Publications by authors named "Anila Dwivedi"

46 Publications

Targeted inhibition of TAK1 abrogates TGFβ1 non-canonical signaling axis, NFκB/Smad7 inhibiting human endometriotic cells proliferation and inducing cell death involving autophagy.

Cytokine 2021 Dec 21;148:155700. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CDRI Campus, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor (TGFβ) is known to play a major role in establishment and maintenance of endometriosis as reported by our group earlier, the underlying mechanism remains to be explored. We deciphered the involvement of TAK1 in TGFβ1- induced cellular responses and delineated the signaling mechanism in human endometriotic cells. The endometriotic cells showed elevated expression of TGFβ1 signaling-effector molecules. TGFβ1 exposure to endometriotic cells induced the expression of the downstream target molecules indicating that TGFβ1 is implicated in the commencement ofTAK1/NFκB-p65/Smad7 cascade. The silencing of TAK1 in endometriotic cells attenuated the TGFβ1 -induced NFκB transcriptional activation and nuclear translocation of NFκB-p65 subunit. The pharmacological inhibition of NFκB by QNZ or knockdown of TAK1 reduced the expression of Smad7 and Cox2. The knockdown of TAK1 in endometriotic cells showed G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and showed low BrdU-incorporation in the presence of TGFβ1. The inhibition of TAK1 attenuated the TGFβ1 signaling activation indicating that TAK1 is a crucial mediator for TGFβ1 action in endometriotic cells. The exposure of endometriotic cells to TAK1 inhibitor, celastrol caused activation of caspase-3 and -9 that led to PARP cleavage and induced apoptosis. Simultaneously, autophagy occurred in celastrol-treated and TAK1-silenced cells as was evidenced by the formation of autophagosome and the increased expression of autophagic markers. Thus, TAK1 activation appears to protect the growth of endometriotic cells by suppressing the cell death process. Overall, our study provided the evidence that of TAK1 significant in the endometriotic cell regulation and mediates a functional cross-talk between TGFβ1 and NFκB-p65 that promotes the growth and inflammatory response in endometriotic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155700DOI Listing
December 2021

Peroxiredoxin 6 Plays Essential Role in Mediating Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development in Rabbit Oviduct.

Reprod Sci 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226031, India.

The oviduct is a site for early reproductive events including gamete maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Secretory cells lining the oviduct lumen synthesize and secrete proteins that interact with gametes and developing embryos. Although previous studies have identified some of the secretory proteins in the oviduct, however, knowledge and their precise specific functions in the oviduct are poorly understood. In this study, by using proteomic approach, we identified a secretory protein, Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), and evaluated its role in mediating early pregnancy events, fertilization, and embryo development in rabbit oviduct. The expression of PRDX6 was significantly higher in ampulla and isthmus sections of the oviduct in mated animal groups compared to non-mated controls. Furthermore, significant reduction in number of embryos recovered from PRDX6 siRNA-transfected oviductal horn was observed compared to the control contralateral horn. Moreover, in animals receiving PRDX6 siRNA in their oviductal horn, the number of implanted blastocysts was significantly less in the uterus as observed on day 9 post-coital (p.c.). Further, during embryo-rabbit oviduct epithelial cell (ROEC) co-culture, siRNA-mediated PRDX6 silencing attenuated the early embryonic development. Mechanistically, increased levels of ROS and expression of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related proteins were found in PRDX6 siRNA-treated ROEC cells as compared to control cells, implicating that ablation of PRDX6 in the oviduct creates a stress-induced micro-environment detrimental to early embryonic development in oviduct. Taken together, our data suggest that PRDX6 maintains an optimal micro-environment conducive to successful embryo development and can be considered as a candidate to evaluate its therapeutic potential in IVF strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00689-xDOI Listing
August 2021

Design, synthesis and broad spectrum antibreast cancer activity of diarylindoles via induction of apoptosis in aggressive breast cancer cells.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Jul 5;42:116252. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), P.O. CIMAP, Kukrail Picnic Spot Road, Lucknow 226 015, U.P., India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi 110001, India. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women with significant morbidity and mortality. Present study describes design, synthesis and detailed pharmacology of indole derivatives exhibiting remarkable broad spectrum antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells. Detailed mechanistic evaluations confirmed induction of G0/G1 arrest, apoptosis induction, loss of mitochondrial integrity, enhanced ROS generation, autophagy, estrogen receptor β-transactivation and increased tubulin polymerization. In in-vivo efficacy studies in rodent model, these indole derivatives induced significant regression in mice mammary tumour on 21 days daily oral dose. Moreover, compounds 19 and 23 were safe in Swiss albino mice in safety studies. These diarylindoles may further be optimized for better efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116252DOI Listing
July 2021

Naringenin ameliorates progression of endometriosis by modulating Nrf2/Keap1/HO1 axis and inducing apoptosis in rats.

J Nutr Biochem 2019 08 21;70:215-226. Epub 2019 May 21.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Electronic address:

Endometriosis is mainly characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue exterior to the uterus, however, the exact pathophysiology of this disease still remains uncertain. Moreover, the incidence significantly contributes to infertility among women and hence, a novel treatment for endometriosis is widely investigated. Naringenin is a plant-derived flavonoid having anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties in chronic and metabolic diseases. The current study was planned with an objective to demonstrate the anti-endometriotic therapeutic potential of naringenin in rats and to examine its impact on various cellular aspects with a view to define the mechanism involved. The endometrial lesion volumes, weight, serum TNF-α level and the histopathologic scores were significantly reduced in the naringenin- treated group as compared to the endometriotic control group. Naringenin ameliorated the expression of prognostic markers (TAK1, PAK1, VEGF and PCNA) involved in development and progression of endometriotic cells. Naringenin caused dose-dependent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in these cells. Further, a significant increase in level of Nrf2 and its downstream molecules (NQO1, HO-1) was found in endometriotic lesion, with a subsequent decrease in its repressor molecule Keap-1. Naringenin significantly modulated the expression of Nrf2 and its effector molecules downstream. It also inhibited the invasion of endometrial cells by reducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in in-vitro primary culture. We conclude that naringenin may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis via induction of ROS-mediated apoptosis and its anti-invasive effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.05.003DOI Listing
August 2019

Microtubule depolymerization attenuates WNT4/CaMKIIα signaling in mouse uterus and leads to implantation failure.

Reproduction 2019 07;158(1):47-59

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Microtubule (MT) dynamics plays a crucial role in fertilization and early embryonic development; however its involvement in uterus during embryo implantation remains unclear. Herein, we report the effect of microtubule depolymerization during embryo implantation in BALB/c mice. Intrauterine treatment with depolymerizing agent nocodazole at pre-implantation phase (D4, 07:00 h) in mice resulted into mitigation in receptivity markers viz. LIF, HoxA10, Integrin-β3, IHH, WNT4 and led to pregnancy failure. MT depolymerization in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) also inhibited the blastocyst attachment and the adhesion. The decreased expression of MT polymerization-related proteins TPPP and α/β-tubulin in luminal and glandular epithelial cells along with the alteration in morphology of pinopodes in the luminal epithelium was observed in nocodazole receiving uteri. Nocodazole treatment also led to increased intracellular Ca+2 levels in EECs, which indicated that altered Ca+2 homeostasis might be responsible for implantation failure. Microtubule depolymerization inhibited WNT4 and Fz-2 interaction, thereby suppressing the downstream WNT4/CaMKIIα signaling cascades calmodulin and calcineurin which led to attenuation of NF-κB transcriptional promoter activity in EECs. MT depolymerization or CaMKIIα knockdown inhibited the transcription factor NFAT and NF-κB expression along with reduced secretion of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α in mouse EECs. Overall, MT depolymerization impaired the WNT4/CaMKIIα signaling and suppressed the secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α in EECs which may be responsible for implantation failure in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-18-0611DOI Listing
July 2019

MicroRNA-145 targets Smad1 in endometrial stromal cells and regulates decidualization in rat.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2019 04 7;97(4):509-522. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute|, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226031, India.

Decidualization of endometrial stromal cells is the pre-requisite for the embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Although known to be regulated by several factors, the process of regulation of decidualization by miRNAs is largely unknown. Previous reports suggest that the upregulated expression of miR-145 is associated with repeated implantation failure. The current study was aimed to identify and validate the role of miR-145 in regulating stromal cell decidualization and the mechanism involved therein. Expression of miR-145 was found to be downregulated during the decidualization period of early pregnancy and also in artificially induced decidualization in rat uterus. During in vitro decidualization in rat endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), the overexpression of mimic miR-145 attenuated the progression of decidualization. Biochemical marker alkaline phosphatase and protein markers (insulin-like growth factor binding protein, cyclin D3) were also suppressed in miR-145 mimic-transfected cells as compared to normal decidualized cells. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Smad1 is the direct target of miR-145. Differentiation of ESCs was inhibited in miR-145 mimic-transfected cells which occurred via downregulating the target Smad1 along with its downstream p-Smad1/5/8 and Wnt-4. Pre-treatment of ESCs with Smad1 siRNA resulted in downregulated expression of p-Smad1/5/8, Wnt-4, Cox-2, and VEGF. In addition, miR-145 overexpression resulted in the loss of angiogenic factors Cox-2, MMP-9, and VEGF, indicating suppression of the process of angiogenesis. Migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was also attenuated in the presence of conditioned media obtained from miR-145-transfected decidualizing cells. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the role of miR-145 in regulation of progression of decidualization which is mediated through inhibition of Smad1. KEY MESSAGES: MiR-145 expression is downregulated during decidualization in the rat uterus. Overexpression of miR-145 inhibited the decidualization progression. MiR-145 suppressed the migration and invasion of HUVECs. MiR-145 downregulated Smad1 which suppresses Smad1/5/8, Wnt-4, MMP-9, Cox-2, and VEGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-019-01744-6DOI Listing
April 2019

Inhibition of TPPP3 attenuates β-catenin/NF-κB/COX-2 signaling in endometrial stromal cells and impairs decidualization.

J Endocrinol 2019 03;240(3):417-429

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Embryo implantation and decidualization are critical events that occur during early pregnancy. Decidualization is synchronized by the crosstalk of progesterone and the cAMP signaling pathway. Previously, we confirmed the role of TPPP3 during embryo implantation in mice, but the underlying role and mechanism of TPPP3 in decidualization has not yet been understood. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of TPPP3 in decidualization in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo experiments, decidual reaction was artificially induced in the uteri of BALB/c mice. TPPP3 was found to be highly expressed during decidualization, whereas in the uteri receiving TPPP3 siRNA, decidualization was suppressed and the expression of β-catenin and decidual marker prolactin was reduced. In human endometrium, TPPP3 protein was found to be predominantly expressed in the mid-secretory phase (LH+7). In the primary culture of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs), TPPP3 siRNA knockdown inhibited stromal-to-decidual cell transition and decreased the expression of the decidualization markers prolactin and IGFBP-1. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting experiments revealed that TPPP3 siRNA knockdown suppressed the expression of β-catenin, NF-κB and COX-2 in hESCs during decidualization. TPPP3 inhibition also decreased NF-kB nuclear accumulation in hESCs and suppressed NF-κB transcriptional promoter activity. COX-2 expression was significantly decreased in the presence of a selective NF-kB inhibitor (QNZ) implicating that NF-kB is involved in COX-2 expression in hESCs undergoing decidualization. TUNEL assay and FACS analysis revealed that TPPP3 knockdown induced apoptosis and caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in hESCs. The study suggested that TPPP3 plays a significant role in decidualization and its inhibition leads to the suppression of β-catenin/NF-κB/COX-2 signaling along with the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-18-0459DOI Listing
March 2019

Sonic hedgehog protects endometrial hyperplasial cells against oxidative stress via suppressing mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like GTPase (Drp1).

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 12 19;129:582-599. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CDRI Campus, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Hh/Gli1 cascade as well as Gsk3β-Gli1 crosstalk play crucial role in estrogen-dependent progression of endometrial hyperplasia (EH). However, the underlying mechanisms involved in progression of disease still remain unclear. In the present study, we explored the role of Hh signaling in protection of endometrial hyperplasial cells against oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism involved therein. EH cells were found to be more resistant towards HO-induced oxidative stress (IC: ~ 3×) as compared with normal endometrial cells. Estrogen (E2) pre-treatment followed by cytotoxic dose of HO almost rescued the EH cells from apoptosis and caused the increased expression of downstream Shh signaling molecules i.e., Smo, Ptch and Gli1. Whereas pretreatment with cyclopamine was not able to curtail HO-induced effects indicating that estrogen protects these cells via activation of Shh pathway. Further, HO-induced ROS and lipid peroxidation alongwith decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found to be reversed in EH cells pre-exposed to E2 or rShh. The rShh suppressed HO-induced cell death and caused attenuation of mitochondrial apoptotic mediators and prevented disruption in mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential in EH cells. The functional blockage of signaling by Shh siRNA or Gli1siRNA led to significantly increased expression of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like GTPase (Drp1). The HO-treated EH cells showed diminished Gli1 and increased Drp1 expression, concurrent with reduced p-Drp1-(serine637). Whereas rShh pre-treated EH cells presented normal mitochondrial dynamics with dense, long networks of mitochondria alongwith nuclear accumulation of Gli1 and the decreased expression of Drp1. Overall, our results implicated that Shh signaling modulates antioxidant defense system and stabilizes mitochondrial dynamics by suppressing Drp1 protein which maintains survival of EH cells against oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.10.427DOI Listing
December 2018

Uterine TPPP3 plays important role in embryo implantation via modulation of β-catenin.

Biol Reprod 2018 11;99(5):982-999

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR- Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226031, UP, India.

Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 3 (TPPP3) is known to be expressed in the endometrium in a cyclic manner, and its functional role in the physiology of implantation remains unknown. Here we demonstrate a novel function of TPPP3 during the window of implantation and in the establishment of pregnancy using a mouse model. The increased protein expression of TPPP3 and β-catenin during peri-implantation period, i.e. D5 (receptive phase, 0800 h), was observed as compared to that on D1 (nonreceptive phase, 0800 h). SiRNATPPP3-mediated knockdown of uterine TPPP3 resulted in implantation failure and inhibited the expression of receptivity markers: LIF, Integrin-β3, IHH, and Wnt4. TPPP3 silencing in mouse endometrial epithelial cells also prevented blastocyst attachment and the adhesion reaction. In delayed implantation experiment, expression of TPPP3 was increased in active implantation group (E2 + P4) compared to delayed implantation group (P4). The increased expression of TPPP3 in E2 + P4-treated Ishikawa cells compared to vehicle or P4 or E2 alone-treated Ishikawa cells also revealed its upregulation by E2. The suppression of β-catenin in uterus under the condition of transient knockdown of TPPP3 and the co-immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that regulation of β-catenin was mediated via TPPP3 during implantation. Additionally, in order to gain insight into TPPP3 collaborators, we identified TPPP3 interacting proteins by nanoLC-MS analysis in mouse uterus which might be involved during implantation. In conclusion, our study suggests that TPPP3 is important for embryo implantation and for the establishment of early pregnancy through modulation of β-catenin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioy136DOI Listing
November 2018

Selective estrogen receptor modulator ormeloxifene suppresses embryo implantation via inducing miR-140 and targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in rat uterus.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04 10;178:272-282. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Electronic address:

Ormeloxifene, the non-steroidal SERM contraceptive, inhibits endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation via countering nidatory estrogen. However, the molecular mechanism of ormeloxifene action responsible for its contraceptive efficacy still remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to identify the miRNAs modulated under the influence of ormeloxifene and to explore their role in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. By doing microRNA sequencing analysis, a total of 168 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in uterine tissue of ormeloxifene-treated rats, on day 5 (10:00 h) of pregnancy i.e. peri-implantation period. Out of differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-140 expression was found to be elevated in ormeloxifene administered groups and was selected for detailed investigation. In-vivo gain-of-function of miR-140 resulted in a significant reduction of implantation sites indicating its role in embryo implantation. The experiment on delayed implantation showed that estradiol caused down-regulation of miR-140. It also suppressed the attachment and outgrowth of BeWo spheroids to RL95-2 endometrial cells. In transwell migration assay, miR-140 was found to be involved in suppression of migration and invasion of endometrial epithelial cells. The ormeloxifene treatment caused up-regulation of miR-140 along with down-regulated expression of its target IGF1R in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells which also led to the suppression of downstream effectors integrin β3 and FAK. In mimic miR-140 receiving horn, the reduced expression of IGF1R was observed along with suppressed downstream integrin β3 and FAK similar to that observed in uteri of ormeloxifene- treated rats. Taken together, these findings suggest that ormeloxifene-induced inhibition of embryo implantation occurs via inducing miR-140 and altering its target IGF1R in rat uterus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.01.006DOI Listing
April 2018

Sorcin is involved during embryo implantation via activating VEGF/PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

J Mol Endocrinol 2018 02 22;60(2):119-132. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Our earlier studies have demonstrated the cyclic variation and also the altered expression of sorcin in endometrium during early-to-mid-secretory phase transition in women with unexplained infertility. The current study was undertaken to establish the functional role of sorcin in endometrial receptivity in mice. Results indicated that sorcin was highly expressed during the window of implantation in mice and functional blockage of sorcin caused significant reduction in number of implanted blastocyst. The receptivity markers (i.e.Integrin β3, HBEGF, IGFBP1, WNT4 and Cyclin E)) were found to be downregulated in sorcin knocked down uterine horn on day 5 as compared to untreated horn. The reduced attachment and expansion of BeWo spheroids on RL95-2 endometrial cells with sorcin knock down, in model of endometrium-trophoblast interaction further supported these findings. Uterine sorcin expression pattern during estrous cycle and in delayed implantation mice model suggested the upregulation of sorcin by estrogen. The functional blockade of sorcin induced the intracellular Ca levels in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs), which indicated that altered Ca homeostasis might be responsible for implantation failure. Sorcin silencing led to significant reduction in the expression of angiogenic factor VEGF and its downstream effector molecules i.e. PI3K, Akt and NOS. The migratory and invasive properties of HUVECs were abrogated by anti-VEGF or by adding culture media from sorcin blocked EECs, which indicated that sorcin might mediate angiogenesis during implantation. Taken together, sorcin is involved in the regulation of Ca-mediated angiogenesis via VEGF/PI3K/Akt pathway in endometrial cells and plays a crucial role in preparing the endometrium for implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JME-17-0153DOI Listing
February 2018

The regulation of Hh/Gli1 signaling cascade involves Gsk3β- mediated mechanism in estrogen-derived endometrial hyperplasia.

Sci Rep 2017 07 26;7(1):6557. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 226031, U.P., India.

The present study was undertaken to explore the functional involvement of Hh signaling and its regulatory mechanism in endometrial hyperplasia. Differential expression of Hh signaling molecules i.e., Ihh, Shh, Gli1 or Gsk3β was observed in endometrial hyperplasial (EH) cells as compared to normal endometrial cells. Estradiol induced the expression of Hh signaling molecules and attenuated the expression of Gsk3β whereas anti-estrogen (K1) or progestin (MPA) suppressed these effects in EH cells. Cyclopamine treatment or Gli1 siRNA knockdown suppressed the growth of EH cells and reduced the expression of proliferative markers. Estradiol also induced the nuclear translocation of Gli1 which was suppressed by both MPA and K1 in EH cells. While exploring non-canonical mechanism, LY-294002 (Gsk3β activator) caused a decrease in Gli1 expression indicating the involvement of Gsk3β in Gli1 regulation. Further, Gsk3β silencing promoted the expression and nuclear translocation of Gli1 demonstrating that Gsk3β serves as a negative kinase regulator of Gli1 in EH cells. Similar attenuation of Hh signaling molecules was observed in rats with uterine hyperplasia undergoing anti-estrogen treatment. The study suggested that Hh/Gli1 cascade (canonical pathway) as well as Gsk3β-Gli1 crosstalk (non-canonical pathway) play crucial role in estrogen-dependent cell proliferation in endometrial hyperplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06370-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5529438PMC
July 2017

Enhanced apoptosis, survivin down-regulation and assisted immunochemotherapy by curcumin loaded amphiphilic mixed micelles for subjugating endometrial cancer.

Nanomedicine 2017 Aug 27;13(6):1953-1963. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Survivin is up-regulated in 83% of endometrial cancer leading to resistance development. As endometrial tumor advances, it also elicits chronic inflammation characterized by increased cytokine secretion and immune cells infiltration. The present study was designed to engineer mixed micellar curcumin loaded formulation for investigating survivin down-regulation, its anti-cancer and cytokine modulatory potential against endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) was applied to predict the compatibility between curcumin and surfactant mixture. The developed and characterized formulations were used to comparatively assess hemolysis, cellular uptake, cell-viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, rhodamine accumulation and bioavailability. In-vitro cytotoxicity in Vero cells demonstrated no deleterious effects on cell population. We saw better bioavailability, significant rhodamine accumulation, changes in protein expression and modulation in TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. In conclusion, developed formulation warrants exploring the therapeutic interventions for overcoming resistance development in endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2017.04.014DOI Listing
August 2017

Curcumin exhibits anti-tumor effect and attenuates cellular migration via Slit-2 mediated down-regulation of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

J Nutr Biochem 2017 06 16;44:60-70. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226031, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Although curcumin shows anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in various cancers, the effect of curcumin on cellular migration in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells remains to be understood. The current investigation was aimed to explore the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of curcumin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Our in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies showed that curcumin inhibited the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells and suppressed the tumor growth in Ishikawa xenograft mouse model. Curcumin induced ROS-mediated apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. Curcumin suppressed the migration rate of Ishikawa and Hec-1B cells as analyzed by scratch wound assay. In transwell migration studies, knock down of Slit-2 reversed the anti-migratory effect of curcumin in these cell lines. Curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of Slit-2 in Ishikawa, Hec-1B and primary endometrial cancer cells while it down-regulated the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 which in turn, suppressed the expression of matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) 2 and 9, thus attenuating the migration of endometrial cancer cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that curcumin has inhibitory effect on cellular migration via Slit-2 mediated down-regulation of CXCR4, SDF-1, and MMP2/MMP9 in endometrial carcinoma cells. These findings helped explore the role of Slit-2 in endometrial cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.12.021DOI Listing
June 2017

3-Piperidylethoxypterocarpan: A potential bone anabolic agent that improves bone quality and restores trabecular micro-architecture in ovariectomized osteopenic rats.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 06 10;448:41-54. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India. Electronic address:

A series of new 6H-benzofuro[3, 2-c]chromenes (BFC, pterocarpans) with structure-activity relationships were investigated for their potential use in osteoporosis treatment. One of the BFCs 3-piperidylethoxypterocarpan 20 promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization at a dose as low as 1 pM via activation of ER/P38MAPK/BMP-2 pathway. When evaluated for in-vivo osteogenic activity in female Sprague-Dawley rats, BFC 20 increased bone mineral density and new bone formation, compared with control at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/body weight by oral gavage for 30 days. The compound was devoid of any uterotrophic effect and led to the new bone formation in adult ovariectomized osteopenic rats. BFC 20 compound also inhibited bone resorption by reducing Ovx induced increase in urinary CTx, thus exhibiting both bone anabolic and anti-catabolic action. Finally, BFC 20 treatment to Ovx rats led to improved trabecular microarchitectural restoration and exhibited therapeutic potential as a dual acting anti-osteoporotic agent for the management of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.03.010DOI Listing
June 2017

RHOG-DOCK1-RAC1 Signaling Axis Is Perturbed in DHEA-Induced Polycystic Ovary in Rat Model.

Reprod Sci 2017 05 22;24(5):738-752. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

1 Endocrinology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

The function of RHOG, a RAC1 activator, was explored in the ovary during ovarian follicular development and pathological conditions. With the help of immunoblotting and immunolocalization, we determined the expression and localization of RHOG in normal (estrous cycle) and polycystic ovaries using Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Employing polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, we analyzed the transcript and expression levels of downstream molecules of RHOG, DOCK1, and RAC1 in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) ovary along with normal antral follicular theca and granulosa cells after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation. The effect of RHOG knockdown on DOCK1, VAV, and RAC1 expression was evaluated in the human ovarian cells (SKOV3), theca cells, and granulosa cells from SD rats with the help of flow cytometry. Oocyte at secondary follicles along with stromal cells showed optimal expression of RHOG. Immunoblotting of RHOG revealed its maximum expression at diestrus and proestrus, which was downregulated at estrus stage. Mild immunostaining of RHOG was also present in the theca and granulosa cells of the secondary and antral follicles. Polycystic ovary exhibited weak immunostaining for RHOG and that was corroborated by immunoblotting-based investigations. RHOG effectors DOCK1 and ELMO1 were found reduced in the ovary in PCOS condition/DHEA. RHOG silencing reduced the expression of DOCK1 and RAC1 in the theca and granulosa cells from SD rat antral follicles and that was mirrored in the human ovarian cells. Collectively, RHOG can mediate signaling through downstream effectors DOCK1 and RAC1 during ovarian follicular development (theca and granulosa cells and oocyte), but DHEA downregulated them in the PCOS ovary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719116669057DOI Listing
May 2017

Bivalent Approach for Homodimeric Estradiol Based Ligand: Synthesis and Evaluation for Targeted Theranosis of ER(+) Breast Carcinomas.

Bioconjug Chem 2016 Apr 29;27(4):961-72. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences, DRDO , Brig. SK Mazumdar Marg, Delhi-110054, India.

The synthesis of estradiol based bivalent ligand [(EST)2DT] is reported and its potential for targeted imaging and therapy of ER(+) tumors has been evaluated. For the purpose, ethinylestradiol was functionalized with an azidoethylamine moiety via click chemistry. The resultant derivative was reacted in a bivalent mode with DTPA-dianhydride to form the multicoordinate chelating agent, (EST)2DT which displayed capability to bind (99m)Tc. The radiolabeled complex, (99m)Tc-(EST)2DT was obtained in >99% radiochemical purity and 20-48 GBq/μmol of specific activity. RBA assay revealed ∼15% binding with estrogen receptor. Evaluation of ligand on ER(+)-cell line (MCF-7) suggested enhanced and ER-mediated uptake. In vivo assays displayed early tracer accumulation in MCF-7 xenografts with tumor to muscle ratio ∼6 in 2 h and negligible uptakes in nontargeted organs. MTT assay performed on ER(+) and ER(-) cell lines displayed selective inhibition of ER(+) cancer cell growth with IC50 = 14.3 μM which was comparable to tamoxifen. The anticancer activity of the ligand is possibly due to the increase in ERβ and suppression of ERα protein levels in gene transcription. The studies reveal the potential of (EST)2DT as diagnostic imaging agent with the additional benefits in therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00024DOI Listing
April 2016

Spiro-oxindole derivative 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells via restoration of p53 function.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2016 Jan 7;70:105-17. Epub 2015 Nov 7.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India. Electronic address:

Breast cancer remains a significant health problem due to the involvement of multiple aberrant and redundant signaling pathways in tumorigenesis and the development of resistance to the existing therapeutic agents. Therefore, the search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for effective management of breast cancer is still warranted. In an effort to develop new anti-breast cancer agents, we have synthesized and identified novel spiro-oxindole derivative G613 i.e. 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one, which has shown growth inhibitory activity in breast cancer cells. The present study was aimed to explore the mechanism of anti-tumorigenic action of this newly identified spiro-oxindole compound. Compound G613 inhibited the Mdm2-p53 interaction in breast cancer cells and tumor xenograft. It caused restoration of p53 function by activating its promoter activity, triggering its nuclear accumulation and preventing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Supportively, molecular docking studies revealed considerable homology in the docking mode of G613 and the known Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, to p53 binding pocket of Mdm2. The activation of p53 led to upregulation of p53 dependent pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Pumaα and Noxa and enhanced interaction of p53 with bcl2 member proteins thus triggering both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptosis, respectively. Additionally, the compound decreased estrogen receptor activity through sequestration of estrogen receptor α by p53 thereby causing a decreased transcriptional activation and expression of proliferation markers. In conclusion, G613 represents a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the Mdm2-p53 interaction and can serve as a promising lead for developing a new class of anti-cancer therapy for breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2015.11.003DOI Listing
January 2016

Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

J Gynecol Oncol 2016 Jan 1;27(1):e8. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Korea.

Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2016.27.e8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695458PMC
January 2016

Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rat oviductal epithelial cells: Evidence for involvement of GPR30/Src kinase-mediated EGFR signaling.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2015 Nov 1;154:130-41. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, UP, India. Electronic address:

The oviduct plays a crucial role in female reproduction by regulating gamete transport, providing a specific microenvironment for fertilization and early embryonic development. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandins play essential role in carrying out these oviduct-specific functions. Estrogen upregulates COX-2 expression in rat oviduct; however, the mechanisms responsible for regulation of COX-2 expression in rat oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) remain unclear. In the present study, we proposed that estrogen induces COX-2 expression via G-protein coupled receptor i.e., GPR30 in OECs. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the effects of E2-BSA, ICI 182,780, GPR30 agonist and GPR30 antagonist on COX-2 expression and explored potential signaling pathway leading to COX-2 expression. Co-localization experiments revealed GPR30 to be primarily located in the peri-nuclear space, which was also the site of E2-BSA-fluorescein isothiocyanate (E2-BSA-FITC) binding. The E2-BSA induced-COX-2 and prostaglandin release were subjected to regulation by both EGFR and PI3K signaling as inhibitors of c-Src kinase (PP2), EGFR (EGFR inhibitor) and PI-3 kinase (LY294002) attenuated E2-BSA mediated effect. These results suggest that EGFR transactivation leading to activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway participates in COX-2 expression in rat OECs. Interestingly, E2-BSA induced COX-2 expression and subsequent prostaglandin release were abolished by NF-κB inhibitor. In addition, E2-BSA induced the nuclear translocation of p65-NF-κB and up-regulated the NF-κB promoter activity in rat OECs. Taken together, results demonstrated that E2-BSA induced the COX-2 expression and consequent PGE2 and PGF2α release in rat OECs. These effects are mediated through GPR30-derived EGFR transactivation and PI-3K/Akt cascade leading to NF-κB activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.07.019DOI Listing
November 2015

Design and synthesis of new bioisosteres of spirooxindoles (MI-63/219) as anti-breast cancer agents.

Bioorg Med Chem 2015 Feb 23;23(4):839-48. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi, India; Endocrinology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, (CSIR-CDRI), Sector 10, Jankipuram, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031, India.

We report herein the design and synthesis of bioisosteres of spirooxindole (MI-63/219), a small-molecule inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction as anti-breast cancer agents. Compound 5b has been exhibiting significant anti-proliferative activity in nude mice bearing MCF-7 xenograft tumor. The compound 5b was found to act via modulation of MDM2 and p53 expression in breast cancer cells expressing wild type p53. Compound 5b stimulated p53 activation, caused modulation of downstream effectors p21, pRb, and cyclin D1 which regulate cell cycle. Thus, compound triggered G1-S phase cell cycle arrest, which was evident by flow cytometric analysis of treated breast cancer cells. Thus, compound 5b restores the p53 function, which triggers molecular events consistent with cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2014.12.037DOI Listing
February 2015

Alteration in endometrial proteins during early- and mid-secretory phases of the cycle in women with unexplained infertility.

PLoS One 2014 18;9(11):e111687. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility.

Methods: 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n = 8) and mid-secretory (n = 8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of fertile women.

Results: Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women.

Conclusions: De-regulation of the expression of Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran, during early- to mid-secretory phase may have physiological significance and it may be one of the causes for altered differentiation and/or maturation of endometrium, in women with unexplained infertility.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111687PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236019PMC
July 2015

Synthesis of 2-alkoxy and 2-benzyloxy analogues of estradiol as anti-breast cancer agents through microtubule stabilization.

Eur J Med Chem 2014 Oct 10;86:740-51. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Kukrail Picnic Spot Road, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow 226015, India. Electronic address:

2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is an investigational anticancer drug. In the present study, 2-alkoxyesters/acid and 2-benzyloxy analogues of estradiol have been synthesized as analogues of 2ME2. Three of the derivatives exhibited significant anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell lines. The best analogue of the series i.e. 24 showed stabilization of tubulin polymerisation process. It was substantiated by confocal microscopy and molecular docking studies where 24 occupied 'paclitaxel binding pocket' to stabilize the polymerisation process. Compound 24 significantly inhibited MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50: 7 μM) and induced arrest of cell cycle and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. In acute oral toxicity, 24 was found to be non-toxic and well tolerated in Swiss albino mice up to 1000 mg/kg dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.09.033DOI Listing
October 2014

Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2014 Oct 11;280(2):323-34. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031, India. Electronic address:

The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3'diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ~5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P<0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2014.08.002DOI Listing
October 2014

Benzopyran derivative CDRI-85/287 induces G2-M arrest in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells via modulation of estrogen receptors α- and β-mediated signaling, in parallel to EGFR signaling and suppresses the growth of tumor xenograft.

Steroids 2013 Nov 26;78(11):1071-86. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India.

In an endeavor to develop novel and improved selective estrogen receptor modulators as anti-breast cancer agents, the benzopyran compounds have been synthesized and identified which act as potent anti-estrogen at uterine level. The present study evaluates the anti-tumor activity of 2-[piperidinoethoxyphenyl]-3-phenyl-2H-benzo(b)pyran (CDRI-85/287) and explores the mechanism of action with a view to describe its potential to inhibit proliferation in ER-positive breast cancer cells MCF-7 and T47D. The compound decreased the expression of ERα while increased the expression of ERβ thereby altering ERα/ERβ ratio in both cell lines. Although the compound showed low binding affinity to ERs, it acted as ERα antagonist and ERβ agonist in decreasing ERE- or AP-1-mediated transcriptional activation in these cells. Transactivation studies in ERα/β-transfected MDA-MB231 cells suggested that at cyclin D1 promoter, compound antagonized the action of ERα-mediated E2 response while acted as estrogen agonist via ERβ. Further, the compound led to decreased expression of ERα-dependent proliferation markers and ERβ-dependent cell cycle progression markers. The expression of cell cycle inhibitory protein p21 was increased leading to G2/M phase arrest. In parallel, compound also interfered with EGFR activation, caused inhibition of PI-3-K/Akt pathway and subsequent induction of apoptosis via intrinsic pathway. A significant reduction in tumor mass and volume was observed in 85/287-treated mice bearing MCF-7 xenograft. We conclude that compound 85/287 exhibits significant anti-tumor activity via modulation of genomic as well as non-genomic mechanisms involved in cellular growth and arrested the cells in G2 phase in both MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. Study suggests that CDRI-85/287 may have therapeutic potential in ER-positive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2013.07.004DOI Listing
November 2013

Chemotherapeutic Potential of 2-[Piperidinoethoxyphenyl]-3-Phenyl-2H-Benzo(b)pyran in Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer Cells: Action via Prevention of EGFR Activation and Combined Inhibition of PI-3-K/Akt/FOXO and MEK/Erk/AP-1 Pathways.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(6):e66246. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is considered to be a promising treatment strategy for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors. We have investigated here the anti-breast cancer properties of a novel anti-proliferative benzopyran compound namely, 2-[piperidinoethoxyphenyl]-3-phenyl-2H-benzo(b)pyran (CDRI-85/287) in ER- negative and EGFR- overexpressing breast cancer cells. The benzopyran compound selectively inhibited the EGF-induced growth of MDA-MB 231 cells and ER-negative primary breast cancer cell culture. The compound significantly reduced tumor growth in xenograft of MDA-MB 231 cells in nude mice. The compound displayed better binding affinity for EGFR than inhibitor AG1478 as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. CDRI-85/287 significantly inhibited the activation of EGFR and downstream effectors MEK/Erk and PI-3-K/Akt. Subsequent inhibition of AP-1 promoter activity resulted in decreased transcription activation and expression of c-fos and c-jun. Dephosphorylation of downstream effectors FOXO-3a and NF-κB led to increased expression of p27 and decreased expression of cyclin D1 which was responsible for decreased phosphorylation of Rb and prevented the transcription of E2F- dependent genes involved in cell cycle progression from G1/S phase. The compound induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and it also inhibited EGF-induced invasion of MDA-MB 231 cells as evidenced by decreased activity of MMP-9 and expression of CTGF. These results indicate that benzopyran compound CDRI-85/287 could constitute a powerful new chemotherapeutic agent against ER-negative and EGFR over-expressing breast tumors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066246PLOS
October 2017

Synthesis of combretastatin A4 analogues on steroidal framework and their anti-breast cancer activity.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2013 Sep 28;137:332-44. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Kukrail Picnic Spot Road, Lucknow 226015, U.P., India.

Combretastatin A4 analogues were synthesized on steroidal framework from gallic acid with a possibility of anti-breast cancer agents. Twenty two analogues were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 & MDA-MB 231). The best analogue 22 showed potent antitubulin effect. Docking experiments also supported strong binding affinity of 22 to microtubule polymerase. In cell cycle analysis, 22 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells significantly. It was found to be non-toxic up to 300 mg/kg dose in Swiss albino mice in acute oral toxicity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Synthesis and biological testing of steroid derivatives as inhibitors".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.02.009DOI Listing
September 2013

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via ROS generation and p38 MAP kinase activation.

J Nutr Biochem 2013 Jun 5;24(6):940-7. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India.

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis of various tumor types. The aim of this study was to elucidate the antiproliferative potential of EGCG and its mechanism in human endometrial cancer cells (Ishikawa cells) and primary endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. The antiproliferative effect of EGCG was evaluated by cell viability assay. Apoptosis was measured by annexin/propidium iodide staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate dye. Expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, proliferation and apoptotic markers were measured by immunoblot analysis. EGCG was found to inhibit proliferation in Ishikawa as well as in primary endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and effectively down-regulated the expression of proliferation markers, i.e., estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1. EGCG also decreased the activation of ERK and downstream transcription factors fos and jun. EGCG caused apoptotic cell death accompanied by up-regulation of proapoptotic Bax and down-regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl2. EGCG induced the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, the hallmark of apoptosis. EGCG significantly induced the ROS generation as well as p38 activation in Ishikawa cells, which appeared to be a critical mediator in EGCG-induced apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of EGCG and the p38 activation were blocked by pretreatment of cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. EGCG reduced the glutathione levels, which might be responsible for enhanced ROS generation causing oxidative stress in endometrial cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that EGCG inhibits cellular proliferation via inhibiting ERK activation and inducing apoptosis via ROS generation and p38 activation in endometrial carcinoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.06.013DOI Listing
June 2013
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