Publications by authors named "Anh Nguyen"

1,005 Publications

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Cardiolipin Remodeling Defects Impair Mitochondrial Architecture and Function in a Murine Model of Barth Syndrome Cardiomyopathy.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008289. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine (S.Z., Z.C., M.Z., S.S., C.T., Y.G., A.N., W.F., S.M.E., X.F.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.

Background: Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical feature in Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked mitochondrial lipid disorder caused by mutations in (), encoding a mitochondrial acyltransferase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Despite recent description of a mouse model of BTHS cardiomyopathy, an in-depth analysis of specific lipid abnormalities and mitochondrial form and function in an in vivo BTHS cardiomyopathy model is lacking.

Methods: We performed in-depth assessment of cardiac function, cardiolipin species profiles, and mitochondrial structure and function in our newly generated cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice and Cre-negative control mice (n≥3 per group).

Results: cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice recapitulate typical features of BTHS and mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. Fewer than 5% of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice exhibited lethality before 2 months of age, with significantly enlarged hearts. More than 80% of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout displayed ventricular dilation at 16 weeks of age and survived until 50 weeks of age. Full parameter analysis of cardiac cardiolipin profiles demonstrated lower total cardiolipin concentration, abnormal cardiolipin fatty acyl composition, and elevated monolysocardiolipin to cardiolipin ratios in Taz cardiomyocyte-specific knockout, relative to controls. Mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system and F1F0-ATP synthase complexes, required for cristae morphogenesis, were abnormal, resulting in onion-shaped mitochondria. Organization of high molecular weight respiratory chain supercomplexes was also impaired. In keeping with observed mitochondrial abnormalities, seahorse experiments demonstrated impaired mitochondrial respiration capacity.

Conclusions: Our mouse model mirrors multiple physiological and biochemical aspects of BTHS cardiomyopathy. Our results give important insights into the underlying cause of BTHS cardiomyopathy and provide a framework for testing therapeutic approaches to BTHS cardiomyopathy, or other mitochondrial-related cardiomyopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.121.008289DOI Listing
June 2021

The anoxic electrode-driven fructose catabolism of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Solar Materials, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.

Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) is a microorganism of interest for various industrial processes, yet its strictly aerobic nature limits application. Despite previous attempts to adapt P. putida to anoxic conditions via genetic engineering or the use of a bioelectrochemical system (BES), the problem of energy shortage and internal redox imbalance persists. In this work, we aimed to provide the cytoplasmic metabolism with different monosaccharides, other than glucose, and explored the physiological response in P. putida KT2440 during bioelectrochemical cultivation. The periplasmic oxidation cascade was found to be able to oxidize a wide range of aldoses to their corresponding (keto-)aldonates. Unexpectedly, isomerization of the ketose fructose to mannose also enabled oxidation by glucose dehydrogenase, a new pathway uncovered for fructose metabolism in P. putida KT2440 in BES. Besides the isomerization, the remainder of fructose was imported into the cytoplasm and metabolized. This resulted in a higher NADPH/NADP ratio, compared to glucose. Comparative proteomics further revealed the upregulation of proteins in the lower central carbon metabolism during the experiment. These findings highlight that the choice of a substrate in BES can target cytosolic and periplasmic oxidation pathways, and that electrode-driven redox balancing can drive these pathways in P. putida under anaerobic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13862DOI Listing
June 2021

HCV and HIV co-infection among people who inject drugs in Vietnam.

J Health Soc Sci 2020 Dec;5(4):573-586

M.D., Associate Professor, Center for Research and Training on Substance Use-HIV, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

Introduction: HIV/HCV co-infection in people who inject drugs (PWID) continues to be a major challenge for health care systems and the PWID themselves. PWID have driven the HIV epidemic in Vietnam but information on HIV/HCV co-infection is limited.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 PWID recruited in Hanoi from February 2016 to April 2017. Four mutually exclusive groups were defined based on the presence of detectable HCV RNA and positive HIV confirmation. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to explore life-time risk behaviors of HCV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

Results: The overall prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was 51.08% and 61.69%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection was 22.59% and 39.1%, respectively. We found that engaging in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was positively associated with HCV mono-infection (aOR = 2.38, 95% Confidential Interval [CI] 1.07 to 5.28) and with at least either HIV or HCV infection (aOR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.56). Ever being incarcerated was significantly associated with HCV mono-infection (aOR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.90) and HIV/HCV co-infection (aOR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.46). Those who had ever shared with and reused syringes/needles were more likely to have HIV/HCV co-infection (aORs = 5.17 and 2.86, < 0001, respectively) and have either HIV or HCV infection (aORs = 3.42 and 2.37, < 0001, respectively).

Conclusion: Correlates for HCV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection highlight the need to address risk behaviors, expand MMT programs, and establish HCV sentinel surveillance. The high prevalence of HCV and/or HIV co-infection shows a need for access to HCV treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186291PMC
December 2020

AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis is associated with immunometabolic markers and risk of insulin resistance in subcutaneous but not omental adipose tissue in human obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Diabetes Research Program, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background/objectives: The incidence of obesity continues to increase worldwide and while the underlying pathogenesis remains largely unknown, nutrient excess, manifested by "Westernization" of the diet and reduced physical activity have been proposed as key contributing factors. Western-style diets, in addition to higher caloric load, are characterized by excess of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which have been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. AGEs can be "trapped" in adipose tissue, even in the absence of diabetes, in part due to higher expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and/or decreased detoxification by the endogenous glyoxalase (GLO) system, where they may promote insulin resistance. It is unknown whether the expression levels of genes linked to the RAGE axis, including AGER (the gene encoding RAGE), Diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1), the cytoplasmic domain binding partner of RAGE that contributes to RAGE signaling, and GLO1 are differentially regulated by the degree of obesity and/or how these relate to inflammatory and adipocyte markers and their metabolic consequences.

Subjects/methods: We sought to answer this question by analyzing gene expression patterns of markers of the AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 signaling axis in abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and omental (OAT) adipose tissue from obese and morbidly obese subjects.

Results: In SAT, but not OAT, expression of AGER was significantly correlated with that of DIAPH1 (n = 16; [Formula: see text], [0.260, 1.177]; q = 0.008) and GLO1 (n = 16; [Formula: see text], [0.364, 1.182]; q = 0.004). Furthermore, in SAT, but not OAT, regression analyses revealed that the expression pattern of genes in the AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis is strongly and positively associated with that of inflammatory and adipogenic markers. Remarkably, particularly in SAT, not OAT, the expression of AGER positively and significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (n = 14; [Formula: see text], [0.338, 1.249]; q = 0.018).

Conclusions: These observations suggest associations of the AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis in the immunometabolic pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance, driven, at least in part, through expression and activity of this axis in SAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00878-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Losing the Battle but Winning the War: Can Defeated Antibacterials Form Alliances to Combat Drug-Resistant Pathogens?

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 28;10(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, California Northstate University, Elk Grove, CA 95757, USA.

Despite the recent development of antibacterials that are active against multidrug-resistant pathogens, drug combinations are often necessary to optimize the killing of difficult-to-treat organisms. Antimicrobial combinations typically are composed of multiple agents that are active against the target organism; however, many studies have investigated the potential utility of combinations that consist of one or more antibacterials that individually are incapable of killing the relevant pathogen. The current review summarizes in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies that evaluate combinations that include at least one drug that is not active individually against , , , or . Polymyxins were often included in combinations against all three of the Gram-negative pathogens, and carbapenems were commonly incorporated into combinations against and . Minocycline, sulbactam, and rifampin were also frequently investigated in combinations against , whereas the addition of ceftaroline or another β-lactam to vancomycin or daptomycin showed promise against with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin or daptomycin. Although additional clinical studies are needed to define the optimal combination against specific drug-resistant pathogens, the large amount of in vitro and in vivo studies available in the literature may provide some guidance on the rational design of antibacterial combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060646DOI Listing
May 2021

Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Lateral Open Bite and Facial Asymmetry Treated with Asymmetric Lower Molar Extraction and Lingual Appliance: A Case Report.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 18;18(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Viet Anh Orthodontic Clinic, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

A skeletal Class III malocclusion with open bite tendency is considered very difficult to treat orthodontically without surgery. This case report describes the lingual orthodontic treatment of an adult skeletal Class III patient with mandibular deviation to the left side, lateral open bite, unilateral posterior crossbite, zero overbite and negative overjet. The lower incisors were already retroclined to compensate with the skeletal discrepancy. The patient was treated by asymmetric molar extraction in the mandibular arch to retract the lower incisors and correct the dental midline, with the help of intermaxillary elastics. Lingual appliance was used with over-torqued lower anterior teeth's brackets to control the torque of mandibular incisors. After a 30-month treatment, satisfactory smile and facial esthetics and good occlusion was achieved. A 12-month follow-up confirmed that the outcome was stable. Asymmetric molar extraction could be a viable option to retract mandibular incisors in Class III malocclusion with lower dental midline deviation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158363PMC
May 2021

Fear of Childbirth and Preferences for Prevention Services among Urban Pregnant Women in a Developing Country: A Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 18;18(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore.

This study aimed to examine fear of childbirth and willingness to pay for fear-prevention services in pregnant women. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women in two obstetric hospitals in Vietnam. The Fear of Birth Scale was utilized to evaluate fear of childbirth. Multivariable, generalized linear regression and logistic regression models were performed to identify associated factors with fear of childbirth, demand, and willingness to pay for prevention services. Of 900 pregnant women, fear of childbirth was moderately high with a mean score of 18.1 (SD = 2.3). Age of partner; ever having complications of pregnancy; attitudes toward different aspects of childbirth delivery; satisfactions with friends, parents, and siblings' care; and information support were associated with fear of childbirth. Only 33.8% participants had a demand for the prevention service, and 43.7% were willing to pay for this service with an average amount of $US 10.0 per month (SD = 72.0). Our study suggested that individualized psychological counseling and information-seeking guidance should be provided appropriately and differently for multiparous and nulliparous women for reducing fear and improving the acceptability of the prevention services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158107PMC
May 2021

Genetic Characterization and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza Virus H7N3 Isolated from Spot-Billed Ducks in South Korea, Early 2019.

Viruses 2021 05 7;13(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Korea.

Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian influenza virus-A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3)-was isolated from spot-billed ducks in South Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the phylogenetic and mutational analysis of this isolate. Molecular analysis revealed that the genes for HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase) of this strain belonged to the Central Asian lineage, whereas genes for other internal proteins such as polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), PB2, nucleoprotein, polymerase acidic protein, matrix protein, and non-structural protein belonged to that of the Korean lineage. In addition, a monobasic amino acid (PQIEPR/GLF) at the HA cleavage site, and the non-deletion of the stalk region in the NA gene indicated that this isolate was a typical LPAIV. Nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (99.51%) of this isolate is to that of A/common teal/Shanghai/CM1216/2017 (H7N7), and amino acid sequence of NA (99.48%) was closely related to that of A/teal/Egypt/MB-D-487OP/2016 (H7N3). An in vitro propagation of the A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3) virus showed highest (7.38 Log TCID/mL) virus titer at 60 h post-infection, and in experimental mouse lungs, the virus was detected at six days' post-infection. Our study characterizes genetic mutations, as well as pathogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo model of a new Korea H7N3 viruses in 2019, carrying multiple potential mutations to become highly pathogenic and develop an ability to infect humans; thus, emphasizing the need for routine surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13050856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151380PMC
May 2021

Conversion of Pectin-Containing By-Products to Pectinases by and Its Applications on Hydrolyzing Banana Peels for Prebiotics Production.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 4;13(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan.

The utilization of pectin-containing by-products may be useful in a variety of fields. This study aims to establish the processing of pectin-containing by-products to produce pectinases using TKU050 strain. In this study, several kinds of agricultural pectin-containing by-products from banana (banana peel), rice (rice bran), orange (orange peel), coffee (spent coffee grounds), and wheat (wheat bran) were utilized to provide carbon sources for the production of a pectinase by TKU050. TKU050 expressed the highest pectinase productivity (0.76 U/mL) on 0.5% wheat bran-containing medium at 37°C for four days. A 58 kDa pectinase was purified from the four-day cultured medium fermented under optimized culture conditions with 7.24% of a recovery ratio and 0.51 U/mg of specific activity, respectively. The optimum temperature, optimum pH, thermal stability, and pH stability of the TKU050 pectinase were 50 °C, pH 6, <50 °C, and pH 6-9, respectively. The TKU050 pectinase was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate and Cu. The reducing sugar obtained by hydrolyzing banana peel with TKU050 pectinase showed the growth-enhancing effect on the growth of four tested lactic acid bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13091483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124133PMC
May 2021

Effect of smartphone-based stress management programs on depression and anxiety of hospital nurses in Vietnam: a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2021 May 31;11(1):11353. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

There are growing concerns on stress among nurses in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in South-East Asia. It is important to improve mental health among nurses in these countries. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of two types of newly developed smartphone-based stress management programs in improving depressive and anxiety symptoms among hospital nurses in Vietnam. This study was a three-arm (including two intervention groups and one control group) randomized trial. Participants were recruited from nurses in a large general hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Two types (free-choice and fixed sequential order) of smartphone-based stress management programs were developed. Participants were randomly allocated to Program A (a free-choice, multimodule stress management), Program B (a fixed-order, internet cognitive behavioral therapy, iCBT), or a control group (treatment as usual). The depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales at baseline, 3-, and 7-month follow-up surveys. 951 participants were randomly allocated to each of the three groups. Program B showed a statistically significant effect on improving depressive symptoms at 3-month (p = 0.048), but not at 7-month (p = 0.92); Cohen's d was - 0.18 (95% CI - 0.34 to - 0.02) and 0.03 (95% CI - 1.00 to 1.05), respectively. Program A failed to show a significant intervention effect on any of the outcomes at 3- or 7-month follow-up (p > 0.05). Despite the small effect size, the present fixed-order iCBT program seems effective in improving depression of hospital nurses in Vietnam. A public health impact of the intervention can be scalable, when considering its accessibility and minimal cost.Trial registration number: The study protocol is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMINCTR; ID = UMIN000033139). Registered date of the protocol is 1st Jul. 2018. https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000037796.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90320-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166974PMC
May 2021

Suspension sutures facilitate single-incision laparoscopic-assisted rectal pull-through for Hirschsprung disease.

BMC Surg 2021 May 31;21(1):274. Epub 2021 May 31.

Vietnam National Children's Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: To present a surgical technique of single-incision laparoscopic-assisted endorectal pull-through (SILEP) with suspension sutures using conventional instruments for Hirschsprung disease (HD) and its long-term follow-up outcomes.

Methods: The procedure began with a 1 cm transumbilical skin incision. Three separate punctures were made in the fascia with a 5 mm scope in the middle and 5 mm and 3 mm ports for working instruments on the left and right, respectively. The first suspension suture was placed to secure the sigmoid colon to the abdominal wall. A window was created through the rectal mesentery, and dissection around the rectum was carried out. The second suspension suture was performed to suspend the rectovesical peritoneal fold or the rectovaginal peritoneal fold to the abdominal wall. Dissection around the rectum was continued downward to approximately 1 cm below the peritoneal fold. Then, the operation was completed by a transanal approach.

Results: Forty patients underwent SILEP from March 2013 to April 2015. The median age was 2.7 months (ranging from 1 to 17 months). The mean operative time was 96 ± 23 min. No conversion to an open operation was required. The average hospitalization time was 4.5 ± 2 days. There were no intraoperative or perioperative complications. Long-term follow-up results were obtained from 38 patients. A frequency of defecation from every other day to twice a day was noted for 33 patients (86.8%) and more often for 5 patients (13.2%). Two patients had enterocolitis (5.2%).

Conclusion: Single-incision laparoscopic rectal pull-through with suspension sutures using conventional instruments is feasible and safe for HD with good long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01260-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166018PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide analysis of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in Vietnam: Understanding the nature of the epidemic and role of the D614G mutation.

J Med Virol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Pasteur Institute of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Genome-wide analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains is essential to better understand infectivity and virulence and to track coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and outbreaks. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 27 SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated between January 2020 and April 2020. A total of 54 mutations in different genomic regions was found. The D614G mutation, first detected in March 2020, was identified in 18 strains and was more likely associated with a lower cycle threshold (<25) in real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnostic tests than the original D614 (prevalence ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-6.38). The integration of sequencing and epidemiological data suggests that SARS-CoV-2 transmission in both quarantine areas and in the community in Vietnam occur at the beginning of the epidemic although the country implemented strict quarantine quite early, with strict contact tracing, and testing. These findings provide insights into the nature of the epidemic, as well as shape strategies for COVID-19 prevention and control in Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27103DOI Listing
May 2021

Profiles of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in bottled water, tap water, lake water, and wastewater samples collected from Hanoi, Vietnam.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 19;788:147831. Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi 10000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Contamination levels and distribution patterns of ten typical phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were investigated in various types of water samples collected from Hanoi metropolitan area in Vietnam. Concentrations of 10 PAEs in bottled water, tap water, lake water, and wastewater samples were measured in the ranges of 1640-15,700 ng/L (mean/median: 6400/5820 ng/L), 2100-18,000 ng/L (mean/median: 11,200/9270 ng/L), 19,600-127,000 ng/L (mean/median: 51,800/49,300 ng/L), and 20,700-405,000 ng/L (mean/median: 121,000/115,000 ng/L), respectively. Among PAEs, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accounted for a major proportion of total concentrations (45%) in wastewater, followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP, 10.3%), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP, 9.53%). Concentrations of PAEs in wastewater decreased significantly with distance from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Concentrations of PAEs in surface water samples did not vary greatly between locations. PAEs were found in bottled water in the following order: DBP (22.4%), DiBP (22.3%), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP, 20.1%), and DEHP (15.5%). The estimated mean exposure doses of 10 PAEs through consumption of drinking water for adults and children in Vietnam were 254 and 256 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. Capsule: Highest concentrations of PAEs were measured in wastewater, followed by lake water, tap water, and bottled water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147831DOI Listing
September 2021

Diet quality at age 5-6 and cardiovascular outcomes in preadolescents.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Jun 25;43:506-513. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC - location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Specific dietary components during childhood may affect risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Whether overall higher diet quality prevents children from adverse cardiovascular outcomes remains contradictive. We aimed to examine the associations between diet quality at age 5-6 years and cardiovascular outcomes after a 6-year follow-up.

Methods: We used data from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a multi-ethnic birth cohort. Dietary intake was assessed at age 5-6 using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was ascertained with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the child diet quality score (CDQS), an index specifically developed for Dutch school-age children. Cardiovascular outcomes were examined after 6-years follow-up (age 11-12, N = 869). Outcomes were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, fasting glucose and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for baseline value were used to examine associations between diet quality and cardiovascular outcomes.

Results: Higher diet quality at age 5-6 was associated with lower BMI (DASH score: Δ quintile (Q) 5 and Q1: -0.35 kg/m, p for trend = 0.016), lower WC (DASH score: Δ Q5 and Q1: -1.0 cm, p for trend = 0.028), lower systolic (DASH score: Δ Q5 and Q1: -2.7 mmHg, p for trend = 0.046) and diastolic BP (DASH score: Δ Q5 and Q1: -2.4, p for trend < 0.001) and with lower plasma triglycerides (DASH score: Δ Q5 and Q1: -0.20 mmol/L, p for trend = 0.032) after 6-years follow-up. Associations of the CDQS with these outcomes showed similar trends, but less pronounced. We found no statistically significant associations between diet quality and LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, fasting glucose or CIMT.

Conclusions: Higher diet quality in childhood at age 5-6 years predicted better health on some cardiovascular outcomes in preadolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.02.011DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristics and biomarkers of patients with central nervous system infection admitted to a referral hospital in Northern Vietnam.

Trop Med Health 2021 May 21;49(1):42. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Laboratory facilities for etiological diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection are limited in developing countries; therefore, patients are treated empirically, and the epidemiology of the pathogens is not well-known. Tubercular meningitis is one of the common causes of meningitis, which has high morbidity and mortality, but lacks sensitive diagnostic assays. The objectives of this study were to determine the causes of meningitis in adult patients by using molecular assays, to assess the risk factors associated with them, and to explore whether biomarkers can differentiate tubercular meningitis from bacterial meningitis.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, from June 2012 to May 2014. All patients who were ≥ 16 years old and who had meningoencephalitis suggested by abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings (CSF total cell >5/mm3 or CSF protein ≥40 mg/dL) were included in the study. In addition to culture, CSF samples were tested for common bacterial and viral pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for biomarkers: C-reactive protein and adenosine deaminase (ADA).

Results: Total number of patients admitted to the department was 7506; among them, 679 were suspected to have CNS infection, and they underwent lumbar puncture. Five hundred eighty-three patients had abnormal CSF findings (meningoencephalitis); median age was 45 (IQR 31-58), 62.6% were male, and 60.9% were tested for HIV infection. Among 408 CSF samples tested by PCR, out of them, 358 were also tested by culture; an etiology was identified in 27.5% (n=112). S. suis (8.8%), N. meningitis (3.2%), and S. pneumoniae (2.7%) were common bacterial and HSV (2.2%), Echovirus 6 (0.7%), and Echovirus 30 (0.7%) were common viral pathogens detected. M. tuberculosis was found in 3.2%. Mixed pathogens were detected in 1.8% of the CSF samples. Rural residence (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14.4) and raised CSF ADA (≥10 IU/L) (aOR 25.5, 95% CI 3.1-212) were associated with bacterial meningitis when compared with viral meningitis; similarly, raised CSF ADA (≥10 IU/L) (aOR 42.2, 95% CI 2.0-882) was associated with tubercular meningitis.

Conclusions: Addition of molecular method to the conventional culture had enhanced the identification of etiologies of CNS infection. Raised CSF ADA (≥10 IU/L) was strongly associated with bacterial and tubercular meningitis. This biomarker might be helpful to diagnose tubercular meningitis once bacterial meningitis is ruled out by other methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-021-00322-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139123PMC
May 2021

Case Report: Epidural Abscess Following Obstetric Epidural Anesthesia in Vietnam.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 12;14:301-305. Epub 2021 May 12.

Hanoi Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Epidural abscess after obstetric epidural anesthesia occurs infrequently and may result in severe morbidity. We report a clinical case of an epidural abscess in Vietnam. A 31-year-old woman who was in labor was admitted to our hospital and given epidural anesthesia indicated to relieve labor pain. After three hours of anesthesia, cesarean section was indicated for the patient due to signs of fetal failure, the epidural catheter was then used to relieve pain for the first 48 hours postoperatively. On post-partum day 5 she presented with high fever of 39-40°C, fatigue, stimulation, dyspnea, and lumbar pain. The patient then suffered from sepsis and lower limb paralysis. She was diagnosed with epidural abscess based on the MRI of the lumbar spine. The abscess was treated by surgery for draining and appropriate antibiotics with a satisfactory outcome as she completely recovered her motor function and stable health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S301536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128129PMC
May 2021

Rapid Cerebral Edema and Herniation in a 65-Year-Old Man With Balamuthia Mandrillaris.

Cureus 2021 Apr 15;13(4):e14498. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, USA.

This case describes a 65-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma as well as other medical comorbidities who developed rapidly progressive cerebral edema, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and ultimately died. Postmortem examination revealed massive cerebral edema, widespread parenchymal necrosis, herniation, hemorrhage, and cerebral amebiasis. The causative agent was identified by the Center for Disease Control as Balamuthia mandrillaris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121121PMC
April 2021

Mycobacterium tuberculosis precursor rRNA as a measure of treatment-shortening activity of drugs and regimens.

Nat Commun 2021 05 18;12(1):2899. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

There is urgent need for new drug regimens that more rapidly cure tuberculosis (TB). Existing TB drugs and regimens vary in treatment-shortening activity, but the molecular basis of these differences is unclear, and no existing assay directly quantifies the ability of a drug or regimen to shorten treatment. Here, we show that drugs historically classified as sterilizing and non-sterilizing have distinct impacts on a fundamental aspect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology: ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis. In culture, in mice, and in human studies, measurement of precursor rRNA reveals that sterilizing drugs and highly effective drug regimens profoundly suppress M. tuberculosis rRNA synthesis, whereas non-sterilizing drugs and weaker regimens do not. The rRNA synthesis ratio provides a readout of drug effect that is orthogonal to traditional measures of bacterial burden. We propose that this metric of drug activity may accelerate the development of shorter TB regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22833-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131613PMC
May 2021

Face transplantation: anesthesia and other organizational considerations.

Can J Anaesth 2021 06 23;68(6):868-875. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Université de Montréal, CIUSSS de l'Est-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, 5415 Boulevard de l'Assomption, Montréal, QC, H1T 2M4, Canada.

In 2005, the first facial vascularized composite allotransplant was performed in France. In May 2018, our team at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, had the privilege to participate in the first facial transplant in Canada. Interdisciplinary collaboration, coordination, and communication formed the cornerstone of this medical undertaking and, ultimately, its success. This report details the anesthetic and organizational considerations of our experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-021-01940-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128356PMC
June 2021

Allogeneic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): study protocol for a matched case-control, phase I/II trial.

BMJ Open 2021 05 13;11(5):e045788. Epub 2021 May 13.

Vinmec Research Institute of Stem Cell and Gene Technology, Vinmec Health Care System, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Introduction: The global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing, and it has become a major public health burden worldwide, including in Vietnam. A large body of preclinical and clinical studies supports the safety of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in the treatment of lung injury, including COPD. The aim of this trial is to investigate the safety and potential therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic administration of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) as a supplementary intervention in combination with standard COPD medication treatments in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2019 and Vietnam Ministry of Health's guidelines.

Methods And Analysis: This matched case-control phase I/II trial is conducted at Vinmec Times City International Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam between June 2020 and December 2021. In this study, 40 patients will be enrolled and assigned into two age-matched, gender-matched and COPD condition-matched groups, including a UC-MSC group and a control group. Both groups will receive standard COPD medication treatment based on the GOLD 2019 guidelines and the Vietnam Ministry of Health protocol. The UC-MSC group will receive two doses of thawed UC-MSC product with an intervention interval of 3 months. The primary outcome measures will include the incidence of prespecified administration-associated adverse events and serious adverse events. The efficacy will be evaluated based on the absolute changes in the number of admissions, arterial blood gas analysis, lung function and lung fibrosis via CT scan and chest X-ray. The clinical evaluation will be conducted at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months postintervention.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval was secured from the Ethical Committee of Vinmec International Hospital (number:166/2019/QĐ-VMEC) and Vietnam Ministry of Health (number:2002/QĐ-BYT). The results will be reported to trial collaborators, publication in peer-reviewed academic journals.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04433104.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126295PMC
May 2021

Routine Medical Check-Up and Self-Treatment Practices among Community-Dwelling Living in a Mountainous Area of Northern Vietnam.

Biomed Res Int 2021 22;2021:8734615. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

VNU University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

This study was conducted to evaluate the routine medical check-up and self-treatment behaviors of people living in a remote and mountainous setting in Northern Vietnam and identify their associations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 175 people in August 2018 in Cao Son commune, Da Bac district, Hoa Binh. Information regarding routine medical check-ups and self-treatment behaviors was collected by using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations. Results show that 24% of the mountainous people had routine medical check-ups in the last 12 months. The rate of self-treatment in the past three months was 33.7%. The number of chronic diseases (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.3), health information sources from radio/television (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.5), or social media (OR = 24.8, 95% CI = 1.2-512.4) was related to routine medical check-up. People who did not have routine medical check-up were more likely to have self-treatment practice (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.9-21.1) than those who had a regular health check. Promoting health education and communication through mass media to raise people's awareness about regular health check-ups is a promising way to improve people's self-treatment status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8734615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087461PMC
April 2021

Rabies-infected dogs at slaughterhouses: A potential risk of rabies transmission via dog trading and butchering activities in Vietnam.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hanoi Center for Disease Control, Hanoi, Vietnam.

The study aimed to determine the status of neutralizing antibodies and rabies virus infection in dogs at slaughterhouses in Hanoi city from 2015 to 2017. A total of 2,376 pairs of blood and brain samples were collected from dogs at 92 slaughterhouses (8 large slaughterhouses and 84 small slaughterhouses) in 6 districts in Hanoi. Of the 1,500 dog samples from the large slaughterhouses where imported dogs were slaughtered, no dog brain samples were infected with rabies virus and no blood samples were positive for rabies neutralizing antibodies. Meanwhile, 7/876 (0.8%) of dog brain samples from small slaughterhouses in which slaughtered local dogs were positive for rabies virus and 26.4% had neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus. Analysis of the genetic characteristics of these rabies viruses showed that they all had a common origin with the domestic strains circulating in Northern Vietnam. Research results suggested that there was a potential risk of rabies transmission to humans through dog slaughtering activities in Vietnam. Vaccination for dogs should be strengthened, strictly implemented and frequently monitored to reach the rate of herd vaccination coverage as WHO's recommendation. Dog trading and slaughtering activities should be strictly monitored to minimize the risk of rabies transmission to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12851DOI Listing
May 2021

Mountainous millipedes in Vietnam. I. Two new species of the family Paradoxosomatidae from Mount Fansipan (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).

Zookeys 2021 16;1032:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo Prefecture, Japan Tokyo Metropolitan University Tokyo Japan.

Two new paradoxosomatid millipede species were discovered at the high elevations of Mount Fansipan in northwestern Vietnam. They are named as and In addition to their morphological descriptions, sequences from fragments of two mitochondrial genes, and , are also provided for both new species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1032.64917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065007PMC
April 2021

Faith-Based and Federal Government-Affiliated Training Sites for Primary Care: Implications for the Provision of Women's Health Services.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-06863-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Open-air synthesis of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polypeptides from non-purified -carboxyanhydrides.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jun;9(11):4120-4126

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. and Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

With PEG-like properties, such as hydrophilicity and stealth effect against protein absorption, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG)-functionalized polypeptides have emerged as a new class of biomaterials alternative to PEG with polypeptide-like properties. Synthesis of this class of materials, however, has been demonstrated very challenging, as the synthesis and purification of OEG-functionalized N-carboxyanhydrides (OEG-NCAs) in high purity, which is critical for the success in polymerization, is tedious and often results in low yield. OEG-functionalized polypeptides are therefore only accessible to a few limited labs with expertise in this specialized NCA chemistry and materials. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of OEG-functionalized polypeptides in high yield directly from the OEG-functionalized amino acids via easy and reproducible polymerization of non-purified OEG-NCAs. The prepared amphiphilic block copolypeptides can self-assemble into narrowly dispersed nanoparticles in water, which show properties suitable for drug delivery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00223fDOI Listing
June 2021

A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Health Economic Evaluations of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening Strategies.

Value Health 2021 May 5;24(5):733-743. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Many economic evaluations of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screenings have been conducted; however, these vary substantially with regards to screening strategies, patient group, and setting. This review aims to report the current knowledge of the cost-effectiveness of screening and describe the published data.

Methods: We conducted a search of biomedical and health economic databases up to July 2020. We included full and partial health economic studies if they evaluated the costs or outcomes of HCC screening strategies.

Results: The review included 43 studies. Due to significant heterogeneity in key aspects across the studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Most studies reported using ultrasound or alpha fetoprotein as screening strategies. Screening intervals were mostly annual or biannual. Incidence, diagnostic performance, and health state utility values were the most critical parameters affecting the cost-effectiveness of screening. The majority of studies reported HCC screening to be cost-effective, with the biannual ultrasound + alpha fetoprotein standing out as the most cost-effective strategy. However, few studies considered the utilization rate, and none considered the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in the context of central adiposity. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were also evaluated, but its cost-effectiveness was still controversial.

Conclusions: Although many studies suggested HCC screening was cost-effective, substantial limitations of the quality of these studies means the results should be interpreted with caution. Future modeling studies should consider the impact of central adiposity on the precision of ultrasound, real-world utilization rates and projections of increased HCC incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2020.11.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Falls among Older Outpatients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 12;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Geriatrics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

Falls in older people are a major public health issue, as they are associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with falls among older outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 539 outpatients aged 60 and over at the National Geriatric Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Falls and their associated factors were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of falls was 23.7% (single fall 17.9%, recurrent falls 5.8%). The majority of falls occurred at home (69.6%) and were caused by a slippery floor (51.6%). After falling, most patients sustained physical injuries (65.6%); notably, women suffered more severe injuries than men. Alcohol consumption, using psychotropic medications, having three or more comorbidities, hypertension, COPD, urinary incontinence, frailty, fear of falling, ADL/IADL limitation, slow walking speed and mobility impairment were significantly associated with falls. Overall, the data indicated that falls were prevalent among older outpatients. Behavior factors, comorbidities, geriatric syndromes and physical function were substantially associated with falls, suggesting that most falls are preventable. Further longitudinal studies of longer periods are needed to comprehensively investigate the risk factors for falls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070134PMC
April 2021

A Fluidics-Based Biosensor to Detect and Characterize Inhibition Patterns of Organophosphate to Acetylcholinesterase in Food Materials.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

A chip-based electrochemical biosensor is developed herein for the detection of organophosphate (OP) in food materials. The principle of the sensing platform is based on the inhibition of dimethoate (DMT), a typical OP that specifically inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Carbon nanotube-modified gold electrodes functionalized with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and oxidized nanocellulose (NC) were investigated for the sensing of OP, yielding high sensitivity. Compared with noncovalent adsorption and deposition in bovine serum albumin, bioconjugation with lysine side chain activation allowed the enzyme to be stable over three weeks at room temperature. The total amount of AChE was quantified, whose activity inhibition was highly linear with respect to DMT concentration. Increased incubation times and/or DMT concentration decreased current flow. The composite electrode showed a sensitivity 4.8-times higher than that of the bare gold electrode. The biosensor was challenged with organophosphate-spiked food samples and showed a limit of detection (LOD) of DMT at 4.1 nM, with a limit of quantification (LOQ) at 12.6 nM, in the linear range of 10 nM to 1000 nM. Such performance infers significant potential for the use of this system in the detection of organophosphates in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12040397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065683PMC
April 2021

A Pixel Design of a Branching Ultra-Highspeed Image Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

A burst image sensor named Hanabi, meaning fireworks in Japanese, includes a branching CCD and multiple CMOS readout circuits. The sensor is backside-illuminated with a light/charge guide pipe to minimize the temporal resolution by suppressing the horizontal motion of signal carriers. On the front side, the pixel has a guide gate at the center, branching to six first-branching gates, each bifurcating to second-branching gates, and finally connected to 12 (=6×2) floating diffusions. The signals are either read out after an image capture operation to replay 12 to 48 consecutive images, or continuously transferred to a memory chip stacked on the front side of the sensor chip and converted to digital signals. A CCD burst image sensor enables a noiseless signal transfer from a photodiode to the in-situ storage even at very high frame rates. However, the pixel count conflicts with the frame count due to the large pixel size for the relatively large in-pixel CCD memory elements. A CMOS burst image sensor can use small trench-type capacitors for memory elements, instead of CCD channels. However, the transfer noise from a floating diffusion to the memory element increases in proportion to the square root of the frame rate. The Hanabi chip overcomes the compromise between these pros and cons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21072506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038384PMC
April 2021