Publications by authors named "Angela Pettinicchio"

12 Publications

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Cigarette smoke alters the transcriptome of non-involved lung tissue in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Sci Rep 2019 09 10;9(1):13039. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Alterations in the gene expression of organs in contact with the environment may signal exposure to toxins. To identify genes in lung tissue whose expression levels are altered by cigarette smoking, we compared the transcriptomes of lung tissue between 118 ever smokers and 58 never smokers. In all cases, the tissue studied was non-involved lung tissue obtained at lobectomy from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Of the 17,097 genes analyzed, 357 were differentially expressed between ever smokers and never smokers (FDR < 0.05), including 290 genes that were up-regulated and 67 down-regulated in ever smokers. For 85 genes, the absolute value of the fold change was ≥2. The gene with the smallest FDR was MYO1A (FDR = 6.9 × 10) while the gene with the largest difference between groups was FGG (fold change = 31.60). Overall, 100 of the genes identified in this study (38.6%) had previously been found to associate with smoking in at least one of four previously reported datasets of non-involved lung tissue. Seven genes (KMO, CD1A, SPINK5, TREM2, CYBB, DNASE2B, FGG) were differentially expressed between ever and never smokers in all five datasets, with concordant higher expression in ever smokers. Smoking-induced up-regulation of six of these genes was also observed in a transcription dataset from lung tissue of non-cancer patients. Among the three most significant gene networks, two are involved in immunity and inflammation and one in cell death. Overall, this study shows that the lung parenchyma transcriptome of smokers has altered gene expression and that these alterations are reproducible in different series of smokers across countries. Moreover, this study identified a seven-gene panel that reflects lung tissue exposure to cigarette smoke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49648-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736939PMC
September 2019

Germline control of somatic Kras mutations in mouse lung tumors.

Mol Carcinog 2018 06 25;57(6):745-751. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Somatic KRAS mutations are common in human lung adenocarcinomas and are associated with worse prognosis. In mice, Kras is frequently mutated in both spontaneous and experimentally induced lung tumors, although the pattern of mutation varies among strains, suggesting that such mutations are not random events. We tested if the occurrence of Kras mutations is under genetic control in two mouse intercrosses. Codon 61 mutations were prevalent, but the patterns of nucleotide changes differed between the intercrosses. Whole genome analysis with SNPs in (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 mice revealed a significant linkage between a locus on chromosome 19 and 2 particular codon 61 variants (CTA and CGA). In (AIRmax × AIRmin) F2 mice, there was a significant linkage between SNPs located on distal chromosome 6 (around 135 Mbp) and the frequency of codon 61 mutation. These results reveal the presence of two loci, on chromosomes 6 and 19, that modulate Kras mutation frequency in different mouse intercrosses. These findings indicate that somatic mutation frequency and type are not simple random events, but are under genetic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22796DOI Listing
June 2018

Complex genetic control of lung tumorigenesis in resistant mice strains.

Cancer Sci 2017 Nov 6;108(11):2281-2286. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

The SM/J mouse strain is resistant to chemically-induced lung tumorigenesis despite having a haplotype, in the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility locus (Pas1) locus, that confers tumor susceptibility in other strains. To clarify this inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlation, we crossed SM/J mice with another resistant strain and conducted genome-wide linkage analysis in the (C57BL/6J × SM/J)F2 progeny exposed to urethane to induce lung tumors. Overall, >80% of F2 mice of both sexes developed from 1 to 20 lung tumors. Genotyping of 372 F2 mice for 744 informative non-redundant SNPs dispersed over all autosomal chromosomes revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting lung tumor multiplicity, on chromosomes 3 (near rs13477379), 15 (rs6285067), 17 (rs33373629) and 18 (rs3706601), all with logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores >5. Four QTLs modulated total lung tumor volume, on chromosome 3 (rs13477379), 10 (rs13480702), 15 (rs6285067) and 17 (rs3682923), all with LOD scores >4. No QTL modulating lung tumor multiplicity or total volume was detected in Pas1 on chromosome 6. The present study demonstrates that the SM/J strain carries, at the Pas1 locus, the resistance allele: a finding that will facilitate identification of the Pas1 causal element. More generally, it demonstrates that lung tumorigenesis is under complex polygenic control even in a pedigree with low susceptibility to this neoplasia, suggesting that the genetics of lung tumorigenesis is much more complex than evidenced by the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility and resistance loci that have, so far, been mapped in a small number of crosses between a few inbred strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666032PMC
November 2017

Expression quantitative trait analysis reveals fine germline transcript regulation in mouse lung tumors.

Cancer Lett 2016 Jun 7;375(2):221-230. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Gene expression modulates cellular functions in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Herein, we carried out a genetic linkage study on the transcriptome of lung tumors induced by urethane in an (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 intercross population, whose individual lung tumor multiplicity (Nlung) is linked to the genotype at the Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus. We found that expression levels of 1179 and 1579 genes are modulated by an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) in cis and in trans, respectively (LOD score > 5). Of note, the genomic area surrounding and including the Pas1 locus regulated 14 genes in cis and 857 genes in trans. In lung tumors of the same (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 mice, we found 1124 genes whose transcript levels associated with Nlung (FDR < 0.001). The expression levels of about a third of these genes (n = 401) were regulated by the genotype at the Pas1 locus. Pathway analysis of the sets of genes associated with Nlung and regulated by Pas1 revealed a set of 14 recurrently represented genes that are components or targets of the Ras-Erk and Pi3k-Akt signaling pathways. Altogether our results illustrate the architecture of germline control of gene expression in mouse lung cancer: they highlight the importance of Pas1 as a tumor-modifier locus, attribute to it a novel role as a major regulator of transcription in lung tumor nodules and strengthen the candidacy of the Kras gene as the effector of this locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2016.02.054DOI Listing
June 2016

Mouse pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 locus is an expression QTL modulating Kras-4A.

PLoS Genet 2014 Apr 17;10(4):e1004307. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) is the major locus responsible for lung tumor susceptibility in mice; among the six genes mapping in this locus, Kras is considered the best candidate for Pas1 function although how it determines tumor susceptibility remains unknown. In an (A/J × C57BL/6)F4 intercross population treated with urethane to induce lung tumors, Pas1 not only modulated tumor susceptibility (LOD score = 48, 69% of phenotypic variance explained) but also acted, in lung tumor tissue, as an expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Kras-4A, one of two alternatively spliced Kras transcripts, but not Kras-4B. Additionally, Kras-4A showed differential allelic expression in lung tumor tissue of (A/J × C57BL/6)F4 heterozygous mice, with significantly higher expression from the A/J-derived allele; these results suggest that cis-acting elements control Kras-4A expression. In normal lung tissue from untreated mice of the same cross, Kras-4A levels were also highly linked to the Pas1 locus (LOD score = 23.2, 62% of phenotypic variance explained) and preferentially generated from the A/J-derived allele, indicating that Pas1 is an expression QTL in normal lung tissue as well. Overall, the present findings shed new light on the genetic mechanism by which Pas1 modulates the susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis, through the fine control of Kras isoform levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3990522PMC
April 2014

Multigenic nature of the mouse pulmonary adenoma progression 1 locus.

BMC Genomics 2013 Mar 6;14:152. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of Predictive and Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Amadeo 42, Milan, 20133, Italy.

Background: In an intercross between the SWR/J and BALB/c mouse strains, the pulmonary adenoma progression 1 (Papg1) locus on chromosome 4 modulates lung tumor size, one of several measures of lung tumor progression. This locus has not been fully characterized and defined in its extent and genetic content. Fine mapping of this and other loci affecting lung tumor phenotype is possible using recombinant inbred strains.

Results: A population of 376 mice, obtained by crossing mice of the SWR/J strain with CXBN recombinant inbred mice, was treated with a single dose of urethane and assayed for multiplicity of large lung tumors (N2lung). A genome-wide analysis comparing N2lung with 6364 autosomal SNPs revealed multiple peaks of association. The Papg1 locus had two peaks, at rs3654162 (70.574 Mb, -logP=2.8) and rs6209043 (86.606 Mb, -logP=2.7), joined by an interval of weaker statistical association; these data confirm the presence of Papg1 on chromosome 4 and reduce the mapping region to two stretches of ~6.8 and ~4.2 Mb, in the proximal and distal peaks, respectively. The distal peak included Cdkn2a, a gene already proposed as being involved in Papg1 function. Other loci possibly modulating N2lung were detected on chromosomes 5, 8, 9, 11, 15, and 19, but analysis for linkage disequilibrium of these putative loci with Papg1 locus suggested that only those on chromosomes 11 and 15 were true positives.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that Papg1 consists, most likely, of two distinct, nearby loci, and point to putative additional loci on chromosomes 11 and 15 modulating lung tumor size. Within Papg1, Cdkn2a appears to be a strong candidate gene while additional Papg1 genes await to be identified. Greater knowledge of the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying the germ-line modulation of lung tumor size in mice is relevant to other species, including humans, in that it may help identify new therapeutic targets in the fight against tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3602191PMC
March 2013

Mouse genome-wide association mapping needs linkage analysis to avoid false-positive Loci.

PLoS Genet 2009 Jan 9;5(1):e1000331. Epub 2009 Jan 9.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

We carried out genome-wide association (GWA) studies in inbred mouse strains characterized for their lung tumor susceptibility phenotypes (spontaneous or urethane-induced) with panels of 12,959 (13K) or 138,793 (140K) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Above the statistical thresholds, we detected only SNP rs3681853 on Chromosome 5, two SNPs in the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus, and SNP rs4174648 on Chromosome 16 for spontaneous tumor incidence, urethane-induced tumor incidence, and urethane-induced tumor multiplicity, respectively, with the 13K SNP panel, but only the Pas1 locus with the 140K SNP panel. Haplotype analysis carried out in the latter panel detected four additional loci. Loci reported in previous GWA studies failed to replicate. Genome-wide genetic linkage analysis in urethane-treated (BALB/cxC3H/He)F2, (BALB/cxSWR/J)F2, and (A/JxC3H/He)F2 mice showed that Pas1, but none of the other loci detected previously or herein by GWA, had a significant effect. The Lasc1 gene, identified by GWA as a functional element (Nat. Genet., 38:888-95, 2006), showed no genetic effects in the two independent intercross mouse populations containing both alleles, nor was it expressed in mouse normal lung or lung tumors. Our results indicate that GWA studies in mouse inbred strains can suffer a high rate of false-positive results and that such an approach should be used in conjunction with classical linkage mapping in genetic crosses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614123PMC
January 2009

Allelic effects of mouse Pas1 candidate genes in human lung cancer cell lines.

Cancer Lett 2006 Dec 2;244(2):176-81. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Four of the six genes constituting the mouse Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus haplotype carry amino acid variants: Lrmp, Casc1, Ghiso, and Lmna-rs1. In vitro colony formation assay of human lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H520 transfected with the allelic variants of the four genes revealed allele-specific modulations of colony numbers by Lmna-rs1 and Casc1, but not by Lrmp or Ghiso. In A549 and NCI-H520 cells, the A/J allele of Lmna-rs1 produced approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, more transfectants than did the C57BL/6J allele, whereas the A/J allele of Casc1 produced approximately 6- and approximately 5-fold fewer transfectants, respectively, as compared to the C57BL/6J allele. Inhibition of clonogenicity by allelic forms of Pas1 candidate genes was not mediated by induction of apoptosis. These findings provide evidence that allelic variants of mouse Pas1 candidate genes differentially modulate growth of human cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2005.12.015DOI Listing
December 2006

A V141L polymorphism of the human LRMP gene is associated with survival of lung cancer patients.

Carcinogenesis 2006 Jul 12;27(7):1386-90. Epub 2006 Jan 12.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Mouse Lrmp and Casc1 genes are candidates for the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus, the major determinant of strain variation in lung tumor susceptibility. These genes contain coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with lung tumor risk in mice. Analysis of LRMP and CASC1 gene SNPs in 361 lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) patients and 327 healthy controls revealed common SNPs in LRMP (V141L and S197C) and CASC1 (R33S and three intronic variations), and none showed a significant association with lung ADCA risk. However, in the time-dependent Cox regression model, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking history and clinical stage, the carrier status of the Leu variation (V141L) of the LRMP gene was associated with higher mortality in patients with age at tumor onset < or = 65 years [hazard ratio (HR) 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.7; P = 0.001]. These findings suggest that the LRMP V141L polymorphism can predict survival in lung ADCA and that the role of LRMP and CASC1 in human lung cancer risk may differ from that in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi332DOI Listing
July 2006

FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and prognosis of breast and colorectal cancer.

Oncol Rep 2005 Aug;14(2):415-9

Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.

A functional Gly388Arg variation in the FGFR4 gene has been reported to be associated with breast and colorectal cancer prognostic parameters. To further examine the functional role of this genetic polymorphism at the population level, we assessed the presence of the Arg388 allele in 142 breast carcinoma patients, 179 colorectal carcinoma patients and 220 general population controls with respect to an association with cancer prognosis and/or risk. No significant association with cancer risk, survival or any other prognostic parameters was observed in either breast or colorectal cancer. A pooled analysis of the present and published data on nodal status by FGFR4 genotypes revealed no association in either breast cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-1.4; 702 subjects] or colorectal cancer (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.6-3.4; 260 cases). Thus, the FGFR4 polymorphism may not be relevant in predicting nodal involvement of breast cancer or colon cancer patients.
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August 2005

Haplotype sharing suggests that a genomic segment containing six genes accounts for the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus activity in mice.

Oncogene 2004 May;23(25):4495-504

Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy.

The pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus affects inherited predisposition and resistance to chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. The A/J and C57BL/6J mouse strains carry the susceptibility and resistance allele, respectively. We identified and genotyped 65 polymorphisms in the Pas1 locus region in 29 mouse inbred strains, and delimited the Pas1 locus to a minimal region of 468 kb containing six genes. That region defined a core Pas1 haplotype with 42 tightly linked markers, including intragenic polymorphisms in five genes (Bcat1, Lrmp, Las1, Ghiso, and Kras2) and amino-acid changes in three genes (Lrmp, Las1, Lmna-rs1). In (A/J x C57BL/6J)F1 mouse lung tumors, the Lmna-rs1 gene was completely downregulated, whereas allele-specific downregulation of the C57BL/6J-derived allele was observed at the Las1 gene, suggesting the potential role of these genes in tumor suppression. These results indicate a complex multigenic nature of the Pas1 locus, and point to a functional role for both intronic and exonic polymorphisms of the six genes of the Pas1 haplotype in lung tumor susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207584DOI Listing
May 2004

Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus affects inflammatory response.

Oncogene 2003 Jan;22(3):426-32

Laboratório de Immunogenética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

Two outbred mouse lines, phenotypically selected for differential subcutaneous (s.c.) acute inflammatory response (AIR), were analysed for urethane-induced lung inflammatory response and susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis. AIR(min) mice, which show a low response to s.c. acute inflammation, developed a persistent subacute lung inflammatory response and a 40-fold higher lung tumor multiplicity than did AIR(max) mice, which are selected for high response to s.c. acute inflammation and showed a transient lung inflammatory response. A highly significant linkage disequilibrium pattern was observed in AIR(max) and AIR(min) mice at marker alleles located within a 452-kb pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus region, thus defining the location of gene candidacy for inflammatory response and for the biological effects of Pas1 in this region. AIR(min) and AIR(max) mice segregated by descent the Pas1(s) and Pas1(r) alleles, respectively, providing evidence for the involvement of the Pas1 locus in the inflammatory response. The 452-kb region contains Kras2 and four additional genes, including the lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (Lrmp) gene, whose Pro-->Leu nonconservative variation was linked with inflammatory response and Pas1 allelotype. These results provide a model to explore the mechanism underlying inherited predisposition to lung cancer in the context of a link to inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206157DOI Listing
January 2003