Publications by authors named "Angela Yee-Moon Wang"

116 Publications

Nutrition and Obesity Impacts on Kidney Health.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-19. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Nutrition and obesity are both important and common clinical issues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-energy wasting predicts adverse clinical outcomes in CKD. Obesity is associated with poor health outcomes. Nutrition management, specifically a protein-restricted diet, has been shown to ameliorate glomerular injury and progressive CKD by reducing glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertension. A protein-restricted diet has favorable metabolic and hemodynamic effects and effects on CKD-mineral bone disease that may favorably impact patients' outcomes. On the other hand, obesity may adversely affect kidney function both directly by placing an increased metabolic demand on the kidneys and indirectly through various humoral mechanisms mediated via adiponectin, leptin, and resistin that lead to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, abnormal lipid metabolism, activation of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, and could result in the development of obesity-related glomerulopathy. It is therefore important to raise more awareness of the two clinical issues and promote a healthy lifestyle with proper nutrition and exercise in CKD management. Challenges and Solutions: There are global shortage of dietitians and challenges in accessibility and availability of renal dietitians in many emerging countries as well as lack of reimbursement of dietitians' consultations. Many patients may not have the opportunity to be monitored and reviewed by dieticians on a regular basis. In addition, there are practical challenges in enforcing patients' adherence to a protein-restricted diet. Patients and nephrologists from developed countries may\not appreciate the need to adopt a protein restricted diets as dialysis is readily available. Furthermore, keto-analogues or nutrition supplements are not reimbursed in many parts of the world. Increased government advocacy, prioritization of renal nutrition care, and more trained renal dietitians are required in many parts of the world. More government resource allocation is required to increase renal dietitians' manpower in nephrology centers so to enable multidisciplinary nutrition management in CKD and end-stage kidney disease. On the other hand, prevention and treatment of obesity require lifestyle modifications including calorie restriction and adequate exercise, and they need to be maintained lifelong. Such changes may be difficult in modern societies with the "fast food culture" and increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyles. Changes in lifestyle may become even more difficult as long-term complications such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease set in, which may further limit patients' mobility. To tackle the obesity epidemic, we need a global action plan to prevent and control non-communicable diseases. We need a concerted population-wide intervention by national governments, health policy planners, and professional organizations to target obesity and CKD by promoting healthy lifestyle factors and healthy diets. Pharmacologic and surgical interventions such as bariatric surgery for obesity require further evaluation in CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517669DOI Listing
August 2021

Physical Activity and Health in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Low physical activity is a common phenotype in individuals living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It increases as renal function declines and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and a poor quality of life (QOL). Both behavioral and disease-related factors contribute to the low physical activity levels in CKD. CKD has profound negative effects on skeletal muscle structure and function that are related to impairments in mitochondrial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic acidosis, and other uremia-related factors. These factors promote muscle protein catabolism and wasting, and impair strength, physical performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Moreover, the high burden of comorbid disease contributes to patient fatigue, fear of injury, and poor exercise self-efficacy. All of these factors reinforce patient's sedentary behavior, leading to a vicious cycle of disease and disability that further compromises their health and QOL. Data from both observational studies and exercise interventions indicate that increasing levels of physical activity may provide a range of benefits in CKD patients, including attenuating declines in renal function, and improving markers of physical function, cardiovascular disease risk, and QOL. Unfortunately, these results have not led to widespread implementation of exercise programs in CKD, and physical inactivity and poor physical function remain hallmarks of the disease worldwide. Challenges and Solutions: There are many frequently cited barriers to implementing exercise programs in CKD. These include: a lack of training and knowledge about physical activity/exercise prescriptions and interventions among health professionals; inadequate time to implement exercise programs due to other clinical responsibilities; a lack of specific funding and incentives to develop these programs; and a poor quality of the data demonstrating efficacy of exercise. Many CKD patients also are unmotivated to incorporate exercise into their daily lives due to time constraints, depression, and other comorbid diseases, and poor self-efficacy for exercise. Given these barriers, it is not surprising that physical activity/exercise programs have not become a component of standard of care for CKD patients. We discuss several potential solutions to address these barriers, including: (1) providing better education and training for healthcare professionals who provide exercise advise and counselling to individuals with CKD; (2) providing incentives to reimburse payers to develop and maintain exercise programs in CKD; and (3) providing more personalized approaches to exercise prescription and implementation of exercise programs that consider the unique circumstances of individual CKD patients. In summary, low physical activity levels in CKD patients result from a combination of many factors that adversely impact patient's health and QOL. Addressing this problem will require comprehensive intervention strategies that consider both the unique pathophysiology of CKD and the individual circumstances of those living with the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517696DOI Listing
August 2021

Current status of health systems financing and oversight for end-stage kidney disease care: a cross-sectional global survey.

BMJ Open 2021 07 9;11(7):e047245. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, King Chulalong Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objectives: The Global Kidney Health Atlas (GKHA) is a multinational, cross-sectional survey designed to assess the current capacity for kidney care across all world regions. The 2017 GKHA involved 125 countries and identified significant gaps in oversight, funding and infrastructure to support care for patients with kidney disease, especially in lower-middle-income countries. Here, we report results from the survey for the second iteration of the GKHA conducted in 2018, which included specific questions about health financing and oversight of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) care worldwide.

Setting: A cross-sectional global survey.

Participants: Key stakeholders from 182 countries were invited to participate. Of those, stakeholders from 160 countries participated and were included.

Primary Outcomes: Primary outcomes included cost of kidney replacement therapy (KRT), funding for dialysis and transplantation, funding for conservative kidney management, extent of universal health coverage, out-of-pocket costs for KRT, within-country variability in ESKD care delivery and oversight systems for ESKD care. Outcomes were determined from a combination of desk research and input from key stakeholders in participating countries.

Results: 160 countries (covering 98% of the world's population) responded to the survey. Economic factors were identified as the top barrier to optimal ESKD care in 99 countries (64%). Full public funding for KRT was more common than for conservative kidney management (43% vs 28%). Among countries that provided at least some public coverage for KRT, 75% covered all citizens. Within-country variation in ESKD care delivery was reported in 40% of countries. Oversight of ESKD care was present in all high-income countries but was absent in 13% of low-income, 3% of lower-middle-income, and 10% of upper-middle-income countries.

Conclusion: Significant gaps and variability exist in the public funding and oversight of ESKD care in many countries, particularly for those in low-income and lower-middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273453PMC
July 2021

Scope and heterogeneity of outcomes reported in randomized trials in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Jul 31;14(7):1817-1825. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Randomized trials can provide evidence to inform decision-making but this may be limited if the outcomes of importance to patients and clinicians are omitted or reported inconsistently. We aimed to assess the scope and heterogeneity of outcomes reported in trials in peritoneal dialysis (PD).

Methods: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register for randomized trials in PD. We extracted all reported outcome domains and measurements and analyzed their frequency and characteristics.

Results: From 128 reports of 120 included trials, 80 different outcome domains were reported. Overall, 39 (49%) domains were surrogate, 23 (29%) patient-reported and 18 (22%) clinical. The five most commonly reported domains were PD-related infection [59 (49%) trials], dialysis solute clearance [51 (42%)], kidney function [45 (38%)], protein metabolism [44 (37%)] and inflammatory markers/oxidative stress [42 (35%)]. Quality of life was reported infrequently (4% of trials). Only 14 (12%) trials included a patient-reported outcome as a primary outcome. The median number of outcome measures (defined as a different measurement, aggregation and metric) was 22 (interquartile range 13-37) per trial. PD-related infection was the most frequently reported clinical outcome as well as the most frequently stated primary outcome. A total of 383 different measures for infection were used, with 66 used more than once.

Conclusions: Trials in PD include important clinical outcomes such as infection, but these are measured and reported inconsistently. Patient-reported outcomes are infrequently reported and nearly half of the domains were surrogate. Standardized outcomes for PD trials are required to improve efficiency and relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243273PMC
July 2021

Development of an international Delphi survey to establish core outcome domains for trials in adults with glomerular disease.

Kidney Int 2021 Oct 5;100(4):881-893. Epub 2021 May 5.

Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Outcomes relevant to treatment decision-making are inconsistently reported in trials involving glomerular disease. Here, we sought to establish a consensus-derived set of critically important outcomes designed to be reported in all future trials by using an online, international two-round Delphi survey in English. To develop this, patients with glomerular disease, caregivers and health professionals aged 18 years and older rated the importance of outcomes using a Likert scale and a Best-Worst scale. The absolute and relative importance was assessed and comments were analyzed thematically. Of 1198 participants who completed Round 1, 734 were patients/caregivers while 464 were health care professionals from 59 countries. Of 700 participants that completed Round 2, 412 were patients/caregivers and 288 were health care professionals. Need for dialysis or transplant, kidney function, death, cardiovascular disease, remission-relapse and life participation were the most important outcomes to patients/caregivers and health professionals. Patients/caregivers rated patient-reported outcomes higher while health care professionals rated hospitalization, death and remission/relapse higher. Four themes explained the reasons for their priorities: confronting death and compounded suffering, focusing on specific targets in glomerular disease, preserving meaning in life, and fostering self-management. Thus, consistent reporting of these critically important outcomes in all trials involving glomerular disease is hoped to improve patient-centered decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.04.027DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcome measures for technique survival reported in peritoneal dialysis: A systematic review.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Apr 21:896860821989874. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Medicine, 4212Keele University, Newcastle, UK.

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival is an important outcome for patients, caregivers and health professionals, however, the definition and measures used for technique survival vary. We aimed to assess the scope and consistency of definitions and measures used for technique survival in studies of patients receiving PD.

Method: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched for randomised controlled studies (RCTs) conducted in patients receiving PD reporting technique survival as an outcome between database inception and December 2019. The definition and measures used were extracted and independently assessed by two reviewers.

Results: We included 25 RCTs with a total of 3645 participants (41-371 per trial) and follow up ranging from 6 weeks to 4 years. Terminology used included 'technique survival' (10 studies), 'transfer to haemodialysis (HD)' (8 studies) and 'technique failure' (7 studies) with 17 different definitions. In seven studies, it was unclear whether the definition included transfer to HD, death or transplantation and eight studies reported 'transfer to HD' without further definition regarding duration or other events. Of those remaining, five studies included death in their definition of a technique event, whereas death was censored in the other five. The duration of HD necessary to qualify as an event was reported in only four (16%) studies. Of the 14 studies reporting causes of an event, all used a different list of causes.

Conclusion: There is substantial heterogeneity in how PD technique survival is defined and measured, likely contributing to considerable variability in reported rates. Standardised measures for reporting technique survival in PD studies are required to improve comparability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0896860821989874DOI Listing
April 2021

Low Serum Potassium Levels and Clinical Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis-International Results from PDOPPS.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Feb 22;6(2):313-324. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Hypokalemia, including normal range values <4 mEq/l, has been associated with increased peritonitis and mortality in patients with peritoneal dialysis. This study sought to describe international variation in hypokalemia, potential modifiable hypokalemia risk factors, and the covariate-adjusted relationship of hypokalemia with peritonitis and mortality.

Methods: Baseline serum potassium was determined in 7421 patients from 7 countries in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2014-2017). Association of baseline patient and treatment factors with subsequent serum potassium <4 mEq/l was evaluated by logistic regression, whereas baseline serum potassium levels (4-month average and fraction of 4 months having hypokalemia) on clinical outcomes was assessed by Cox regression.

Results: Hypokalemia was more prevalent in Thailand and among black patients in the United States. Characteristics/treatments associated with potassium <4 mEq/l included protein-energy wasting indicators, lower urine volume, lower blood pressure, higher dialysis dose, greater diuretic use, and not being prescribed a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor. Persistent hypokalemia (all 4 months vs. 0 months over the 4-month exposure period) was associated with 80% higher subsequent peritonitis rates (at K <3.5 mEq/l) and 40% higher mortality (at K <4.0 mEq/l) after extensive case mix/potential confounding adjustments. Furthermore, adjusted peritonitis rates were higher if having mean serum K over 4 months <3.5 mEq/l versus 4.0-4.4 mEq/l (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.37]), largely because of Gram-positive/culture-negative infections.

Conclusions: Persistent hypokalemia is associated with higher mortality and peritonitis even after extensive adjustment for patient factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of these poorer outcomes and modifiable risk factors for persistent hypokalemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879114PMC
February 2021

Personalising heart failure management in CKD patients.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Renal and Transplantation Unit, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; Cardiovascular Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute; St George's, University of London; Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

CKD in heart failure patients is common, present in 49%, associated with higher mortality [Hazard ratio, 2.34 (95% CI2.20-2.50, P < 0.001) and multiple hospital admissions. The management of heart failure in CKD can be challenging due to drug induced electrolyte and creatinine changes; resistance to diuretics and infections related to device therapy. Evidence for improvement in mortality and heart failure hospitalisations exists in HFrEF stage 3 CKD patients from randomised controlled trials of ACE-inhibitor and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy; but not in dialysis patients where higher doses can cause hyperkalaemia. Evidence on improvement of cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalisations has emerged with angiotensin blocker-neprilysin inhibitor, ivabradine and more recently with sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors in HFrEF patients with CKD stages 1,2, and 3. However these studies have excluded CKD 4,5 patients. Evidence for betablocker therapy exists in CKD stages 1,2 and 3 and separately in haemodialysis patients. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy reduces heart failure hospitalisations and mortality in patients with CKD 1,2,3 but not in CKD stages 4,5 or dialysis patients. Internal cardioverter and defibrillator therapy in HFrEF patients have been shown to be beneficial in CKD 3 patients, not in dialysis patients where it is associated with high rates of infection. For HFpEF patients with CKD therapy is symptomatic as there is no proven therapy for improvement in survival or hospitalisations. Heart failure patients with end-stage-kidney disease with fluid overload may benefit from peritoneal dialysis. A multidisciplinary, personalised approach has been associated with better care and improved patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab026DOI Listing
February 2021

Availability, coverage, and scope of health information systems for kidney care across world countries and regions.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalong Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,Thailand.

Background: Health information systems (HIS) are fundamental tools for the surveillance of health services, estimation of disease burden and prioritization of health resources. Several gaps in the availability of HIS for kidney disease were highlighted by the first iteration of the Global Kidney Health Atlas.

Methods: As part of its second iteration, the International Society of Nephrology conducted a cross-sectional global survey between July and October 2018 to explore the coverage and scope of HIS for kidney disease, with a focus on kidney replacement therapy (KRT).

Results: Out of a total of 182 invited countries, 154 countries responded to questions on HIS (85% response rate). KRT registries were available in almost all high-income countries, but few low-income countries, while registries for non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) were rare. Registries in high-income countries tended to be national, in contrast to registries in low-income countries, which often operated at local or regional levels. Although cause of end-stage kidney disease, modality of KRT and source of kidney transplant donors were frequently reported, few countries collected data on patient-reported outcome measures and only half of low-income countries recorded process-based measures. Almost no countries had programs to detect AKI and practices to identify CKD-targeted individuals with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, rather than members of high-risk ethnic groups.

Conclusions: These findings confirm significant heterogeneity in the global availability of HIS for kidney disease and highlight important gaps in their coverage and scope, especially in low-income countries and across the domains of AKI, non-dialysis CKD, patient-reported outcomes, process-based measures and quality indicators for KRT service delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa343DOI Listing
December 2020

Availability, Accessibility, and Quality of Conservative Kidney Management Worldwide.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 12 15;16(1):79-87. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background And Objectives: People with kidney failure typically receive KRT in the form of dialysis or transplantation. However, studies have suggested that not all patients with kidney failure are best suited for KRT. Additionally, KRT is costly and not always accessible in resource-restricted settings. Conservative kidney management is an alternate kidney failure therapy that focuses on symptom management, psychologic health, spiritual care, and family and social support. Despite the importance of conservative kidney management in kidney failure care, several barriers exist that affect its uptake and quality.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: The Global Kidney Health Atlas is an ongoing initiative of the International Society of Nephrology that aims to monitor and evaluate the status of global kidney care worldwide. This study reports on findings from the 2018 Global Kidney Health Atlas survey, specifically addressing the availability, accessibility, and quality of conservative kidney management.

Results: Respondents from 160 countries completed the survey, and 154 answered questions pertaining to conservative kidney management. Of these, 124 (81%) stated that conservative kidney management was available. Accessibility was low worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. Less than half of countries utilized multidisciplinary teams (46%); utilized shared decision making (32%); or provided psychologic, cultural, or spiritual support (36%). One-quarter provided relevant health care providers with training on conservative kidney management delivery.

Conclusions: Overall, conservative kidney management is available in most countries; however, it is not optimally accessible or of the highest quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.09070620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792657PMC
December 2020

Patient and caregiver perspectives on burnout in peritoneal dialysis.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Sep 11;41(5):484-493. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can offer patients more autonomy and flexibility compared with in-center hemodialysis (HD). However, burnout - defined as mental, emotional, or physical exhaustion that leads to thoughts of discontinuing PD - is associated with an increased risk of transfer to HD. We aimed to describe the perspectives of burnout among patients on PD and their caregivers.

Methods: In this focus group study, 81 patients and 45 caregivers participated in 14 focus groups from 9 dialysis units in Australia, Hong Kong, and the United States. Transcripts were analyzed thematically.

Results: We identified two themes. contributed to burnout, as patients and caregivers felt overwhelmed by the daily regimen, perceived their life to be coming to a halt, tolerated the PD regimen for survival, and had to bear the burden and uncertainty of what to expect from PD alone. against burnout encompassed establishing a new normal, drawing inspiration and support from family, relying on faith and hope for motivation, and finding meaning in other activities.

Conclusions: For patients on PD and their caregivers, burnout was intensified by perceiving PD as an unrelenting, isolating responsibility that they had no choice but to endure, even if it held them back from doing other activities in life. More emphasis on developing strategies to adapt and build resilience could prevent or minimize burnout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0896860820970064DOI Listing
September 2021

Incorporating kidney disease measures into cardiovascular risk prediction: Development and validation in 9 million adults from 72 datasets.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Oct 14;27:100552. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Public Health, Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia (CERA) Shiga University of Medical Science (SUMS) Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Shiga, Japan.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and albuminuria) are frequently assessed in clinical practice and improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet most major clinical guidelines do not have a standardized approach for incorporating these measures into CVD risk prediction. "CKD Patch" is a validated method to calibrate and improve the predicted risk from established equations according to CKD measures.

Methods: Utilizing data from 4,143,535 adults from 35 datasets, we developed several "CKD Patches" incorporating eGFR and albuminuria, to enhance prediction of risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and CVD mortality by Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The risk enhancement by CKD Patch was determined by the deviation between individual CKD measures and the values expected from their traditional CVD risk factors and the hazard ratios for eGFR and albuminuria. We then validated this approach among 4,932,824 adults from 37 independent datasets, comparing the original PCE and SCORE equations (recalibrated in each dataset) to those with addition of CKD Patch.

Findings: We confirmed the prediction improvement with the CKD Patch for CVD mortality beyond SCORE and ASCVD beyond PCE in validation datasets (Δc-statistic 0.027 [95% CI 0.018-0.036] and 0.010 [0.007-0.013] and categorical net reclassification improvement 0.080 [0.032-0.127] and 0.056 [0.044-0.067], respectively). The median (IQI) of the ratio of predicted risk for CVD mortality with CKD Patch vs. the original prediction with SCORE was 2.64 (1.89-3.40) in very high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 30-44 ml/min/1.73m with albuminuria ≥30 mg/g), 1.86 (1.48-2.44) in high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73m with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), and 1.37 (1.14-1.69) in moderate risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), indicating considerable risk underestimation in CKD with SCORE. The corresponding estimates for ASCVD with PCE were 1.55 (1.37-1.81), 1.24 (1.10-1.54), and 1.21 (0.98-1.46).

Interpretation: The "CKD Patch" can be used to quantitatively enhance ASCVD and CVD mortality risk prediction equations recommended in major US and European guidelines according to CKD measures, when available.

Funding: US National Kidney Foundation and the NIDDK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599294PMC
October 2020

A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Phosphate Reduction on Vascular End Points in CKD (IMPROVE-CKD).

J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 11 11;31(11):2653-2666. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Australasian Kidney Trials Network, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), arterial calcification, and cardiovascular mortality. Effects of phosphate-lowering medication on vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in CKD remain uncertain.

Methods: To assess the effects of non-calcium-based phosphate binders on intermediate cardiovascular markers, we conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial, randomizing 278 participants with stage 3b or 4 CKD and serum phosphate >1.00 mmol/L (3.10 mg/dl) to 500 mg lanthanum carbonate or matched placebo thrice daily for 96 weeks. We analyzed the primary outcome, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, using a linear mixed effects model for repeated measures. Secondary outcomes included abdominal aortic calcification and serum and urine markers of mineral metabolism.

Results: A total of 138 participants received lanthanum and 140 received placebo (mean age 63.1 years; 69% male, 64% White). Mean eGFR was 26.6 ml/min per 1.73 m; 45% of participants had diabetes and 32% had cardiovascular disease. Mean serum phosphate was 1.25 mmol/L (3.87 mg/dl), mean pulse wave velocity was 10.8 m/s, and 81.3% had abdominal aortic calcification at baseline. At 96 weeks, pulse wave velocity did not differ significantly between groups, nor did abdominal aortic calcification, serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, FGF23, and 24-hour urinary phosphate. Serious adverse events occurred in 63 (46%) participants prescribed lanthanum and 66 (47%) prescribed placebo. Although recruitment to target was not achieved, additional analysis suggested this was unlikely to have significantly affected the principle findings.

Conclusions: In patients with stage 3b/4 CKD, treatment with lanthanum over 96 weeks did not affect arterial stiffness or aortic calcification compared with placebo. These findings do not support the role of intestinal phosphate binders to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD who have normophosphatemia.

Clinical Trial Registry Name And Registration Number: Australian Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12610000650099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020040411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608977PMC
November 2020

KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD: 2020 Update.

Am J Kidney Dis 2020 09;76(3 Suppl 1):S1-S107

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) has provided evidence-based guidelines for nutrition in kidney diseases since 1999. Since the publication of the first KDOQI nutrition guideline, there has been a great accumulation of new evidence regarding the management of nutritional aspects of kidney disease and sophistication in the guidelines process. The 2020 update to the KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD was developed as a joint effort with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy). It provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the understanding and care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in terms of their metabolic and nutritional milieu for the practicing clinician and allied health care workers. The guideline was expanded to include not only patients with end-stage kidney disease or advanced CKD, but also patients with stages 1-5 CKD who are not receiving dialysis and patients with a functional kidney transplant. The updated guideline statements focus on 6 primary areas: nutritional assessment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT), dietary protein and energy intake, nutritional supplementation, micronutrients, and electrolytes. The guidelines primarily cover dietary management rather than all possible nutritional interventions. The evidence data and guideline statements were evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. As applicable, each guideline statement is accompanied by rationale/background information, a detailed justification, monitoring and evaluation guidance, implementation considerations, special discussions, and recommendations for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.006DOI Listing
September 2020

Peritoneal Dialysis Use and Practice Patterns: An International Survey Study.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 03 12;77(3):315-325. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Nephrology, General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Rationale & Objective: Approximately 11% of people with kidney failure worldwide are treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study examined PD use and practice patterns across the globe.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey.

Setting & Participants: Stakeholders including clinicians, policy makers, and patient representatives in 182 countries convened by the International Society of Nephrology between July and September 2018.

Outcomes: PD use, availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery, and reporting of quality outcome measures.

Analytical Approach: Descriptive statistics.

Results: Responses were received from 88% (n=160) of countries and there were 313 participants (257 nephrologists [82%], 22 non-nephrologist physicians [7%], 6 other health professionals [2%], 17 administrators/policy makers/civil servants [5%], and 11 others [4%]). 85% (n=156) of countries responded to questions about PD. Median PD use was 38.1 per million population. PD was not available in 30 of the 156 (19%) countries responding to PD-related questions, particularly in countries in Africa (20/41) and low-income countries (15/22). In 69% of countries, PD was the initial dialysis modality for≤10% of patients with newly diagnosed kidney failure. Patients receiving PD were expected to pay 1% to 25% of treatment costs, and higher (>75%) copayments (out-of-pocket expenses incurred by patients) were more common in South Asia and low-income countries. Average exchange volumes were adequate (defined as 3-4 exchanges per day or the equivalent for automated PD) in 72% of countries. PD quality outcome monitoring and reporting were variable. Most countries did not measure patient-reported PD outcomes.

Limitations: Low responses from policy makers; limited ability to provide more in-depth explanations underpinning outcomes from each country due to lack of granular data; lack of objective data.

Conclusions: Large inter- and intraregional disparities exist in PD availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery, and reporting of quality outcome measures around the world, with the greatest gaps observed in Africa and South Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.032DOI Listing
March 2021

Hemodialysis Use and Practice Patterns: An International Survey Study.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 03 13;77(3):326-335.e1. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalong Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Bhumirajanagarindra Kidney Institute, Bangkok, Thailand.

Rationale & Objective: Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common form of kidney replacement therapy. This study aimed to examine the use, availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of HD care worldwide.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey.

Setting & Participants: Stakeholders (clinicians, policy makers, and consumer representatives) in 182 countries were convened by the International Society of Nephrology from July to September 2018.

Outcomes: Use, availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of HD care.

Analytical Approach: Descriptive statistics.

Results: Overall, representatives from 160 (88%) countries participated. Median country-specific use of maintenance HD was 298.4 (IQR, 80.5-599.4) per million population (pmp). Global median HD use among incident patients with kidney failure was 98.0 (IQR, 81.5-140.8) pmp and median number of HD centers was 4.5 (IQR, 1.2-9.9) pmp. Adequate HD services (3-4 hours 3 times weekly) were generally available in 27% of low-income countries. Home HD was generally available in 36% of high-income countries. 32% of countries performed monitoring of patient-reported outcomes; 61%, monitoring of small-solute clearance; 60%, monitoring of bone mineral markers; 51%, monitoring of technique survival; and 60%, monitoring of patient survival. At initiation of maintenance dialysis, only 5% of countries used an arteriovenous access in almost all patients. Vascular access education was suboptimal, funding for vascular access procedures was not uniform, and copayments were greater in countries with lower levels of income. Patients in 23% of the low-income countries had to pay >75% of HD costs compared with patients in only 4% of high-income countries.

Limitations: A cross-sectional survey with possibility of response bias, social desirability bias, and limited data collection preventing in-depth analysis.

Conclusions: In summary, findings reveal substantial variations in global HD use, availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability worldwide, with the lowest use evident in low- and lower-middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.030DOI Listing
March 2021

2018 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Hepatitis C in Chronic Kidney Disease Guideline Implementation: Asia Summit Conference Report.

Kidney Int Rep 2020 Aug 21;5(8):1129-1138. Epub 2020 May 21.

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), Brussels, Belgium.

In 2018, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) published a clinical practice guideline on the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The guideline synthesized recent advances, especially in HCV therapeutics and diagnostics, and provided clinical recommendations and suggestions to aid healthcare providers and improve care for CKD patients with HCV. To gain insight into the extent that the 2018 guideline has been adopted in Asia, KDIGO convened an HCV Implementation Summit in Hong Kong. Participants included nephrologists, hepatologists, and nurse consultants from 8 Southeast Asian countries or regions with comparable high-to-middle economic ranking by the World Bank: mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Through presentations and discussions, meeting participants described regional practice patterns related to the KDIGO HCV in CKD guideline, identified barriers to implementing the guideline, and developed strategies for overcoming the barriers in Asia and around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403514PMC
August 2020

The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism Commentary on the National Kidney Foundation and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Ren Nutr 2021 03 29;31(2):116-120.e1. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California. Electronic address:

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the National Kidney Foundation collaborated to provide an update to the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) for nutrition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). These guidelines provide a valuable update to many aspects of the nutrition care process. They include changes in the recommendations for nutrition screening and assessment, macronutrients, and targets for electrolytes and minerals. The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism assembled a special review panel of experts and evaluated these recommendations prior to public review. As one of the highlights of the CPG, the recommended dietary protein intake range for patients with diabetic kidney disease is 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day, whereas for CKD patients without diabetes it is 0.55-0.6 g/kg/day. The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism endorses the CPG with the suggestion that clinicians may consider a more streamlined target of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day, regardless of CKD etiology, while striving to achieve intakes closer to 0.6 g/kg/day. For implementation of these guidelines, it will be important that all stakeholders work to detect kidney disease early to ensure effective primary and secondary prevention. Once identified, patients should be referred to registered dietitians or the region-specific equivalent, for individualized medical nutrition therapy to slow the progression of CKD. As we turn our attention to the new CPG, we as the renal nutrition community should come together to strengthen the evidence base by standardizing outcomes, increasing collaboration, and funding well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials with nutritional and dietary interventions in patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2020.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045140PMC
March 2021

Meaning of empowerment in peritoneal dialysis: focus groups with patients and caregivers.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 11;35(11):1949-1958

Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: While peritoneal dialysis (PD) can offer patients more independence and flexibility compared with in-center hemodialysis, managing the ongoing and technically demanding regimen can impose a burden on patients and caregivers. Patient empowerment can strengthen capacity for self-management and improve treatment outcomes. We aimed to describe patients' and caregivers' perspectives on the meaning and role of patient empowerment in PD.

Methods: Adult patients receiving PD (n = 81) and their caregivers (n = 45), purposively sampled from nine dialysis units in Australia, Hong Kong and the USA, participated in 14 focus groups. Transcripts were thematically analyzed.

Results: We identified six themes: lacking clarity for self-management (limited understanding of rationale behind necessary restrictions, muddled by conflicting information); PD regimen restricting flexibility and freedom (burden in budgeting time, confined to be close to home); strength with supportive relationships (gaining reassurance with practical assistance, comforted by considerate health professionals, supported by family and friends); defying constraints (reclaiming the day, undeterred by treatment, refusing to be defined by illness); regaining lost vitality (enabling physical functioning, restoring energy for life participation); and personal growth through adjustment (building resilience and enabling positive outlook, accepting the dialysis regimen).

Conclusions: Understanding the rationale behind lifestyle restrictions, practical assistance and family support in managing PD promoted patient empowerment, whereas being constrained in time and capacity for life participation outside the home undermined it. Education, counseling and strategies to minimize the disruption and burden of PD may enhance satisfaction and outcomes in patients requiring PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824999PMC
November 2020

Association of dietary patterns with serum phosphorus in maintenance haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2020 07 23;10(1):12278. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

School of BioSciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, Taylor's University, Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Sources of dietary phosphate differentially contribute to hyperphosphatemia in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. This cross-sectional study in Malaysia investigated association between dietary patterns and serum phosphorus in MHD patients. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, based on 27 food groups shortlisted from 3-day dietary recalls of 435 MHD patients. Associations of serum phosphorus were examined with identified dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns emerged: Home foods (HF), Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and Eating out noodles (EO-N). The highest tertile of patients in HF (T3-HF) pattern significantly associated with higher intakes of total protein (p = 0.002), animal protein (p = 0.001), and animal-based organic phosphate (p < 0.001), whilst T3-SSB patients had significantly higher intakes of total energy (p < 0.001), inorganic phosphate (p < 0.001), and phosphate:protein ratio (p = 0.001). T3-EO-N patients had significantly higher intakes of total energy (p = 0.033), total protein (p = 0.003), plant protein (p < 0.001), but lower phosphate:protein ratio (p = 0.009). T3-SSB patients had significantly higher serum phosphorus (p = 0.006). The odds ratio of serum phosphorous > 2.00 mmol/l was significantly 2.35 times higher (p = 0.005) with the T3-SSB. The SSB was associated with greater consumption of inorganic phosphate and higher serum phosphorus levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68893-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378243PMC
July 2020

Establishing Core Cardiovascular Outcome Measures for Trials in Hemodialysis: Report of an International Consensus Workshop.

Am J Kidney Dis 2020 07 12;76(1):109-120. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects more than two-thirds of patients receiving hemodialysis and is the leading cause of death in this population, yet CVD outcomes are infrequently and inconsistently reported in trials in patients receiving hemodialysis. As part of the Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Haemodialysis (SONG-HD) initiative, we convened a consensus workshop to discuss the potential use of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death as core outcome measures for CVD for use in all trials in people receiving hemodialysis. Eight patients or caregivers and 46 health professionals from 15 countries discussed selection and implementation of the proposed core outcome measures. Five main themes were identified: capturing specific relevance to the hemodialysis population (acknowledging prevalence, risk, severity, unique symptomology, and pathophysiology), the dilemmas in using composite outcomes, addressing challenges in outcome definitions (establishing a common definition and addressing uncertainty in the utility of biomarkers in hemodialysis), selecting a meaningful metric for decision making (to facilitate comparison across trials), and enabling and incentivizing implementation (by ensuring that cardiologists are involved in the development and integration of the outcome measure into registries, trial design, and reporting guidelines). Based on these themes, participants supported the use of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death as core outcome measures of CVD to be reported in all hemodialysis trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.01.022DOI Listing
July 2020

Identifying Outcomes Important to Patients with Glomerular Disease and Their Caregivers.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 05 30;15(5):673-684. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Shared decision making in patients with glomerular disease remains challenging because outcomes important to patients remain largely unknown. We aimed to identify and prioritize outcomes important to patients and caregivers and to describe reasons for their choices.

Design: We purposively sampled adult patients with glomerular disease and their caregivers from Australia, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Participants identified, discussed, and ranked outcomes in focus groups using the nominal group technique; a relative importance score (between zero and one) was calculated. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically.

Results: Across 16 focus groups, 134 participants (range, 19-85 years old; 51% women), including 101 patients and 33 caregivers, identified 58 outcomes. The ten highest-ranked outcomes were kidney function (importance score of 0.42), mortality (0.29), need for dialysis or transplant (0.22), life participation (0.18), fatigue (0.17), anxiety (0.13), family impact (0.12), infection and immunity (0.12), ability to work (0.11), and BP (0.11). Three themes explained the reasons for these rankings: constraining day-to-day experience, impaired agency and control over health, and threats to future health and family.

Conclusions: Patients with glomerular disease and their caregivers highly prioritize kidney health and survival, but they also prioritize life participation, fatigue, anxiety, and family impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.13101019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269216PMC
May 2020

Blood pressure and volume management in dialysis: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

Kidney Int 2020 05 8;97(5):861-876. Epub 2020 Mar 8.

Department of Nephrology, Monash Health, Clayton, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Prahan, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Blood pressure (BP) and volume control are critical components of dialysis care and have substantial impacts on patient symptoms, quality of life, and cardiovascular complications. Yet, developing consensus best practices for BP and volume control have been challenging, given the absence of objective measures of extracellular volume status and the lack of high-quality evidence for many therapeutic interventions. In February of 2019, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) held a Controversies Conference titled Blood Pressure and Volume Management in Dialysis to assess the current state of knowledge related to BP and volume management and identify opportunities to improve clinical and patient-reported outcomes among individuals receiving maintenance dialysis. Four major topics were addressed: BP measurement, BP targets, and pharmacologic management of suboptimal BP; dialysis prescriptions as they relate to BP and volume; extracellular volume assessment and management with a focus on technology-based solutions; and volume-related patient symptoms and experiences. The overarching theme resulting from presentations and discussions was that managing BP and volume in dialysis involves weighing multiple clinical factors and risk considerations as well as patient lifestyle and preferences, all within a narrow therapeutic window for avoiding acute or chronic volume-related complications. Striking this challenging balance requires individualizing the dialysis prescription by incorporating comorbid health conditions, treatment hemodynamic patterns, clinical judgment, and patient preferences into decision-making, all within local resource constraints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.01.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215236PMC
May 2020

International comparison of peritoneal dialysis prescriptions from the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS).

Perit Dial Int 2020 05 17;40(3):310-319. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Keele University and University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Background: We describe peritoneal dialysis (PD) prescription variations among Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS) participants on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (APD; = 4657) from Australia/New Zealand (A/NZ), Canada, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US).

Results: CAPD was more commonly used in Thailand and Japan, while APD predominated over CAPD in A/NZ, Canada, the US, and the UK. Total prescribed PD volume normalized to the surface area was the highest in Thailand and the lowest in Japan (for both APD and CAPD) and the UK (for CAPD). PD patients from Thailand had the lowest residual urine volume and residual renal urea clearance, yet achieved the highest dialysis urea clearance. Japanese patients had the lowest dialysis urea clearances for both APD and CAPD. Despite having similar urine volumes to patients in A/NZ, Canada, Japan, and the UK, US CAPD and APD patients used 2.5% and 3.86% glucose PD solutions more frequently, whereas fewer than 25% of these patients used icodextrin. Over half of the patients in A/NZ, Canada, the UK, and Japan used icodextrin, whereas it was hardly used in Thailand. Japan and Thailand were more likely to use 1.5% glucose solutions for their PD prescription.

Conclusions: There are considerable international variations in PD modality use and prescription patterns that translate into important differences in achieved dialysis clearances. Ongoing recruitment of additional PDOPPS participants and accrual of follow-up time will allow us to test the associations between specific PD prescription regimens and clinical and patient-reported outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0896860819895356DOI Listing
May 2020

Volume management as a key dimension of a high-quality PD prescription.

Perit Dial Int 2020 05 17;40(3):282-292. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Keele University and University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Background: Appropriate volume control is one of the key goals in a peritoneal dialysis (PD) prescription. As such it is an important component of the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) guideline for "High-quality PD prescription" necessitating a review of the literature on volume management. The workgroup recognized the importance of including within its scope measures of volume status and blood pressure in prescribing high-quality PD therapy.

Methods: A Medline and PubMed search for publications addressing volume status and its management in PD since the publication of the 2015 ISPD Adult Cardiovascular and Metabolic Guidelines, from October 2014 through to July 2019, was conducted.

Results: There were no randomized controlled trials on blood pressure intervention and six randomized trials of bioimpedance-guided volume management. Generally, all studies were of small sample size, short duration, and used surrogate markers as primary outcomes. As a consequence, only "practice points" were drawn. High-quality goal-directed PD prescription should aim to achieve and maintain clinical euvolemia taking residual kidney function and its preservation into account, so that both fluid removal from peritoneal ultrafiltration and urine output are considered and residual kidney function is not compromised. Blood pressure should be included as a key objective parameter in assessing the quality of PD prescription but there is currently no evidence for a specific target in PD. Clinical examination remains the keystone of routine clinical care.

Conclusions: High-quality goal-directed PD prescription should include volume management as one of the key dimensions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0896860819895365DOI Listing
May 2020

Identifying critically important cardiovascular outcomes for trials in hemodialysis: an international survey with patients, caregivers and health professionals.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 10;35(10):1761-1769

Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in people on hemodialysis (HD). Cardiovascular outcomes are reported infrequently and inconsistently across trials in HD. This study aimed to identify the priorities of patients/caregivers and health professionals (HPs) for CVD outcomes to be incorporated into a core outcome set reported in all HD trials.

Methods: In an international online survey, participants rated the absolute importance of 10 cardiovascular outcomes (derived from a systematic review) on a 9-point Likert scale, with 7-9 being critically important. The relative importance was determined using a best-worst scale. Likert means, medians and proportions and best-worst preference scores were calculated for each outcome. Comments were thematically analyzed.

Results: Participants included 127 (19%) patients/caregivers and 549 (81%) HPs from 53 countries, of whom 530 (78%) completed the survey in English and 146 (22%) in Chinese. All but one cardiovascular outcome ('valve replacement') was rated as critically important (Likert 7-9) by all participants; 'sudden cardiac death', 'heart attack', 'stroke' and 'heart failure' were all rated at the top by patients/caregivers (median Likert score 9). Patients/caregivers ranked the same four outcomes as the most important outcomes with mean preference scores of 6.2 (95% confidence interval 4.8-7.5), 5.9 (4.6-7.2), 5.3 (4.0-6.6) and 4.9 (3.6-6.3), respectively. The same four outcomes were ranked most highly by HPs. We identified five themes underpinning the prioritization of outcomes: 'clinical equipoise and potential for intervention', 'specific or attributable to HD', 'severity or impact on the quality of life', 'strengthen knowledge and education', and 'inextricably linked burden and risk'.

Conclusions: Patients and HPs believe that all cardiovascular outcomes are of critical importance but consistently identify sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure as the most important outcomes to be measured in all HD trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa008DOI Listing
October 2020

RAPID-ADPKD (Retrospective epidemiological study of Asia-Pacific patients with rapId Disease progression of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease): study protocol for a multinational, retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2020 02 6;10(2):e034103. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)

Introduction: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) reach end-stage renal disease in their fifth decade on average. For effective treatment and early intervention, identifying subgroups with rapid disease progression is important in ADPKD. However, there are no epidemiological data on the clinical manifestations and disease progression of patients with ADPKD from the Asia-Pacific region.

Methods And Analysis: The RAPID-ADPKD (etrospective epidemiological study of sia-acific patients with rapd isease progression of utosomal ominant olycystic idney isease) study is a multinational, retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with ADPKD in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taipei and Turkey). This study was designed to identify the clinical characteristics of patients with ADPKD with rapid disease progression. Adult patients with ADPKD diagnosed according to the unified ultrasound criteria and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m at baseline will be included. The cohort will include patients with ≥2 records of eGFR and at least 24 months of follow-up data. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, medications, eGFR, radiological findings that allow calculation of height-adjusted total kidney volume, ADPKD-related complications and the Predicting Renal Outcomes in autosomal dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (PRO-PKD) score will be collected. Rapid progression will be defined based on the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) guideline. All other patients without any of these criteria will be classified to be of slow progression. Clinical characteristics will be compared between patients with rapid progression and those with slow progression. The incidence of complications and the effects of race and water intake on renal progression will also be analysed. The planned sample size of the cohort is 1000 patients, and data from 600 patients have been collected as of 30 May 2019.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved or is in the process of approval by the institutional review boards at each participating centre. The results will be presented in conferences and published in a journal, presenting data on the clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease progression and patterns of complications of ADPKD in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045131PMC
February 2020

Establishing a Core Outcome Set for Peritoneal Dialysis: Report of the SONG-PD (Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Peritoneal Dialysis) Consensus Workshop.

Am J Kidney Dis 2020 03 16;75(3):404-412. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials in peritoneal dialysis (PD) are diverse, are measured inconsistently, and may not be important to patients, families, and clinicians. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Peritoneal Dialysis (SONG-PD) initiative aims to establish a core outcome set for trials in PD based on the shared priorities of all stakeholders. We convened an international SONG-PD stakeholder consensus workshop in May 2018 in Vancouver, Canada. Nineteen patients/caregivers and 51 health professionals attended. Participants discussed core outcome domains and implementation in trials in PD. Four themes relating to the formation of core outcome domains were identified: life participation as a main goal of PD, impact of fatigue, empowerment for preparation and planning, and separation of contributing factors from core factors. Considerations for implementation were identified: standardizing patient-reported outcomes, requiring a validated and feasible measure, simplicity of binary outcomes, responsiveness to interventions, and using positive terminology. All stakeholders supported inclusion of PD-related infection, cardiovascular disease, mortality, technique survival, and life participation as the core outcome domains for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.09.017DOI Listing
March 2020
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