Publications by authors named "Animut Alebel"

51 Publications

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and predictors of anemia among children in Ethiopia.

Afr Health Sci 2020 Dec;20(4):2007-2021

Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Anemia is a wide-spread public health problem characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin concentration and/ or red blood cell volume below an established cut-off value. In developing countries including Ethiopia, about half of children are estimated to be anemic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence of anemia and its predictor factors among children in Ethiopia.

Method: The studies were identified through explicit and exhaustive search of reputable databases (PubMed, Google scholar, Science Direct, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and the hand search of reference lists of previous prevalence studies to retrieve more related articles. Thirty-nine studies were selected based on a comprehensive list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized and pre-tested data extraction checklist, and the analysis was done using STATA 14 statistical software. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistic and I2 tests were used. In our analysis, considerable heterogeneity was observed. Therefore, a random effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of anemia. Moreover, the predictor factors of anemia were examined.

Results: The forest plot of 39 included studies revealed that the overall pooled prevalence of anemia among children in Ethiopia was 34.4% (95% CI: 29.1, 39.7%). Sub-group analysis showed that the highest anemia prevalence was observed in Somali Region with a prevalence of 49.4 % (95% CI: 20.9, 77.8). Also, anemia in children was found to be highest in the age group of less than five years (45.2, 95% CI: 39.6,50.8). Low literacy of families: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.7), low family socioeconomic status: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1,3.01.3), having housewife mothers or with no job: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) and rural residence: 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7,6.1) were found to be predictors of anemia among children.

Conclusion: In this study, one in three children were anemic in Ethiopia. It is a moderate public health problem in children in this study. Low literacy, low socioeconomic status as well as rural residence of the families and helminthic infection of the children were found to be predictors of anemia in the children. Community and school-based interventions should be strengthened to improve the problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v20i4.59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351872PMC
December 2020

Predictors of recovery rate among undernourished HIV-positive adults treated with ready-to-use therapeutic food at Debre Markos Comprehensive Specialized Hospital: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(8):e0255465. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Nutritional support is becoming more widely acknowledged as a crucial component of the key package of care for HIV/AIDS patients. This nutritional support is exceptionally important for patients in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, where HIV/AIDS is very prevalent. However, there is a lack of evidence on the recovery rate and predictors at the study site and at large in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study will give some insight into the recovery rate and its predictors among under-nourished HIV-positive adults treated with Ready to Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) attending at Debre Markos referral hospital. Moreover, the findings of this study will be used by both governmental and non-governmental organizations to allocate more resources to mitigate the nutritional problems for people living with HIV.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 453 under-nourished HIV positive adults treated with RUTF at Debre Markos referral Hospital from the 1st of July, 2015 to the 31st of December, 2017. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were extracted from patient charts using a standardized data extraction checklist. Data were entered into Epi-Data Version 4.2 and analyzed using Stata Version 14. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate the time to recovery. Log-rank test was used to compare the recovery time between different baseline categorical variables. The bivariable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were fitted for potential predictors of recovery time. Adjusted hazard Ratios (AHRs) with 95% CIs were used to measure the strength of association and test statistical significance.

Results: A total of 453 undernourished HIV-positive adults were included in the final analysis. About 201, 44.4% (95%CI: 38.9, 49.0%) patients participating in the RUTF program were recovered based on predetermined exit criteria with incidence of 10.65 (95% CI: 9.28, 12.23) per 100 person-month observations. Being moderately undernourished (AHR: 11.0, 95% CI: 5.3, 23.1), WHO clinical stage (I or II) (AHR:1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.6), and working functional status at baseline (AHR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.01,5.45) were predictors of recovery time.

Conclusion: This study concluded that the overall nutritional recovery rate was below the acceptable minimum requirement which at least 75% of patients should recovered. Mild to moderate undernutrition at baseline, WHO clinical stage I or II at enrolment, and working functional status were found to be predictors of recovery time in HIV/AIDS patients treated with the RUTF. As a result, special attention should be paid to severely malnourished patients, WHO clinical stages III or higher, and patients who are bedridden or ambulatory during treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255465PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336829PMC
November 2021

Predictors of mortality in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(6):e0253848. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Even though the lives of millions have been saved in the past decades, the mortality rate in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis is still high. Different factors are associated with this mortality. However, there is no comprehensive global report addressing these risk factors. This study aimed to determine the predictors of mortality using data generated at the global level.

Methods: We systematically searched five electronic major databases (PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science), and other sources (Google Scholar, Google). We used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools to assess the quality of included articles. Heterogeneity assessment was conducted using the forest plot and I2 heterogeneity test. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 15. The pooled hazard ratio, risk ratio, and odd's ratio were estimated along with their 95% CIs.

Result: After reviewing 640 articles, 49 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. The predictors of mortality were; being male (HR = 1.25,95%CI;1.08,1.41,I2;30.5%), older age (HR = 2.13, 95%CI;1.64,2.62,I2;59.0%,RR = 1.40,95%CI; 1.26, 1.53, I2; 48.4%) including a 1 year increase in age (HR = 1.01, 95%CI;1.00,1.03,I2;73.0%), undernutrition (HR = 1.62,95%CI;1.28,1.97,I2;87.2%, RR = 3.13, 95% CI; 2.17,4.09, I2;0.0%), presence of any type of co-morbidity (HR = 1.92,95%CI;1.50-2.33,I2;61.4%, RR = 1.61, 95%CI;1.29, 1.93,I2;0.0%), having diabetes (HR = 1.74, 95%CI; 1.24,2.24, I2;37.3%, RR = 1.60, 95%CI;1.13,2.07, I2;0.0%), HIV co-infection (HR = 2.15, 95%CI;1.69,2.61, I2; 48.2%, RR = 1.49, 95%CI;1.27,1.72, I2;19.5%), TB history (HR = 1.30,95%CI;1.06,1.54, I2;64.6%), previous second-line anti-TB treatment (HR = 2.52, 95% CI;2.15,2.88, I2;0.0%), being smear positive at the baseline (HR = 1.45, 95%CI;1.14,1.76, I2;49.2%, RR = 1.58,95%CI;1.46,1.69, I2;48.7%), having XDR-TB (HR = 2.01, 95%CI;1.50,2.52, I2;60.8%, RR = 2.44, 95%CI;2.16,2.73,I2;46.1%), and any type of clinical complication (HR = 2.98, 95%CI; 2.32, 3.64, I2; 69.9%). There are differences and overlaps of predictors of mortality across different drug-resistance categories. The common predictors of mortality among different drug-resistance categories include; older age, presence of any type of co-morbidity, and undernutrition.

Conclusion: Different patient-related demographic (male sex, older age), and clinical factors (undernutrition, HIV co-infection, co-morbidity, diabetes, clinical complications, TB history, previous second-line anti-TB treatment, smear-positive TB, and XDR-TB) were the predictors of mortality in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis. The findings would be an important input to the global community to take important measures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253848PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238236PMC
November 2021

Magnitude and associated factors of virological failure among children on ART in Bahir Dar Town public health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 Apr 6;47(1):84. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, virologic failure has become global public health concern and challenge, especially in developing countries. Viral load monitoring is an important approach to identify treatment failure and develop public health interventions in children receiving antiretroviral therapy. Thus, this study aims to assess the magnitude and associated factors of virological failure among children on antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 399 HIV-positive children on antiretroviral therapy from 2016 to 2019 in Bahir Dar Town public health facilities. Data were extracted from children's charts using a standardized data extraction tool, adapted from ART intake and follow-up forms. Data were entered using Epi-Data Version 3.1, and analyzed using SPSS Version 25. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression models were done to identify factors associated with virological failure. Variables with p-values < 0.25 were fitted into the multivariable analysis. Finally, variables with p-values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant factors.

Results: The period prevalence of virological failure was found to be 14.8% (95% CI: 11.5-19.3%). Opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.19, CI: 1.13-4.25), history of treatment interruption and restart (AOR = 2.21, CI: 1.09-4.54), younger age (AOR = 2.42, CI: 1.02-5.74), poor/fair ART adherence (AOR = 2.19, CI: 1.05-4.57), and advanced baseline WHO clinical staging (AOR = 2.32, CI: 1.14-4.74) were found to be factors significantly associated with virological failure.

Conclusion: The magnitude of virological failure among HIV-infected children remained high. Children with poor/fair ART adherence, history of treatment interruption, advanced baseline WHO clinical staging, younger age, and opportunistic infections were significantly associated with virologic failure. Thus, special attention should be given to children who had poor/fair ART adherence and presenting with opportunistic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-021-01030-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025328PMC
April 2021

Effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jan 4;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.

Background: Undernutrition is one of the most common problems among people living with HIV, contributing to premature death and the development of comorbidities within this population. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the impacts of these often inter-related conditions appear in a series of fragmented and inconclusive studies. Thus, this review examines the pooled effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidities among adults living with HIV in SSA.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. All observational studies reporting the effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV in SSA were included. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q-test and I statistics. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's and Begg's tests at a 5% significance level. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the overall adjusted hazard ratio.

Results: Of 4309 identified studies, 53 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of these, 40 studies were available for the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of 23 cohort studies indicated that undernutrition significantly (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4) increased the risk of mortality among adults living with HIV, while severely undernourished adults living with HIV were at higher risk of death (AHR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) as compared to mildly undernourished adults living with HIV. Furthermore, the pooled estimates of ten cohort studies revealed that undernutrition significantly increased the risk of developing tuberculosis (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) among adults living with HIV.

Conclusion: This review found that undernutrition has significant effects on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV. As the degree of undernutrition became more severe, mortality rate also increased. Therefore, findings from this review may be used to update the nutritional guidelines used for the management of PLHIV by different stakeholders, especially in limited-resource settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05706-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780691PMC
January 2021

Incidence and predictors of surgical site infection following cesarean section in North-west Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Nov 30;20(1):902. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was no study documenting the incidence of surgical site infection after caesarean section. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section at Debre-Markos Referral Hospital in Amhara region, North-west Ethiopia.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 520 pregnant women who had a caesarean section between March 28, 2019 and August 31, 2019. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Data was entered using EpiData™ Entry Version 4.1 software and analyzed using R Version 3.6.1 software. A descriptive analysis was conducted using tables, interquartile ranges and median. The time to development of surgical site infection was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model for bivariable and multivariable analyses was done. Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was reported to show the strength of association.

Result: The mean age of the study cohort was 27.4 ± 4.8 years. The overall cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 25.4% with an incidence of 11.7 (95% CI:9.8,13.9) per 1000 person/days. Not able to read and write (AHR = 1.30,95% CI:1.19,2.11), no antenatal care (AHR = 2.16, 95%CI:1.05,4.53), previous history of CS (AHR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.11,2.31), HIV positive (AHR = 1.39, 95% CI:1.21,2.57), emergency procedure (AHR = 1.13, 95% CI:1.11,2.43), vertical type of incision (AHR = 2.60, 95% CI:1.05,6.44), rupture of membrane (AHR = 1.50, 95% CI:1.31,1.64), multiple vaginal examination (AHR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.71, 3.20) were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study.

Conclusion: This study concluded that the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section was relatively high compared to previous studies. Not able to read and write, have no ante natal care, previous history of caesarean section, HIV, emergency surgery, vertical type of incision, rupture of membranes before caesarean section, and multiple vaginal examinations were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on and address the identified factors to minimize and prevent the infection rate after caesarean section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05640-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708170PMC
November 2020

Incidence and predictors of loss to follow-up among HIV-positive adults in northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

Trop Med Health 2020 14;48:78. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, P.O. Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy services, 'loss to follow-up' is a significant public health concern globally. Loss to follow-up of individuals from ART has a countless negative impact on the treatment outcomes. There is, however, limited information about the incidence and predictors of loss to follow-up in our study area. Thus, this study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of loss to follow-up among adult HIV patients on ART.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using 484 HIV patients between January 30, 2008, and January 26, 2018, at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. All eligible HIV patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Data were entered into Epi-data Version 4.2 and analyzed using STATA Version 14.0 software. The Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard estimator was used to estimate the hazard rate of loss to follow-up, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival curve between different categorical variables. Both bivariable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were fitted to identify predictors of LTFU.

Results: Among a cohort of 484 HIV patients at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, 84 (17.36%) were loss their ART follow-up. The overall incidence rate of loss to follow-up was 3.7 (95% CI 3.0, 5.0) per 100 adult-years. The total LTFU free time of the participants was 2294.8 person-years. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, WHO stage IV (AHR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2, 6.2), having no cell phone (AHR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1, 3.4), and rural residence (AHR 0.6; 95% CI 0.37, 0.99) were significant predictors of loss to follow-up.

Conclusion: The incidence of loss to ART follow-up in this study was low. Having no cell phone and WHO clinical stage IV were causative predictors, and rural residence was the only protective factor of loss to follow-up. Therefore, available intervention modalities should be strengthened to mitigate loss to follow-up by addressing the identified risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00266-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488994PMC
September 2020

Nearly one in every six HIV-infected children lost from ART follow-up at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A 14-year retrospective follow-up study.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(9):e0239013. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly improves the survival status and quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children, loss to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV-care profoundly affecting the treatment outcomes of this vulnerable population. For better interventions, up-to-date information concerning LTFU among HIV-infected children on ART is vital. However, only a few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia to address this concern. Thus, this study aims to identify the predictors of LTFU among HIV-infected children receiving ART at Debre Markos Referral Hospital.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was done among 408 HIV-infected children receiving ART at Debre Markos Referral Hospital between 2005 and March 15, 2019. Data were abstracted from the medical records of HIV-infected children using a standardized data abstracted checklist. We used Epi-Data Version 3.1 for data entry and Stata Version 14 for statistical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate the survival time. A generalized log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves of different categorical variables. Finally, both bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify the predictors of LTFU.

Results: Of 408 HIV-infected children included in the final analysis, 70 (17.1%) children were LTFU at the end of the study. The overall incidence rate of LTFU among HIV-infected children was found to be 4.5 (95%CI: 3.5-5.7) per 100-child years of observation. HIV-infected children living in rural areas (AHR: 3.2, 95%CI: 2.0-5.3), having fair or poor ART drug adherence (AHR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.4-3.7), children started ART through test and treat approach (AHR: 2.7, 95%CI: 1.4-5.5), and children started protease inhibiter (PI)-based ART regimens (AHR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.4) were at higher risk of LTFU.

Conclusion: This study found that one in every six HIV-infected children lost form ART follow-up. HIV-infected children living in rural areas, having fair or poor ART drug adherence, started ART based on test and treat approach, and taking PI-based ART regimens were at higher risk of LTFU.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239013PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491726PMC
October 2020

Mortality rate among HIV-positive children on ART in Northwest Ethiopia: a historical cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Aug 27;20(1):1303. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been available for more than a decade in Ethiopia, information regarding mortality rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children after antiretroviral therapy antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is very scarce. Thus, this study intends to determine the predictors of mortality among HIV-positive children receiving ART in Amhara Region.

Methods: A multicenter facility-based historical cohort study was conducted in 538 HIV-positive children on ART from January 2012 to February 2017. We employed a standardized data extraction tool, adapted from ART entry and follow-up forms. Descriptive analyses were summarized using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log rank test. Then, the Cox-proportional hazard regression model was employed to estimate the hazard of death up to five-years after ART initiation. Variables with p-values ≤0.25 in bivariable analysis were candidates to the multivariable analysis. Finally, variables with p-values < 0.05 were considered as significant variables.

Results: The cohort contributed a total follow-up time of 14,600 child-months, with an overall mortality rate of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.3, 4.3) per 100 child-years. This study also indicated that HIV-infected children presenting with opportunistic infections (OIs) (AHR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.9), anemia (AHR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.7), severe immunodeficiency (AHR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.7, 11.7), severe stunting (AHR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4, 8.0), severe wasting (AHR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 7.3), and advanced disease staging (III and IV) (AHR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.1) were at higher risk of mortality.

Conclusion: A higher rate of mortality was observed in our study as compared to previous Ethiopian studies. HIV-positive children presenting with anemia, OIs, severe immunodeficiency, advanced disease staging (III and IV), severe stunting, and severe wasting were at higher risk of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09418-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457276PMC
August 2020

Recovery rate and its predictors among children with severe acute malnutrition in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(7):e0235259. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Ethipian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Malnutrition is a public health problem in under-five children in several parts of the world even after decades of the implementation of management protocols. An estimated 17 million children under the age of five years are living with severe acute malnutrition and the majorities are found in Asia and Africa, including Ethiopia.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the recovery rate and its predictors among under-five children who were admitted to St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College from 2012 to 2019.

Methods: An institution based retrospective cohort study was employed at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College from May 20, 2019 to June 28, 2019. Data were collected by reviewing children's' medical records using a structured checklist. A total of 534 charts were selected using a simple random sampling method and 515 of them were used for the final analysis. Ep-info version 7 software was used for data entry and STATA Version 15 for analysis. The Kaplan Meier failure estimate with Log-rank test was used to determine the survival estimates. Bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model were fitted to identify predictors of mortality. Finally, variables with p-values less than 0.05 in the multivariable Cox regression were considered as independent predictors. The proportional hazards assumption was checked using the Schoenfeld residuals test and the final model fitness was checked using the Cox-Snail residual test.

Result: In this study, a total of 515 subjects were followed for 8672 child-days and 79% of the subjects recovered from SAM with the median time of 17 days. The incidence density rate of recovery was 46 per 1000 child-days. Tuberculosis (AHR(Adjusted Hazard Ratio) 0.44 & 95% CI: 0.32, 0.62), pale conjunctiva (AHR,0.67 & 95% CI: 0.52, 0.88), IV fluid infusion (AHR, 0.71 & 95 CI: 0.51, 0.98), feeding F100 (AHR, 1.63 & 95% CI:1.04,2.54), Vitamin A supplementation (AHR, 1.3 & 95% CI:1.07, 1.59) and bottle feeding (AHR, 0.79 & 95CI%: 0.64-0.98) were the independent predictors of time to recovery from SAM.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the recovery rate was relatively higher than the Sphere standard and the national SAM management protocol. Co-morbidities and the treatments given were the main determinants of recovery of children. Co-morbidities must be managed as early as possible and the treatments given during the SAM management process need to be given with precaution.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235259PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377431PMC
September 2020

Full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 24;20(1):777. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective means of public health interventions to prevent childhood deaths from infectious diseases. Although several fragmented studies have been conducted concerning full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Ethiopia, the pooled estimate has not been determined so far. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Ethiopian.

Methods: To find potentially relevant studies, we systematically searched five major databases (i.e., PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct). This review included community based cross-sectional studies reported in English language; had good quality, and published from the 1st of January 2000 to the 20th of November 2019. Data were analyzed using Stata™ Version 14.1 software. The pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented using forest plots. Higgins and Egger's tests were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. Primary estimates were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model.

Results: Of the total of 851 identified articles 21 studies involving 12,094 children met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The included studies sample size ranged from 173 to 923. The lowest proportion of full vaccination coverage was reported from Afar Region [21% (95% CI: 18, 24%)], whereas the highest proportion of full vaccination coverage was reported from Amhara Region [73% (95% CI: 67, 79%)]. The overall prevalence of full vaccination coverage among children in Ethiopia was 60% (95% CI: 51, 69%).

Conclusions: Our finding suggested that six in every 10 children in Ethiopia were fully vaccinated. However, this finding is much lower than the World Health Organization recommended rate. Moreover, high regional variations in terms of full vaccination coverage across the country was observed. Therefore, a special attention should be given to improve the overall childhood vaccination coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08940-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249262PMC
May 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Undernutrition among Ethiopian adults living with HIV: a meta-analysis.

BMC Nutr 2020 16;6:10. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

8College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are interlaced in a vicious cycle and worsened in low and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, even though individuals are dually affected by both malnutrition and HIV, there is no a nationwide study showing the proportion of malnutrition among HIV-positive adults. Consequently, this review addressed the pooled burden of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia.

Methods: We searched for potentially relevant studies through manual and electronic searches. An electronic search was carried out using the database of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google for gray literature and reference lists of previous studies. A standardized data extraction checklist was used to extract the data from each original study. STATA Version 13 statistical software was used for our analysis. Descriptive summaries were presented in tables, and the quantitative result was presented in a forest plot. Heterogeneity within the included studies was examined using the Cochrane Q test statistics and test. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was computed to estimate the pooled proportion of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults.

Results: After reviewing 418 studies, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Findings from 15 studies revealed that the pooled percentage of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia was 26% (95% CI: 22, 30%). The highest percentage of undernutrition (46.8%) was reported from Jimma University specialized hospital, whereas the lowest proportion of undernutrition (12.3%) was reported from Dilla Hospital. The subgroup analyses of this study also indicated that the percentage of undernourishment among HIV-positive adults is slightly higher in the Northern and Central parts of Ethiopia (27.5%) as compared to the Southern parts of Ethiopia (25%).

Conclusion: This study noted that undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia was quite common. This study also revealed that undernutrition is more common among HIV-positive adults with advanced disease stage, anemia, diarrhea, CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm, and living in rural areas. Based on our findings, we suggested that all HIV-positive adults should be assessed for nutritional status at the time of ART commencement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00334-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161140PMC
April 2020

Level of self-care practice among diabetic patients in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Mar 12;20(1):309. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasingly become a serious global public health concern in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. It imposes significant burden of care on the individual, health care professionals and health system. As the result, immense need of self-care behaviors in multiple domains like food choices, physical activity, foot care, and blood glucose monitoring is required. However, there is no national study on diabetic self-care practices in Ethiopia. This meta-analysis, therefore, aims to estimate the pooled level of self-care practice among individuals living with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia.

Methods: The systematic review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. We systematically searched the databases: PubMed /MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct for studies conducted in Ethiopia about self-care practice of diabetes patients. We have included all cross-sectional studies, which were published until August 20th,2019. Data were analyzed using ™ version 14.1 software, and the pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented using tables and forest plots. The presence of statistical heterogeneity within the included studies was evaluated using I-squared statistic. We used Higgins and Egger's test to identify evidence of publication bias. The random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the pooled proportion of good diabetic self-care practices.

Results: We included 35 studies (with 11,103 participants) in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of good diabetes self-care behavior among diabetic patients was 49% (95% CI:43, 56%). When categorized by the major domains of diabetes self-care, the pooled estimate of dietary practice was 50% (95% CI:42, 58%), for self- monitoring of blood glucose was 28% (95% CI:19, 37%), for recommended physical activity was 49% (95% CI:38, 59%), and for diabetic foot-care was 58% (95% CI: 41, 74%).

Conclusion: More than half of diabetic patients in Ethiopia had poor diabetes self-care practice. High percentage of diabetic patients also had poor dietary practice, self- monitoring of blood glucose, physical activity, and diabetic foot care. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on improving the knowledge level of diabetic patients to improve the self-care practice of diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8425-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068935PMC
March 2020

Effects of maternal education on birth preparedness and complication readiness among Ethiopian pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Mar 6;20(1):149. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, P.O. Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness are broadly endorsed by governments and international agencies to reduce maternal and neonatal health threats in low income countries. Maternal education is broadly positioned to positively affect the mother's and her children's health and nutrition in low income countries. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the effect of maternal education on birth preparedness and complication readiness.

Methods: This review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. We conducted an electronic based search using data bases of PubMed /MEDLINE, Science direct and google scholar. STATA™ Version 14.1 was used to analyze the data, and forest plots were used to present the findings. I test statistics and Egger's test were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. Pooled prevalence and pooled odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed. Finally, Duval and Tweedie's nonparametric trim and fill analysis using random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to account for publication bias.

Results: In this meta-analysis, 20 studies involving 13,744 pregnant women meeting the inclusion criteria were included, of which 15 studies reported effects of maternal education on birth preparedness and complication readiness. Overall estimated level of birth preparedness and complication readiness was 25.2% (95% CI 20.0, 30.6%). This meta-analysis found that maternal education and level of birth preparedness and complication readiness were positively associated. Pregnant mothers whose level of education was primary and above were more likely to prepare for birth and obstetric emergencies (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.1) than non-educated mothers.

Conclusion: In Ethiopia, the proportion of women prepared for birth and related complications remained low. Maternal education has a positive effect on the level of birth preparedness and complication readiness. Therefore, it is imperative to launch programs at national and regional levels to uplift women's educational status to enhance the likelihood of maternal health services utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2812-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060625PMC
March 2020

Neonatal mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit of Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 02 15;20(1):72. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, P.O. Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Neonatal mortality remains a serious global public health problem, but Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in particular, is largely affected. Current evidence on neonatal mortality is essential to inform programs and policies, yet there is a scarcity of information concerning neonatal mortality in our study area. Therefore, we conducted this prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and predictors of neonatal mortality at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: This institutionally-based prospective cohort study was undertaken among 513 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Debre Markos Referral Hospital between December 1st, 2017 and May 30th, 2018. All newborns consecutively admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit during the study period were included. An interviewer administered a questionnaire with the respective mothers. Data were entered using Epi-data™ Version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA™ Version 14. The neonatal survival time was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and the survival time between different categorical variables were compared using the log rank test. Both bi-variable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were fitted to identify independent predictors of neonatal mortality.

Results: Among a cohort of 513 neonates at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, 109 (21.3%) died during the follow-up time. The overall neonatal mortality rate was 25.8 deaths per 1, 000 neonate-days (95% CI: 21.4, 31.1). In this study, most (83.5%) of the neonatal deaths occurred in the early phase of neonatal period (< 7 days post-partum). Using the multivariable Cox-regression analysis, being unemployed (AHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.6), not attending ANC (AHR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.5), not initiating exclusive breastfeeding (AHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.7), neonatal admission due to respiratory distress syndrome (AHR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.1), and first minute Apgar score classification of severe (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) significantly increased the risk of neonatal mortality.

Conclusion: In this study, we found a high rate of early neonatal mortality. Factors significantly linked with increased risk of neonatal mortality included: unemployed mothers, not attending ANC, not initiating exclusive breastfeeding, neonates admitted due to respiratory distress syndrome, and first minute Apgar score classified as severe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-1963-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023807PMC
February 2020

Incidence of common opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children on ART at Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jan 16;20(1):50. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For better treatments and interventions, current and up-to-date information concerning occurrence of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children is crucial. However, studies regarding the incidence of common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children in Ethiopia are very limited. Hence, this study aimed to determine the incidence of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Debre Markos Referral Hospital.

Methods: A facility-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken at Debre Markos Referral Hospital for the period of January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2019. A total of 408 HIV-infected children receiving ART were included. Data from HIV-infected children charts were extracted using a data extraction form adapted from ART entry and follow-up forms. Data were entered using Epi-data™ Version 3.1 and analyzed using Stata™ Version 14. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate the opportunistic infections free survival time. Both bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to identify the predictors of opportunistic infections.

Results: This study included the records of 408 HIV-infected children-initiated ART between the periods of January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2019. The overall incidence rate of opportunistic infections during the follow-up time was 9.7 (95% CI: 8.13, 11.48) per 100 child-years of observation. Tuberculosis at 29.8% was the most commonly encountered OI at follow-up. Children presenting with advanced disease stage (III and IV) (AHR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7), having "fair" or "poor" ART adherence (AHR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.8), not taking OI prophylaxis (AHR:1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), and CD4 count or % below the threshold (AHR:1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6) were at a higher risk of developing opportunistic infections.

Conclusions: In this study, the incidence rate of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children remained high. Concerning predictors, such as advanced disease stage (III and IV), CD4 count or % below the threshold, "fair" or "poor" ART adherence, and not taking past OI prophylaxis were found to be significantly associated with OIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-4772-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966876PMC
January 2020

Prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Dec 21;19(1):1073. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. It is prevalent in areas where personal and community hygiene is poor, and it mainly affects deprived and marginalized communities most importantly in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia.

Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among children in Ethiopia. We searched databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. To estimate the prevalence, studies reporting the prevalence of active trachoma and its associated factors were included. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft excel and the analysis was done using STATA 14 statistical software. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I test were used. Since the included studies revealed considerable heterogeneity, a random effect meta- analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of active trachoma. Moreover, the association between factors and active trachoma were examined.

Results: The result of 30 eligible studies showed that the overall prevalence of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia was 26.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 31.0%). In the subgroup analysis, while the highest prevalence was reported in SNNP (35.8%; 95% CI: 22.7, 48.8), the lowest prevalence was reported in Oromia region (20.2%; 95% CI: 12.2, 28.2). Absence of latrine: OR 6.0 (95% CI 2.0, 17.5), the unclean faces of children: OR 5.5 (95% CI 2.8, 10.9), and no reported use of soap for washing: OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.8, 6.0) have shown a positive association with active trachoma among children.

Conclusion: From this review, it has been concluded that active trachoma among children is still a public health problem in different districts of Ethiopia. The prevalence of almost all studies are significantly higher than WHO target for elimination. Absence of latrine, unclean faces of children, no reported use of soap for washing are the important factors associated with active trachoma among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4686-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925509PMC
December 2019

Burden of anemia and its association with HAART in HIV infected children in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Dec 4;19(1):1032. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Anemia is a common problem in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infected patients, and is associated with decreased functional capacity and quality of life. Ethiopia is one of the countries which has expanded highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) over the past years. The effect of HAART on anemia among HIV remains inconsistent and inconclusive, particularly in children. This study thus aimed to synthesize the prevalence of anemia among HIV infected Ethiopian children and its association with HAART initiation.

Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Google scholar were used to identify 12 eligible studies reporting an association between anemia and HIV using a priori set criteria. PRISMA guideline was used to systematically review and meta-analysis these studies. Details of sample size, magnitude of effect sizes, including odds ratio (OR) and standard errors were extracted. Random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates using STATA/SE version-14. I and meta-bias statistics assessed heterogeneity and publication bias of the included studies. Sub-group analyses, based on study designs, were also carried out.

Results: In Ethiopia, the overall prevalence of anemia in HIV infected children was 22.3% (95% CI: 18.5-26.0%). The OR of anemia-HIV/AIDS comorbidity was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5) in HAART initiated children as compared to non-initiated counterparts. Meta-bias and funnel plot detected no publication bias.

Conclusion: On aggregate, anemia is a common comorbidity in pediatric HIV patients. HAART was significantly associated with a reduced anemia-HIV/AIDS comorbidity. Prompt start of HAART might help decreasing the prevalence of anemia and its subsequent complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4656-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894299PMC
December 2019

Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy at Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective record review.

BMC Public Health 2019 Nov 27;19(1):1566. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, P.O. Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Almost one-third of deaths among people living with human immunodeficiency virus are attributed to tuberculosis. Despite this evidence, in Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of information regarding the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among people living with HIV. Thus, this study assessed the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: This study was a retrospective record review including 544 HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy at Debre Markos Referral Hospital between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2017. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The data extraction format was adapted from antiretroviral intake and follow-up forms. Cox-proportional hazards regression model was fitted and Cox-Snell residual test was used to assess the goodness of fit. Tuberculosis free survival time was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Both the bi-variable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard regression models were used to identify predictors of tuberculosis.

Results: In the final analysis, a total of 492 HIV-positive adults were included, of whom, 83 (16.9%) developed tuberculosis at the time of follow-up. This study found that the incidence of tuberculosis was 6.5 (95% CI: 5.2, 8.0) per 100-person-years (PY) of observation. Advanced World Health Organization clinical disease stage (III and IV) (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.2), being ambulatory and bedridden (AHR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), baseline opportunistic infections (AHR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 4.4), low hemoglobin level (AHR: 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.8), and not taking Isonized Preventive Therapy (AHR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 7.6) were found to be the predictors of tuberculosis.

Conclusion: The study found that there was a high rate of tuberculosis occurrence as compared to previous studies. Baseline opportunistic infections, being ambulatory and bedridden, advanced disease stage, low hemoglobin level, and not taking Isonized Preventive Therapy were found to be the predictors of tuberculosis. Therefore, early detection and treatment of opportunistic infections like tuberculosis should get a special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7912-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880633PMC
November 2019

Trends and spatial distributions of HIV prevalence in Ethiopia.

Infect Dis Poverty 2019 Oct 17;8(1):90. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

College of Health Sciences Department of Nursing, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally, by the end of 2018, 37.9 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sub-Saharan Africa carries the highest burden with an estimated 71% of the global total. In Ethiopia, an estimated 715 404 people were living with HIV in 2015 and this increased to 722 248 in 2017. This study was to explore the trends and spatial distributions of HIV cases in Ethiopia.

Methods: In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal distribution of persons living with HIV in Ethiopia using data from 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). Geographic information system (Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) and spatial scan statistics (SaTScan) were used for exploratory and confirmatory spatial analyses respectively.

Results: The overall prevalence of HIV in Ethiopia unveiled inconsistent trends, with the majority of areas showing decreasing trends. Hot spot clusters exhibited in all the three surveys, which include areas where Amhara, Afar and Tigray regions share neighbourhoods. In 2005 regionally, Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Harari had the highest prevalence at 6.0, 4.7 and 3.5%, respectively. While in the 2016 survey the highest prevalence (4.8%) was observed in Gambella regional state followed by Addis Ababa (3.4%).

Conclusions: The distribution of HIV infection in Ethiopia is not random in all the three EDHS surveys. High clusters of HIV cases were consistently observed in Addis Ababa and neighbouring areas of the Afar Tigray and Amhara regional states and central Oromia. This analysis revealed that there are still areas which need studying with respect to the epidemic of HIV. In this regard Addis Ababa, certain areas of Amhara regional state, large areas of Afar region and central Oromia require special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0594-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6796490PMC
October 2019

The impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking among high school and university students in Ethiopia: A systemic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(10):e0222572. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Background: Cigarettes and their by-products (i.e., smoke; ash) are a complex, dynamic, and reactive mixture of around 5,000 chemicals. Cigarette smoking potentially harms nearly every organ of the human body, causes innumerable diseases, and impacts the health of smokers and those interacting with the smokers. Smoking brings greater health problems in the long-term like increased risk of stroke and brain damage. For students, peer pressure is one of the key factors contributing to cigarette smoking. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking among high school and university students in Ethiopia.

Methods: An extensive search of key databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Embase and Science Direct was conducted to identify and access articles published on the prevalence of cigarette smoking by high school and university students in Ethiopia. The search period for articles was conducted from 21st September, 2018 to 25th December 25, 2018. All necessary data were extracted using a standardized data extraction checklist. Quality and risk of bias of studies were assessed using standardized tools. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using Cochrane Q-test statistic and I2 test. To estimate the pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking, a random effects model was fitted. The impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking was determined and was reported in Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software.

Results: From 175 searched articles, 19 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking among Ethiopian high school and university students was 15.9% (95% CI: 12.21, 19.63). Slightly higher prevalence of cigarette smoking was noted among university students [17.35% (95% CI: 13.21, 21.49)] as compared to high school students [12.77% (95% CI: 6.72%, 18.82%)]. The current aggregated meta-analysis revealed that peer pressure had a significant influence on cigarette smoking (OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 2.37, 3.03).

Conclusion: More than one sixth of the high school and university students in Ethiopia smoke cigarette. Students who had peer pressure from their friends were more likely to smoke cigarette. Therefore, school-based intervention programs are needed to reduce the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Ethiopia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222572PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788683PMC
March 2020

Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with Hypertension in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2019 Oct 11;156:107838. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

School of Commerce and Centre for Health, Informatics and Economic Research, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing public health concern globally, including Ethiopia. Although numerous studies have been published from different parts of Ethiopia, no attempt is made so far to estimate the burden of DM at the national level. This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of DM and its association with hypertension in Ethiopia.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in major databases. Two authors extracted the necessary data and analysis was conducted using STATA version 14. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by Cochran's Q test and I statistics.

Results: Eighteen studies with a total of 45,284 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of DM was 4.99% (95% CI: 3.86%, 6.11%). Hypertension was significantly associated with DM (OR: 8.32; 95% CI: 3.05, 22.71).

Conclusion: The burden of DM in Ethiopia is considerable, and the association between diabetes and hypertension is significant. Based on the evidence, this review recommends establishing the coordinated national programs that counteract the increasing burden of DM in the country is very essential. In addition, Early hypertension screening should be done in diabetic patients to control co-morbidity and further complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107838DOI Listing
October 2019

The burden of road traffic injury among trauma patients in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Afr J Emerg Med 2019 4;9(Suppl):S3-S8. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Road traffic injury (RTI) is one of the main reasons for trauma-related admission in Ethiopian hospitals. Nationally representative data is needed to develop and implement the public health emergency management strategy. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the national pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia.

Methods: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psycEXTRA, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I statistics. Publication bias was checked by using funnel plot and Egger's regression test. The DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age and region. The trend of RTI estimated as well.

Results: The pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia was 31.5% (95% CI: 25.4%, 37.7%). Regional subgroup analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 58.3% in the region of southern, nation, nationalities, and peoples (SNNPR) and 33.3% in Addis Ababa. Subgroup analysis based on patients age showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 51.7% in adults, 14.2% in children, and 32.6% in all age group. The time-trend analysis has shown an increasing burden of RTI in Ethiopian hospitals.

Conclusion: The burden of RTI among trauma patients was high. Therefore, strengthening road safety management throughout the country is needed to reduce RTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2019.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440918PMC
February 2019

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 13;19(1):254. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus are significant global public health challenges. In Sub-Saharan Africa, study findings regarding prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst tuberculosis patients have been inconsistent and highly variable. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Four international databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Cochrane Library) were systematically searched. We included all observational studies reporting the prevalence of DM among TB patients in Sub-Saharan Africa. All necessary data for this review were extracted using a standardized data extraction format by two authors (CT and AA1). STATA Version 14 statistical software was employed to conduct meta-analysis. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I test were used to assess the heterogeneity of the studies. Finally, a random effects meta-analysis model was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence of diabetes mellitus in TB patients. Besides, subgroup analysis was done based on different factors.

Results: In the meta-analysis, sixteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. The findings of these 16 studies revealed that the pooled prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa was 9.0% (95% CI: 6.0, 12.0%). The highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients was found in Nigeria (15%), followed by Tanzania (11%), and then Ethiopia (10%). Besides, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among HIV infected TB patients was (8.9%) which is slightly higher than HIV uninfected (7.7%) TB patients.

Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa was significantly high. Moreover, this study found that there was a high prevalence of DM among HIV infected than uninfected TB patients. It is strongly recommended to screen for DM among TB patients and special emphasis should be given for early screening of DM among TB/HIV co-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3892-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6417234PMC
March 2019

Factors associated with low birth weight at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Feb 27;12(1):105. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of low birth weight among newborns delivered at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Results: From the total of 368 newborn baby/mother pairs planned to be participated, 338 agreed and involved in the study giving a response rate of 91.2%. In this study, the prevalence of low birth weight was 21.6 (95% CI 17.5, 26%). Being rural residence (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0, 4.1), duration of pregnancy (AOR = 7.6, 95% CI 3.3, 17.4), and having complications during pregnancy (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2, 5.7) were found to be factors significantly associated with low birth weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4143-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391783PMC
February 2019

Treatment cure rate and its predictors among children with severe acute malnutrition in northwest Ethiopia: A retrospective record review.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0211628. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: More than 29 million that is an estimated 5%, under-five children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) globally, with a nine times higher risk of mortality than that of well-nourished children. However, little is known regarding outcomes and predictors of SAM in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to determine treatment cure rate and its predictors among children aged 6-59 months with SAM admitted to a stabilization center.

Methodology: A retrospective record review was employed in SAM children at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UOGCSH) from 2014 to 2016. SAM defined as weight for height below -3 z scores of the median World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards or presence of bilateral edema or mid upper arm circumference < 115mm for a child ≥6months age. All SAM patients with medical complication(s) or failure to pass appetite test are admitted to the malnutrition treatment center for inpatient follow-up. Data were extracted from a randomly selected records after getting ethical clearance. Data were cleaned, coded and entered to Epi-info version-7, and analyzed using STATA/se version-14. Descriptive statistics and analytic analyses schemes including bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards model were conducted.

Result: Among a total of 416 records recruited for this study, 288 (69.2%) SAM children were cured at the end of the follow up, with a median cure time of 11 days. Kwash-dermatosis (AHR (Adjusted Hazard Ratio): 1.48(95% CI: 1.01, 2.16)), anemia (AHR: 1.36(95% CI: 1.07, 1.74)), tuberculosis (AHR: 1.6(95% CI: 1.04, 2.43)) and altered body temperature at admission (AHR: 1.58(95% CI: 1.04, 2.4) were independent predictors of time to cure.

Conclusion: The cure rate in SAM children was low relative to sphere standard guideline. Prognosis of SAM largely depends on the presence of other comorbidities at admission. Available intervention modalities need to address coexisting morbidities to achieve better outcomes in SAM children.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211628PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382114PMC
November 2019

Willingness to join community based health insurance and its determinants in East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Jan 17;12(1):31. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Objective: The main purpose of this research was to determine the magnitude of willingness to join to community based health insurance (CBHI) and to identify factors associated with it.

Results: A total of 604 study participants responded for the interviews, making the response rate 98.2%. All in all, 492 (81.5%) of the study participant households were willing to join the CBHI scheme. Households which had experience of borrowing for medical expenses within the last 12 months prior to the study were 2.7 times more likely to join CBHI scheme than those who didn't have borrowed (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI 1.03, 6.83). Female headed households were 2.7 times more likely to take up the scheme compare to male headed households (AOR = 2.74; 95% CI 1.18, 6.37). High proportion of households was willing to join the CBHI scheme in the study area. Educational status of household head, experience of borrowing for medical expenses, sex of household head, household animal asset as measured by tropical livestock unit were factors found to be associated with willingness to take up CBHI scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4060-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337798PMC
January 2019

Seroprevalence of Asymptomatic among Laborers and Associated Risk Factors in Agricultural Camps of West Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Parasitol Res 2018 28;2018:5751743. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also called kala-azar) is a public health problem in Ethiopia, especially in sesame and sorghum growing areas. Compared to other populations, labor migrants are the most exposed. Knowing the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors is essential to design appropriate control measures. The main aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of asymptomatic among laborers and associated risk factors in agricultural camps of West Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to know the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infection.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 185 laborers from October to December 2017. A simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants from selected agricultural camps. After obtaining written informed consent, data were collected using a structured pretested Amharic version questionnaire using the interview technique. A single finger prick blood sample was collected from the study participants and the blood samples were subjected to the serological diagnostic method using the rk39 kit. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with infection.

Result: Among 185 participants examined using rk39, 14 (7.6%) were seroreactive for . infection had a statistically significant association with sleeping under trees (AOR: 4.36, 95%CI: 1.186-16.06), presence of domestic animals near sleeping place (AOR: 4.68, 95% CI: 1.25-17.56), and lack of knowledge about VL transmission (AOR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.07-13.47).

Conclusion: Seroprevalence of asymptomatic among laborers in agricultural camps of West Armachiho was low. Prevention measures and health education about risk factors that expose to infection for the laborers are essential to prevent the spread of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5751743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304200PMC
November 2018

The effect of antenatal care follow-up on neonatal health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Public Health Rev 2018 17;39:33. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Neonatal mortality is one of the major public health problems throughout the world and most notably in developing countries. There exist inconclusive findings on the effect of antenatal care visits on neonatal death worldwide. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to reveal the pooled effect of antenatal care visits on neonatal death.

Methods: The present systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using published literature, which was accessed from national and international databases such as, Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central library, Google Scholar, and HINARI. STATA/SE for windows version 13 software was used to calculate the pooled effect size with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of maternal antenatal care visits on neonatal death using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects meta-analysis (random effects model), and results were displayed using forest plot. Statistical heterogeneity was checked using the Cochran test (chi-squared statistic) and test statistic and by visual examination of the forest plot.

Results: A total of 18 studies, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were included in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. The finding of the present systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that antenatal care visits decrease the risk of neonatal mortality [pooled effect size 0.66 (95% CI, 0.54, 0.80)]. Cochrane test ( < 0.001) revealed no significant heterogeneity among included studies, but statistic revealed sizeable heterogeneity up to 80.5% (  = 80.5%). In the present meta-analysis traditional funnel plot, Egger's weighted regression ( = 0.48) as well as Begg's rank correlation statistic ( = 0.47) revealed no evidence of publication bias.

Conclusions: The present systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that antenatal care visits were significantly associated with lower rates of neonatal death. The risk of neonatal death was significantly reduced by 34% among newborns delivered from mothers who had antenatal care visits. Thus, visiting antenatal care clinics during pregnancy is strongly recommended especially in resource-limited settings like countries of sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40985-018-0110-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296103PMC
December 2018
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