Publications by authors named "Anindit Chhibber"

8 Publications

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Assessment of health equity consideration in masking/PPE policies to contain COVID-19 using PROGRESS-plus framework: a systematic review.

BMC Public Health 2021 09 16;21(1):1682. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Introduction: There is increasing evidence that COVID-19 has unmasked the true magnitude of health inequity worldwide. Policies and guidance for containing the infection and reducing the COVID-19 related deaths have proven to be effective, however the extent to which health inequity factors were considered in these policies is rather unknown. The aim of this study is to measure the extent to which COVID-19 related policies reflect equity considerations by focusing on the global policy landscape around wearing masks and personal protection equipment (PPE).

Methods: A systematic search for published documents on COVID-19 and masks/PPE was conducted across six databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, ASSIA and Psycinfo. Reviews, policy documents, briefs related to COVID-19 and masks/PPE were included in the review. To assess the extent of incorporation of equity in the policy documents, a guidance framework known as 'PROGRESS-Plus': Place of residence, Race/ethnicity, Occupation, Gender/sex, Religion, Education, Socioeconomic status, Social capital, Plus (age, disability etc.) was utilized.

Results: This review included 212 policy documents. Out of 212 policy documents, 190 policy documents (89.62%) included at least one PROGRESS-plus component. Most of the policy documents (n = 163, 85.79%) focused on "occupation" component of the PROGRESS-plus followed by personal characteristics associated with discrimination (n = 4;2.11%), place of residence (n = 2;1.05%) and education (n = 1;0.53%). Subgroup analysis revealed that most of the policy documents (n = 176, 83.01%) were focused on "workers" such as healthcare workers, mortuary workers, school workers, transportation workers, essential workers etc. Of the remaining policy documents, most were targeted towards whole population (n = 30; 14.15%). Contrary to "worker focused" policy documents, most of the 'whole population focused' policy documents didn't have a PROGRESS-plus equity component rendering them equity limiting for the society.

Conclusion: Our review highlights even if policies considered health inequity during the design/implementation, this consideration was often one dimensional in nature. In addition, population wide policies should be carefully designed and implemented after identifying relevant equity related barriers in order to produce better outcomes for the whole society.
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September 2021

Comparative Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Options in Resectable and Advanced/Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Indirect Comparison.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 27;44(9):476-484. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Objectives: FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (gem-nab/P), and gemcitabine-capecitabine (gem-cap) demonstrated superiority over gemcitabine monotherapy for pancreatic cancer (PC). It is still unclear which chemotherapy regimen is the most optimal. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review (SR) and indirect comparison to compare safety and efficacy of FOLFIRINOX versus gem-nab/P and gem-cap in PC.

Methods: An SR was conducted in several databases from inception to November 2020. RCTs investigating resectable or advanced PC were included. Primary outcomes including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS)/progression-free survival (PFS)/relapse-free survival (RFS), and grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) were pooled using a random effects model. Indirect comparisons were done to compare FOLFIRINOX versus gem-cap and gem-nab/P. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics.

Results: Nine studies were identified involving 6,564 patients. Indirect comparisons showed FOLFIRINOX had significantly better OS (resectable: HR 0.78 [0.61-0.99]; advanced: HR 0.71 [0.60-0.85]) and RFS/DFS/PFS (resectable: HR 0.67 [0.55-0.82]; advanced: HR 0.65 [0.57-0.74]) compared to gem-cap as well as OS (resectable: HR 0.78 [0.61-1.00]; advanced: HR 0.73 [0.54-0.98]) and DFS/PFS (resectable: HR 0.66 [0.53-0.82]; advanced: HR 0.64 [0.49-0.83]) compared to gem-nab/P. FOLFIRINOX increased grade 3/4 AE risk compared to gem-cap and gem-nab/P.

Conclusions: FOLFIRINOX is associated with significant survival benefits compared to gem-nab/P and gem-cap. However, it is important to consider the increased grade 3/4 AE risk associated with FOLFIRINOX.
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July 2021

Statin use and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: an incident user cohort study.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Mar;27(3):296-305

College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have higher rates of mortality attributed to the inflammatory nature and the associated burden of cardiovascular complications. Previous research indicates that treatment with statin therapy may play a role in reducing the mortality rate of RA patients, but similar evidence in U.S. patients is lacking. To assess the association between statin use and overall mortality among RA patients in the United States. A population-based study of RA patients with incident statin use was conducted. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of RA between January 2007 and December 2015 were included and reviewed for the use of statin medication. Time stratified propensity score matching was used to adequately balance the comparison groups. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association. 19,614 people fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study out of which 2,089 were statin users. There were 1,883 statin users that were matched to 1,883 statin nonusers. Baseline characteristics were well balanced across the 2 groups after matching. The hazards ratio for all-cause mortality in patients with RA for statin users was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.56-0.91; = 0.008) compared with statin nonusers. Compared with no use of statins, current statin use is associated with 28% lower risk of mortality in RA patients. Decision makers and providers should consider and support integration of these results into the current clinical guidelines for delivering quality health care to RA patients. No outside funding supported this study. The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. The authors have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or nonfinancial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
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March 2021

Global Economic Burden of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Pharmacoeconomics 2021 04 8;39(4):399-420. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pharmacotherapy, School of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders affecting children and adults. Previous systematic reviews have provided estimates of ADHD-associated costs but were limited to the USA and Europe.

Objectives: This study aimed to systematically summarise all global evidence on the economic burden of ADHD.

Methods: A systematic search for published studies on costs of ADHD was conducted in EconLit, EMBASE, PubMed, ERIC, and PsycINFO. Additional literature was identified by searching the reference lists of eligible studies. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Larg and Moss checklist.

Results: This review included 44 studies. All studies were conducted in high-income countries and were limited to North America and Europe except for four studies: two in Asia and two in Australia. Most studies were retrospective and undertook a prevalence-based study design. Analysis revealed a substantial economic impact associated with ADHD. Estimates based on total costs ranged from $US831.38 to 20,538 for per person estimates and from $US356 million to 20.27 billion for national estimates. Estimates based on marginal costs ranged from $US244.15 to 18,751.00 for per person estimates and from $US12.18 million to 141.33 billion for national estimates. Studies that calculated economic burden across multiple domains of direct, indirect, and education and justice system costs for both children and adults with ADHD reported higher costs and translated gross domestic product than did studies that captured only a single domain or age group.

Conclusions: Despite the wide variation in methodologies in studies reviewed, the literature suggests that ADHD imposes a substantial economic burden on society. There is a dire need for cost-of-illness research in low- and middle-income countries to better inform the treatment and management of ADHD in these countries. In addition, guidelines on the conduct and reporting of economic burden studies are needed as they may improve standardisation of cost-of-illness studies.
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April 2021

Brain clusterin protein isoforms and mitochondrial localization.

Elife 2019 11 18;8. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States.

Clusterin (CLU), or apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), is the third most predominant genetic risk factor associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). In this study, we use multiple rodent and human brain tissue and neural cell models to demonstrate that CLU is expressed as multiple isoforms that have distinct cellular or subcellular localizations in the brain. Of particular significance, we identify a non-glycosylated 45 kDa CLU isoform (mitoCLU) that is localized to the mitochondrial matrix and expressed in both rodent and human neurons and astrocytes. In addition, we show that rodent mitoCLU is translated from a non-canonical CUG (Leu) start site in Exon 3, a site that coincides with an AUG (Met) in human CLU. Last, we reveal that mitoCLU is present at the gene and protein level in the currently available CLU mouse model. Collectively, these data provide foundational knowledge that is integral in elucidating the relationship between CLU and the development of LOAD.
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November 2019

ERβ and ApoE isoforms interact to regulate BDNF-5-HT signaling and synaptic function in the female brain.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2017 Sep 21;9(1):79. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Malott Hall Room 2046, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA.

Background: Depression has been reported to be commonly manifested in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is considered a risk factor for AD. The human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene exists in three major isoforms (coded by ε2, ε3, and ε4), and the ε4 allele has been associated with a greater incidence of both depression and AD. Although mounting evidence points to the potentially complex interaction between these two brain disorders in which ApoE might play a role, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown.

Methods: Using human ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 gene-targeted replacement (hApoE-TR) mouse models, we investigated the role of ApoE isoforms and their potential interactions with estrogen receptor β (ERβ) signaling in modulating the brain mechanisms involved in depression.

Results: Our initial analyses in 6-month-old female hApoE-TR mice demonstrated that ApoE influenced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT) serotonin receptor in an isoform-dependent manner, with the ApoE4 brain exhibiting the lowest level of BDNF and the highest level of 5-HT. In addition, both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins were downregulated, indicating a synaptic deficit in ApoE4 brains. Our subsequent analyses revealed that a 3-month chronic treatment with an ERβ-targeted (83-fold selectivity over ERα) phytoestrogenic diet induced several changes in ApoE2 and ApoE3 brains, including a significant decrease in the expression of 5-HT receptors and an increase in BDNF/tropomyosin receptor kinase B and synaptic proteins. In contrast, ApoE4 brains were largely unresponsive to the treatment, with an increase only in select synaptic proteins in the treated group.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate that ApoE4 negatively impacts BDNF-5-HT signaling in the female brain, which could in part underlie the ApoE4-mediated increased risk for depression. In a larger context, this mechanism could serve as a molecular link between depression and AD associated with ApoE4. Enhancing ERβ activity could provide a greater therapeutic benefit to non-ApoE4 carriers than to ApoE4 carriers in interventions for these brain disorders.
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September 2017

Estrogen receptor β deficiency impairs BDNF-5-HT signaling in the hippocampus of female brain: A possible mechanism for menopausal depression.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 Aug 18;82:107-116. Epub 2017 May 18.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. Electronic address:

Depression currently affects 350 million people worldwide and 19 million Americans each year. Women are 2.5 times more likely to experience major depression than men, with some women appearing to be at a heightened risk during the menopausal transition. Estrogen signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the role of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, in the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HT) signaling was investigated; two pathways that have been hypothesized to be interrelated in the etiology of depression. The analyses in ERα and ERβ mouse models demonstrated that BDNF was significantly downregulated in ERβ but not ERα mice, and the ERβ-mediated effect was brain-region specific. A 40% reduction in BDNF protein expression was found in the hippocampus of ERβ mice; in contrast, the changes in BDNF were at a much smaller magnitude and insignificant in the cortex and hypothalamus. Further analyses in primary hippocampal neurons indicated that ERβ agonism significantly enhanced BDNF/TrkB signaling and the downtream cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Subsequent study in ERβ mutant rat models demonstrated that disruption of ERβ was associated with a significantly elevated level of 5-HT but not 5-HT in rat hippocampus, indicating ERβ negatively regulates 5-HT. Additional analyses in primary neuronal cultures revealed a significant association between BDNF and 5-HT pathways, and the data showed that TrkB activation downregulated 5-HT whereas activation of 5-HT had no effect on BDNF, suggesting that BDNF/TrkB is an upstream regulator of the 5-HT pathway. Collectively, these findings implicate that the disruption in estrogen homeostasis during menopause leads to dysregulation of BDNF-5-HT signaling and weakened synaptic plasticity, which together predispose the brain to a vulnerable state for depression. Timely intervention with an ERβ-targeted modulator could potentially attenuate this susceptibility and reduce the risk or ameliorate the clinical manifestation of this brain disorder.
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August 2017

Estrogen receptor β in Alzheimer's disease: From mechanisms to therapeutics.

Ageing Res Rev 2015 Nov 22;24(Pt B):178-90. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionally affects women and men. The female susceptibility for AD has been largely associated with the loss of ovarian sex hormones during menopause. This review examines the current understanding of the role of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in the regulation of neurological health and its implication in the development and intervention of AD. Since its discovery in 1996, research conducted over the last 15-20 years has documented a great deal of evidence indicating that ERβ plays a pivotal role in a broad spectrum of brain activities from development to aging. ERβ genetic polymorphisms have been associated with cognitive impairment and increased risk for AD predominantly in women. The role of ERβ in the intervention of AD has been demonstrated by the alteration of AD pathology in response to treatment with ERβ-selective modulators in transgenic models that display pronounced plaque and tangle histopathological presentations as well as learning and memory deficits. Future studies that explore the potential interactions between ERβ signaling and the genetic isoforms of human apolipoprotein E (APOE) in brain aging and development of AD-risk phenotype are critically needed. The current trend of lost-in-translation in AD drug development that has primarily been based on early-onset familial AD (FAD) models underscores the urgent need for novel models that recapitulate the etiology of late-onset sporadic AD (SAD), the most common form of AD representing more than 95% of the current human AD population. Combining the use of FAD-related models that generally have excellent face validity with SAD-related models that hold more reliable construct validity would together increase the predictive validity of preclinical findings for successful translation into humans.
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November 2015