For example, a better metric is needed to measure socioeconomic status and accessibility to healthcare in the country. The findings provide new information that might be of use to the Ministry of Health in identifying populations with an increased risk of poor survival, and for planning and providing cancer control services.
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January 2021

Global Prevalence of Macroprolactinemia among Patients with Hyperprolactinemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 6;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Hyperprolactinemia (hPRL) often poses a diagnostic dilemma due to the presence of macroprolactin. Understanding the prevalence of macroprolactinemia (mPRL) has an important implication in managing patients with hPRL. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mPRL globally and to explore selected factors influencing the prevalence estimate. Studies with original data related to the prevalence of mPRL among patients with hPRL from inception to March 2020 were identified, and a random effects meta-analysis was performed. Of the 3770 records identified, 67 eligible studies from 27 countries were included. The overall global prevalence estimate was 18.9% (95% CI: 15.8%, 22.1%) with a substantial statistical heterogeneity (I = 95.7%). The highest random effects pooled prevalence was observed in the African region (30.3%), followed by Region of the Americas (29.1%), European (17.5%), Eastern Mediterranean (13.9%), South-East Asian (12.7%), and Western Pacific Region (12.6%). Lower prevalence was observed in studies involving both sexes as compared to studies involving only female participants (17.1% vs. 25.4%) and in more recent studies (16.4%, 20.4%, and 26.5% in studies conducted after 2009, between 2000 and 2009, and before 2000, respectively). The prevalence estimate does not vary according to the age group of study participants, sample size, and types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) used for detection of macroprolactin (PEG 6000 or PEG 8000). With macroprolactin causing nearly one-fifth of hPRL cases, screening for mPRL should be made a routine before an investigation of other causes of hPRL.
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November 2020

MR Volumetry of Hippocampus in Normal Adult Malay of Age 50 Years Old and Above.

Malays J Med Sci 2013 Jul;20(4):25-31

Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Hippocampal volume is affected by several psychiatric illnesses of old age, as well as by normal aging. It is important to have a normal data in a population to assist in diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine hippocampal volume in normal Malay people aged 50 years old and older.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of the normal Malay population aged 50 to 77 years. We included 43 participants, representing 19 men and 24 women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a GE Signa Horizon LX 1.0 Tesla. Oblique coronal images of temporal lobes were obtained and hippocampal volumetry was done manually and normalised with intracranial volume.

Results: Mean right and left hippocampal volumes (HCVs) were 3.43 cm³ (SD 0.32) and 3.26 cm³ (SD 0.34), with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). Total mean HCVs exhibited no significant difference between men and women (P = 0.234). The means of the normalised right and left HCVs were 3.42 cm³ (SD 0.31) and 3.26 cm³ (SD 0.32).

Conclusion: The mean right and left hippocampal volumes were significantly different in this study. Men had slightly larger mean HCVs but the difference was not statistically significant. It was found that normalisation further reduces the mean volume difference between the genders.
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July 2013

Prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Asian J Surg 2010 Jul;33(3):127-33

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objective: To determine the 5-year survival rate and prognostic factors for survival in patients with colorectal cancer treated at the Surgical Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients treated in HUSM from 1996 to 2005. Data of variables considered as prognostic factors were obtained from the records. Simple and multiple Cox proportional hazard regression using the stepwise method were used to model the prognostic factors for survival.

Results: We found that the significant prognostic factors were liver metastases [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.95-7.22], Dukes C stage (adjusted HR: 4.65; 95% CI: 2.37-9.11), Dukes D stage (adjusted HR: 6.71; 95% CI: 2.92-15.48) and non-surgical treatment (adjusted HR: 3.75; 95% CI: 1.26-11.21).

Conclusion: Colorectal patients treated at HUSM with Dukes C staging, presence of liver metastases and received treatment with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy are at the greatest risk of death from colorectal cancer.
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July 2010