Publications by authors named "Angela Pecoraro"

91 Publications

Finding novel prognostic factors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: what does peripheral blood tell us?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Jun;74(3):372-375

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.22.04957-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Selecting the best candidates for non-surgical management of localized renal masses: the Occam's razor.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Jun;74(3):368-371

School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.22.04964-3DOI Listing
June 2022

Complementary roles of surgery and systemic treatment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Nat Rev Urol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Henri Mondor, APHP, UPEC, Créteil, France.

Standard-of-care management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) indisputably relies on surgery for low-risk localized tumours and systemic treatment for poor-prognosis metastatic disease, but a grey area remains, encompassing high-risk localized tumours and patients with metastatic disease with a good-to-intermediate prognosis. Over the past few years, results of major practice-changing trials for the management of metastatic RCC have completely transformed the therapeutic options for this disease. Treatments targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been the mainstay of therapy for metastatic RCC in the past decade, but the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape in the metastatic setting. Results from several pivotal trials have shown a substantial benefit from the combination of VEGF-directed therapy and immune checkpoint inhibition, raising new hopes for the treatment of high-risk localized RCC. The potential of these therapeutics to facilitate the surgical extirpation of the tumour in the neoadjuvant setting or to improve disease-free survival in the adjuvant setting has been investigated. The role of surgery for metastatic RCC has been redefined, with results of large trials bringing into question the paradigm of upfront cytoreductive nephrectomy, inherited from the era of cytokine therapy, when initial extirpation of the primary tumour did show clinical benefits. The potential benefits and risks of deferred surgery for residual primary tumours or metastases after partial response to checkpoint inhibitor treatment are also gaining interest, considering the long-lasting effects of these new drugs, which encourages the complete removal of residual masses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41585-022-00592-3DOI Listing
May 2022

Retroperitoneal Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2022 Jun 26;40:27-37. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA.

Context: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) has gained increasing popularity as primary minimally invasive surgical treatment for localized renal tumors, and it has preferably been performed with a transperitoneal approach. However, the retroperitoneal approach represents an alternative approach given potential advantages.

Objective: To provide an updated analysis of the comparative outcomes of retroperitoneal RAPN (R-RAPN) versus transperitoneal RAPN (T-RAPN).

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review of the literature was performed up to September 2021 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering only matched-pair studies.

Evidence Synthesis: Seventeen studies, which were published between 2013 and 2021, were retrieved. None of them was a randomized clinical trial. Among the 6,266 patients included in the meta-analysis, 2261 (36.1%) and 4,005 (63.9%) underwent R-RAPN and T-RAPN, respectively. No significant difference was found in terms of baseline features. The T-RAPN group presented a higher rate of male patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.86,  = 0.03) and larger tumor size (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 0.2 cm;  = 0.003). The R-RAPN group reported more frequent posterior renal masses (OR: 0.23;  < 0.0001). The retroperitoneal approach presented lower estimated blood loss (WMD: 30.41 ml;  = 0.001), shorter operative time (OT; WMD: 20.36 min;  = 0.0001), and shorter length of stay (LOS; WMD: 0.35 d;  = 0.002). Overall complication rates were 13.7% and 16.05% in the R-RAPN and T-RAPN groups, respectively (OR: 1.32;  = 0.008). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding major (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥3 grade) complication rate, "pentafecta" achievement, as well as positive margin rates. When considering only matched-pair studies, no difference between groups was found in terms of baseline characteristics. Posterior renal masses were more frequent in the R-RAPN group (OR: 0.6;  = 0.03). Similar to the analysis of the entire cohort, R-RAPN reported lower EBL (WMD: 35.56 ml;  < 0.0001) and a shorter OT (WMD: 18.31 min;  = 0.03). Overall and major complication rates were similar between the two groups. The LOS was significantly lower for R-RAPN (WMD: 0.46 d;  = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was found between groups in terms of overall PSM rates.

Conclusions: R-RAPN offers similar surgical outcomes to T-RAPN, and it carries potential advantages in terms of shorter OT and LOS. Available evidence remains limited by the lack of randomized clinical trials.

Patient Summary: In this review of the literature, we looked at comparative outcomes of two surgical approaches to robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. We found that the retroperitoneal technique offers similar surgical outcomes to the transperitoneal one, with potential advantages in terms of shorter operative time and length of hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2022.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9062267PMC
June 2022

PSMA PET/CT in Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Overview of Current Literature.

J Clin Med 2022 Mar 25;11(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Unit of Urological Robotic Surgery and Renal Transplantation, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, 50121 Florence, Italy.

Although the vast majority of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging occurs in the field of prostate cancer, PSMA is also highly expressed on the cell surface of the microvasculature of several other solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This makes it a potentially interesting imaging target for the staging and monitoring of RCC. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence regarding the use of PSMA PET/Computed Tomography in RCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11071829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8999609PMC
March 2022

Screening programs for renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review by the EAU young academic urologists renal cancer working group.

World J Urol 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

European Association of Urology (EAU) Young Academic Urologists (YAU) Renal Cancer Working Group, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To systematically review studies focused on screening programs for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and provide an exhaustive overview on their clinical impact, potential benefits, and harms.

Methods: A systematic review of the recent English-language literature was conducted according to the European Association of Urology guidelines and the PRISMA statement recommendations (PROSPERO ID: CRD42021283136) using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Risk-of-bias assessment was performed according to the QUality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool.

Results: Overall, nine studies and one clinical trials were included. Eight studies reported results from RCC screening programs involving a total of 159 136 patients and four studies reported screening cost-analysis. The prevalence of RCC ranged between 0.02 and 0.22% and it was associated with the socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects; selection of the target population decreased, overall, the screening cost per diagnosis.

Conclusions: Despite an increasing interest in RCC screening programs from patients and clinicians there is a relative lack of studies reporting the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and the optimal modality for RCC screening. Targeting high-risk individuals and/or combining detection of RCC with other health checks represent pragmatic options to improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the potential harms of RCC screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-022-03993-6DOI Listing
April 2022

Identification of Recurrent Anatomical Clusters Using Three-dimensional Virtual Models for Complex Renal Tumors with an Imperative Indication for Nephron-sparing Surgery: New Technological Tools for Driving Decision-making.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2022 Apr 4;38:60-66. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Some renal tumors have an imperative indication for nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), such as in cases of chronic kidney disease and bilateral complex tumors.

Objective: To demonstrate the degree to which three-dimensional virtual model (3DVM) assistance can be helpful in planning the surgical strategy for high-complexity renal masses with an imperative indication for NSS.

Design Setting And Participants: Three patients with high-complexity renal masses with unusual anatomy and an imperative indication for NSS were prospectively selected across 2020 and 2021 at our institution. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained.

Surgical Procedure: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with 3DVM augmented reality guidance.

Measurements: Demographics and tumor-related features were recorded. Data for intraoperative, pathological, and functional assessments were collected for all three patients.

Results And Limitations: Two of the three patients harbored bilateral renal tumors. The third patient presented with a renal mass in the left kidney and contralateral renal hypoplasia (right-split renal function of 25%). All of the patients demonstrated similar anatomical and tumor features on 3DVMs, with potentially independent vascularization and drainage for the lower pole. In one patient the upper pole of the kidney was spared, exiting in a functionally excluded hydrocalyx, while in the other two cases the upper pole was removed together with the lesion. The spared portion of the kidney retained vascularization, as demonstrated by intraoperative ultrasound and indocyanine green injection. The small sample size and short follow-up are the main limitations of the study.

Conclusions: 3DVMs, especially for complex renal masses with an imperative indication for NSS, allow planning of the surgical strategy on the basis of the anatomical characteristics of the organ in which the tumor is growing.

Patient Summary: Three-dimensional models help in defining the best surgical strategy for kidney tumors, especially for complex tumors that require surgery to spare as much of the kidney as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2022.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8898779PMC
April 2022

Expanding the Role of Ultrasound for the Characterization of Renal Masses.

J Clin Med 2022 Feb 19;11(4). Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Department of Urology, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The incidental detection of renal masses has been steadily rising. As a significant proportion of renal masses that are surgically treated are benign or indolent in nature, there is a clear need for better presurgical characterization of renal masses to minimize unnecessary harm. Ultrasound is a widely available and relatively inexpensive real-time imaging technique, and novel ultrasound-based applications can potentially aid in the non-invasive characterization of renal masses. We performed a narrative review on novel ultrasound-based techniques that can aid in the non-invasive characterization of renal masses. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) adds significant diagnostic value, particularly for cystic renal masses, by improving the characterization of fine septations and small nodules, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, the performance of CEUS for the classification of benign versus malignant renal masses is comparable to that of computed tomography (CT) and MRI, although the imaging features of different tumor subtypes overlap significantly. Ultrasound molecular imaging with targeted contrast agents is being investigated in preclinical research as an addition to CEUS. Elastography for the assessment of tissue stiffness and micro-Doppler imaging for the improved detection of intratumoral blood flow without the need for contrast are both being investigated for the characterization of renal masses, though few studies have been conducted and validation is lacking. Several novel ultrasound-based techniques have been investigated for the non-invasive characterization of renal masses. CEUS has several advantages over traditional grayscale ultrasound, including the improved characterization of cystic renal masses and the potential to differentiate benign from malignant renal masses to some extent. Ultrasound molecular imaging offers promise for serial disease monitoring and the longitudinal assessment of treatment response, though this remains in the preclinical stages of development. While elastography and emerging micro-Doppler techniques have shown some encouraging applications, they are currently not ready for widespread clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8876198PMC
February 2022

Robotic partial nephrectomy in 3D virtual reconstructions era: is the paradigm changed?

World J Urol 2022 Mar 22;40(3):659-670. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Context: The development of a tailored, patient-specific medical and surgical approach is becoming object of intense research. In kidney oncologic surgery, where a clear understanding of case-specific surgical anatomy is considered a key point to optimize the perioperative outcomes, such philosophy gained increasing importance. Recently, important advances in 3D virtual modeling technologies have fueled the interest for their application in the field of robotic minimally invasive surgery for kidney tumors.

Objective: To provide a synthesis of current applications of 3D virtual models for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

Evidence Acquisition: Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Database, and Embase were screened for Literature regarding the use of 3D virtual models for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN).

Evidence Synthesis: The use of 3D virtual models for RAPN has been tested in different settings, including surgical indication and planning, intraoperative guidance, and training. Currently, several studies are available on the application of this technology for surgical planning, demonstrating impact on clinical outcomes such as renal function recovery, whilst experiences concerning their intraoperative application for navigation are still experimental. One of the latest innovations in this field is represented by the development of dedicated softwares able to automatically overlap the 3D virtual models to the real anatomy, to perform augmented reality procedures.

Conclusions: The available Literature suggests a potentially crucial role of 3D virtual reconstructions during RAPN. Encouraging results concerning surgical planning and indication, intraoperative navigation, and surgical training are available. In the future, artificial intelligence may represent the key to further improve the 3D virtual modeling technology during RAPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-022-03964-xDOI Listing
March 2022

Partial vs. radical nephrectomy in non-metastatic pT3a kidney cancer patients: a population-based study.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Feb 11. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: To test for differences in cancer specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical nephrectomy (RN) and partial nephrectomy (PN) in pT3a nmRCC patients.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2005-2016), 13,177 pT3a patients treated with either PN or RN were identified. Before and after 1:2 ratio propensity score (PS)-match between PN and RN patients, cumulative incidence plot and competing risks regression (CRR) were used to test differences in CSM and other cause mortality (OCM) rates.

Results: Relative to PN (n=1,615, 22.5%), RN patients harbored higher tumor size (72 vs. 38 mm; >70 mm 51 vs.10%), of more aggressive histology, collecting duct (0.4 vs. 0.2%) and sarcomatoid (2.3 vs.0.8%), of higher grade (51.0 vs. 37.5%). After PS-matching and OCM adjustment, 5-year CSM was 3-fold higher after RN than PN (p<0.01). Similarly, after PS matching and CSM adjustment, also 5-year OCM rates were higher after RN (HR: 1.59, p=0.0003).

Conclusions: PN does not appear to compromise the oncological outcomes in patients with pT3a or high-grade renal masses when compared with RN. Therefore, these concerns should not deter a surgeon from attempting PN when otherwise technically feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.22.04680-8DOI Listing
February 2022

Is active surveillance a safe option for small RCCs as it is for small renal masses?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Dec;73(6):861-862

Division of Urology, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Eastern Piedmont, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, Italy -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04813-8DOI Listing
December 2021

The impact of ischemic injury in patients with solitary kidneys: new cornerstones for contemporary "precision" robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Dec;73(6):851-853

Department of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04810-2DOI Listing
December 2021

Treatment of Ureteral Stent-Related Symptoms.

Urol Int 2021 Nov 2:1-16. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the main classes of drugs used at reducing morbidity related to ureteric stents.

Summary: After establishing a priori protocol, a systematic electronic literature search was conducted in July 2019. The randomized clinical trials (RCTs) selection proceeded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered (PROSPERO ID 178130). The risk of bias and the quality assessment of the included RCTs were performed. Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL) were pooled for meta-analysis. Mean difference and risk difference were calculated as appropriate for each outcome to determine the cumulative effect size. Fourteen RCTs were included in the analysis accounting for 2,842 patients. Alpha antagonist, antimuscarinic, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors significatively reduced all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS and QoL scores relative to placebo. Conversely, combination therapy (alpha antagonist plus antimuscarinic) showed in all indexes of the USSQ, IPSS, and QoL over alpha antagonist or antimuscarinic alone. On comparison with alpha blockers, PDE inhibitors were found to be equally effective for urinary symptoms, general health, and body pain parameters, but sexual health parameters improved significantly with PDE inhibitors. Finally, antimuscarinic resulted in higher decrease in all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS, and QoL relative to alpha antagonist. Key message: Relative to placebo, alpha antagonist alone, antimuscarinics alone, and PDE inhibitors alone have beneficial effect in reducing stent-related symptoms. Furthermore, there are significant advantages of combination therapy compared with monotherapy. Finally, PDE inhibitors are comparable to alpha antagonist, and antimuscarinic seems to be more effective than alpha antagonist alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518387DOI Listing
November 2021

Impact of frailty on perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery or ablation for renal cancer: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Apr 29;74(2):146-160. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Urology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Frailty has been recognized as a major risk factor for adverse perioperative and oncological outcomes in patients with genitourinary malignancies. Yet, the evidence supporting such an association in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still sparse. Herein we provide an updated comprehensive overview of the impact of frailty on perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery or ablation for RCC.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted using the MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases according to the principles highlighted by the EAU Guidelines Office and the PRISMA statement recommendations. The review protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021242516). The overall quality of evidence was assessed according to GRADE recommendations.

Evidence Synthesis: Overall, 18 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. Most of these were retrospective single-center series including patients undergoing surgery for non-metastatic RCC. The overall quality of evidence was low. A variety of measures were used for frailty assessment, including the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index, the five-item frailty index, the Modified Rockwood's Clinical Frailty Scale Score, the Hopkins Frailty score, the Groningen Frailty Index, and the Geriatric nutritional risk index. Sarcopenia was defined based on the Lumbar skeletal muscle mass at cross-sectional imaging, the skeletal muscle index, the total psoas area, or the Psoas Muscle Index. Overall, available studies point to frailty and sarcopenia as potential independent risk factors for worse perioperative and oncological outcomes after surgery or ablation for different RCC stages. Increased patient's frailty was indeed associated with higher risk of perioperative complications, healthcare resources utilization, readmission rates and longer hospitalization periods, as well as potentially lower cancer specific or overall survival.

Conclusions: Frailty has been consistently associated with worse outcomes after surgery for RCC, reinforcing the value of preoperative frailty assessment in carefully selected patients. Given the low quality of the available evidence (especially in the setting of tumor ablation), prospective studies are needed to standardize frailty assessments and to identify patients who are expected to benefit most from preoperative geriatric evaluation, aiming to optimize decision-making and postoperative outcomes in patients with RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04583-3DOI Listing
April 2022

New Ultra-minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Nov 22;33:28-41. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Context: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is diagnosed in up to 80% of men during their lifetime. Several novel ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments (uMISTs) for BPH/benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) have become available over the past 5 yr.

Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and functional outcomes of recently introduced uMISTs for BPH/BPO, including Urolift, Rezūm, temporary implantable nitinol device, prostatic artery embolization (PAE), and intraprostatic injection.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2020 using Medline (via PubMed), Embase (via Ovid), Scopus, and Web of Science (registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021225014). The search strategy used PICO criteria and article selection was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias and the quality of the articles included were assessed. A dedicated data extraction form was used to collect the data of interest. Pooled and cumulative analyses were performed to compare perioperative and functional outcomes between study groups. A random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Stata version 15.0 software was used for all statistical analyses.

Evidence Synthesis: The initial electronic search identified 3978 papers, of which 48 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis revealed a uMIST benefit in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; -9.81 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.37 to -8.25 at 1 mo; -13.13 points, 95% CI -14.98 to -11.64 at 12 mo), maximum flow rate (from +3.66 ml/s, 95% CI 2.8-4.5 to +4.14 ml/s, 95% CI 0.72-7.56 at 12 mo), and postvoid residual volume (-10.10 ml, 95% CI -27.90 to 7.71 at 12 mo). No negative impact was observed on scores for the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction bother and function scales (overall postintervention change in pooled median score of 1.88, 95% CI 1.34-2.42 at the start of follow-up; and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-1.8 after 1 yr), or the IPSS-Quality of Life questionnaire.

Conclusions: Novel uMISTs can yield fast and effective relief of LUTS without affecting patient quality of life. Only Rezūm, UroLift, and PAE had a minimal impact on patients' sexual function with respect to baseline, especially regarding preservation of ejaculation.

Patient Summary: We reviewed outcomes for recently introduced ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostate enlargement or obstruction. The evidence suggests that these novel techniques are beneficial in terms of controlling symptoms while preserving sexual function.

Take Home Message: Novel ultra-minimally invasive treatments can yield fast and effective relief of lower urinary tract symptoms without affecting a patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473553PMC
November 2021

Renal tumors ablation.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug;73(4):549-551

Unit of Urological Robotic Surgery and Renal Transplantation, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04605-XDOI Listing
August 2021

Authors' Reply: To Letter to the Editor by Guo and Liu.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 05;19(5):xxviii

aCancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.7019DOI Listing
May 2021

Three-dimensional Virtual Models' Assistance During Minimally Invasive Partial Nephrectomy Minimizes the Impairment of Kidney Function.

Eur Urol Oncol 2022 02 24;5(1):104-108. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Three-dimensional virtual models (3DVMs) are nowadays under scrutiny to improve partial nephrectomy (PN) outcomes. This report aims to analyze their impact on renal function preservation after minimally invasive PN. A total of 100 patients treated with minimally invasive PN with contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained, and having undergone baseline and 3rd month postoperative renal scans were prospectively enrolled and compared with a control group of 251 patients without 3DVMs. Weighted differential of pre- and postoperative renal scan-based effective renal plasmatic flow (b-WD ERPF) was calculated, according to the availability of 3DVMs and PADUA risk category. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) models predicting a significant loss of renal function (LORF; ERPF drop >20%) were performed, overall and according to PADUA risk categories. The b-WD ERPF of the 3DVM group showed significantly lower LORF (-10%) than that of the control group (-19.6%, p =  0.02). In MLR, the availability of a 3DVM was found to be the only protective factor against a significant LORF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, p =  0.002). Moreover, after stratification as per tumor surgical complexity, this protective role was observed in both PADUA 8-9 and ≥10 category risk patients (OR = 0.3, p =  0.03 and OR = 0.1, p =  0.01). PATIENT SUMMARY: The drop in operated kidney function was significantly lower in surgeries assisted by three-dimensional virtual models (3VDMs), indicating that the availability of a 3VDM is the only protective factor against a significant functional damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.04.001DOI Listing
February 2022

Comparison between minimally-invasive partial and radical nephrectomy for the treatment of clinical T2 renal masses: results of a 10-year study in a tertiary care center.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug 22;73(4):509-517. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Even if partial nephrectomy (PN) is nowadays considered the standard for managing cT1 renal masses, its role in the management of cT2 kidney tumors is controversial. We aimed to compare oncologic and functional outcomes of minimally invasive radical nephrectomy (RN) and PN in cT2 renal masses.

Methods: Patients with cT2 renal masses underwent minimally-invasive PN or RN performed by a highly experienced single surgeon from 2009 to 2019 were considered. Demographic, perioperative and functional variables were compared. Cumulative incidence plot and competing risks regression (CRR) models were used to test differences in 5-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and 5-year other-cause mortality (OCM) rates. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model was used to test differences in 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates.

Results: Overall, 52 PN vs. 64 RN patients were identified. Relative to RN, PN patients recorded higher rates of complications (25% vs. 7.8%, P=0.02) but lower upstaging rate (≥pT3a 64.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.0001). Functional outcomes were in favor of PN (all P<0.001). No differences were recorded between 5-year CSM and OCM according to nephrectomy type. At CRR models, older age and upstaging were independent predictors of 5-year OCM and CSM, respectively (all P<0.01). Finally, only upstaging, high grade tumors and presence of positive surgical margins were identified as independent predictors of 5-year PFS (all P<0.01).

Conclusions: In experienced hands the treatment of cT2 renal neoplasms with minimally-invasive PN is feasible, providing perioperative and oncological safety profiles comparable to RN, with advantages in terms of functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04390-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Flexible ureteroscopy using a 120-w holmium laser: The low-energy/high-frequency approach.

Arch Esp Urol 2021 Apr;74(3):343-349

ASO S. Croce e Carle Cuneo. Cuneo. Italy.

Objectives: With the spread of more powerful lasers and the advent of new technologies, endoscopic interventions for urolithiasis are continuously evolving. The aim of this study is to present our experience and technique regarding Low Energy (LE)/High Frequency (HF) lithotripsy by using a 120-W Holmium laser (Lumenis®). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed our prospectively maintained Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery (RIRS) database. Lithotripsy was performed using LE/HF settings with a Long Pulse Width (LPW) and consisted of the following steps: 1) contact Laser lithotripsy (LE/HF/LPW dusting - 0,5 J/50 Hz or 02 J/70 Hz); 2) extraction ofmain fragments; 3) non-contact Laser lithotripsy (LE/HF/Short Pulse Width Pop Dusting - 0,5 J /80Hz). Pre-operativeand peri-operative outcomes were collected. Post-operative complications were recorded according to Clavien-Dindo Grading System. Finally, all patients under went a CT scan at three months after RIRS to assess the success of procedure, defined as stone-free or presence of ≤4 mm fragments (Clinical Insignificant Residual Fragments - CIRF). RESULTS: Overall, 104 LE/HF/LPW RIRS from December 2017 to January 2019 were performed. Mean operative time was 59 (SD ±23) minutes, median post-operative stay was two days (IQR 2-3). The post-operative complication rate was 4,8%: one patient had nausea and vomiting (Clavien-Dindo I) and four patients developed urosepsis (Clavien-Dindo II). The success rate was 88,5% (71,2% stone-free and 17,3% CIRF). CONCLUSIONS: LE/HF/LPW RIRS seems to be safe and effective in terms of positive success rate, safety and standard operative time. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to compare this technique to standard RIRS.
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April 2021

3D imaging technologies in minimally invasive kidney and prostate cancer surgery: which is the urologists' perception?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Apr 26;74(2):178-185. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Many specific 3D imaging technologies are currently available for the practising urologists. The aim of the study was to assess their perception about different 3D imaging tools in the field of prostate and kidney cancer surgery.

Methods: All the attendees of the 8th Techno-Urology-Meeting were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the role of 3D virtual reconstruction PDFs, 3D printing models, augmented-reality (AR) and mixed reality technology in the setting of surgical planning, patient counselling, intraoperative guidance and training for kidney and prostate cancer surgery; Moreover the different materials used for 3D printing were compared to assess the most suitable in reproducing the organ and tumor features, as well as their estimated cost and production time.

Results: The population consisted of 180 attendees. Overall, AR was the preferred option for intraoperative guidance and training, in both prostate (55% and 38.3%) and kidney cancer surgery (58.3% and 40%). HoloLens (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) was perceived as the best imaging technology for the surgical planning (50% for prostate and 60% for kidney), whereas printed models for patients counselling (66.7% for prostate and 61.7% for kidney). Fused deposition models were deemed as the best printing technology in representing kidney anatomy and renal tumor location (40%), while silicon (46.7%) and Polyjet (36.7%) models for prostate anatomy and cancer location. Finally, attendees demonstrated poor knowledge of 3D printing costs and production times.

Conclusions: Our study shows the perceptions of a heterogeneous surrogate of practicing urologists about the role and potential applications of 3D imaging technologies in daily surgical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04131-XDOI Listing
April 2022

Prognostic effect of preoperative systemic immune-inflammation index in patients treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Jun 26;74(3):329-336. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria -

Background: Identifying those of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who are most likely to benefit from cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) is challenging. We tested the association between preoperative value of Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index (SII) and overall survival (OS) as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS) in mRCC patients treated with CN.

Methods: mRCC patients treated with CN at different institutions were included. After assessing for the optimal pretreatment SII cut‑off value, we found 710 to have the maximum Youden Index value. The overall population was therefore divided into two SII groups using this cut‑off (low, <710 vs. high, ≥710). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses tested the association SII and OS as well as CSS. The discrimination of the model was evaluated with the Harrel's Concordance Index (C-Index). The clinical value of the SII was evaluated with decision curve analysis (DCA).

Results: Among 613 mRCC patients, 298 (49%) patients had a SII≥710. Median follow-up was 31 (IQR 16-58) months. On univariable analysis, high preoperative serum SII was significantly associated with worse OS (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.54, P=0.01) and CSS (HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.08-1.55, P=0.01). On multivariable analysis, which adjusted for the effect of established clinicopathologic features, SII≥710 was associated with OS (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04-1.50, P=0.02) and CSS (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.05-1.52, P=0.01). The addition of SII only slightly improved the discrimination of a base model that included established clinicopathologic features (C-index: 0.637 vs. 0.629). On DCA, the inclusion of SII did not improve the net-benefit of the prognostic model. On multivariable analyses, SII≥710 remained independently associated with the worse OS and CSS in IMDC intermediate risk group (both: HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.67, P=0.03). In the subgroup analyses based on the BMI, among patients with BMI ≥ 25, SII was significantly associated with OS (HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04-1.61, P=0.02) and CSS (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05-1.63, P=0.02).

Conclusions: We found an independent association of high SII prior to CN with unfavorable clinical outcomes, particularly in patients with intermediate risk mRCC and patients with increased BMI. Despite these results, it does not seem to add any prognostic or clinical benefit beyond that obtained by currently available clinicopathologic characteristics as sole worker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04023-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Prognostic effect of preoperative serum albumin to globulin ratio in patients treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Feb;10(2):609-619

Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Accurate identification of ideal candidates for cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is an unmet need. We tested the association between preoperative value of systemic albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) and overall survival (OS) as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS) in mRCC patients treated with CN.

Methods: mRCC patients treated with CN were included. The overall population was therefore divided into two AGR groups using cut-off of 1.43 (low, <1.43 high, ≥1.43). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses tested the association between AGR and OS as well as CSS. The discrimination of the model was evaluated with the Harrel's concordance index (C-index). The clinical value of the AGR was evaluated with decision curve analysis (DCA).

Results: Among 613 mRCC patients, 159 (26%) patients had an AGR <1.43. Median follow-up was 31 (IQR: 16-58) months. On univariable analysis, low preoperative serum AGR was significantly associated with both OS (HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.26-1.89, P<0.001) and CSS (HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.27-1.90, P<0.001). On multivariable analysis, AGR <1.43 was associated with worse OS (HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.23-1.85, P<0.001) and CSS (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.24-1.86, P<0.001). The addition of AGR only minimally improved the discrimination of a base model that included established clinicopathologic features (C-index=0.640 C-index=0.629). On DCA, the inclusion of AGR marginally improved the net benefit of the prognostic model. Low AGR remained independently associated with OS and CSS in the IMDC intermediate risk group (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-1.99, P=0.002).

Conclusions: In our study, low AGR before CN was associated with worse OS and CSS, particularly in intermediate risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947468PMC
February 2021

Comparison between small renal masses 0-2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm in size: A population-based study.

Urol Oncol 2021 04 16;39(4):239.e1-239.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Urology, University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The NCCN guidelines recommend active surveillance (AS) as an option for the initial management of cT1a 0-2 cm renal lesions. However, data about comparison between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 0-2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm are scarce.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2002-2016), 46,630 T1a NM stage patients treated with nephrectomy were identified. Data were tabulated according to histological subtype, tumor grade (low [LG] vs. high [HG]), as well as age category and gender. Additionally, rates of synchronous metastases were quantified.

Results: Overall, 69.3 vs. 74.1% clear cell, 21.4 vs. 17.6% papillary, 6.9 vs. 6.8% chromophobe, 2.0 vs. 1.1% sarcomatoid dedifferentiation, 0.2 vs. 0.2% collecting duct histological subtype were identified for respectively 0-2 cm and 2.1-4 cm RCCs. In both groups, advanced age was associated with higher rate of HG clear cell and HG papillary histological subtype. In 0-2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm RCCs, 13.8% vs. 20.2% individuals operated on harbored HG tumors and were more prevalent in males. Lower synchronous metastases rates were recorded in 0-2 cm RCC and ranged from 0 in respectively multilocular cystic to 0.9% in HG papillary histological subtype. The highest synchronous metastases rates were recorded in sarcomatoid dedifferentiation histological subtype (13.8% and 9.7%) in both groups.

Conclusions: Relative to 2.1-4 cm RCCs, 0-2 cm RCCs harbored lower rates of HG tumors, lower rates of aggressive variant histology and lower rates of synchronous metastases. The indications and demographics of patients selected for AS may be expanded in the future to include younger and healthier patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.01.003DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of sex and age on distribution of metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 May 30;26(5):962-970. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Our objective was to investigate age and sex-related discrepancies on distribution of metastases in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified 9607 patients with metastatic RCC. Trend test and Chi-square test analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between age and site of metastases, according to sex.

Results: Of 9607 patients with metastatic RCC, 6344 (65.9%) were men and 3263 (34.1%) were women. Thoracic, abdominal, bone and brain metastases were present in 51.1 vs. 52.8%, 42.6 vs. 44.3%, 29.9 vs. 29.2% and 8.6 vs. 8.8% of men vs. women, respectively. Increasing age was associated with decreasing rates of thoracic (from 55.5 to 48.5%) and brain (from 8.6 to 5.8%) metastases in men and with decreasing rates of abdominal (from 48.3 to 39.6%), bone (from 32.6 to 24.9%) and brain (from 8.8 to 5.4%) metastases in women. (all p < 0.05). Rates of concomitant metastatic sites also decreased with increasing age, from 57.1 to 50.8% in men and from 54.1 to 50.2% in women.

Conclusions: Important age and sex-related differences exist in the distribution of RCC metastases. The distribution of metastases is marginally different between sexes. Specifically, more advanced age is associated with lower rates of thoracic and brain metastases in men and with lower rates of abdominal, bone and brain metastases in women. Age and sex should be take into consideration into the staging management strategy, as well as into the follow-up strategy of patients with metastatic RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-021-01874-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Metabolic syndrome predicts worse perioperative outcomes in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for non-metastatic prostate cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 3;37:101519. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides) may undermine early perioperative outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP). We tested this hypothesis.

Materials & Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified RP patients. The effect of MetS was tested in four separate univariable analyses, as well as in multivariable regression models predicting: 1) overall complications, 2) length of stay, 3) total hospital charges and 4) non-home based discharge. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics.

Results: Of 91,618 patients: 1) 50.2% had high blood pressure, 2) 8.0% had BMI≥30, 3) 13.0% had altered fasting glucose, 4) 22.8% had high triglycerides and 5) 0.03% had low HDL cholesterol. Respectively, one vs. two vs. three vs. four MetS components were recorded in 36.2% vs. 19.0% vs. 5.5% vs. 0.8% patients. Of all patients, 6.3% exhibited ≥3 components and qualified for MetS diagnosis. The rates of MetS increased over time (EAPC:+9.8%; p < 0.001). All four tested MetS components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose and high triglycerides) achieved independent predictor status in all four examined endpoints. Moreover, a highly statistically significant dose-response was also confirmed for all four tested endpoints.

Conclusion: MetS and its components consistently and strongly predict early adverse outcomes after RP. Moreover, the strength of the effect was directly proportional to the number of MetS components exhibited by each individual patient, even if formal MetS diagnosis of ≥3 components has not been met.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.12.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Contemporary rates and predictors of open conversion during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 11;36:131-137. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: To test contemporary rates and predictors of open conversion at minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN: laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy).

Materials And Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified all MIPN patients and patients that underwent open conversion at MIPN. First, estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) tested temporal trends of open conversion. Second, univariable and multivariable logistic regression models predicted open conversion at MIPN. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics.

Results: Of 7649 MIPN patients, 287 (3.8%) underwent open conversion. The rates of open conversion decreased over time (from 12 to 2.4%; EAPC: 24.8%; p = 0.004). In multivariable logistic regression models predicting open conversion, patient obesity achieved independent predictor status (OR:1.80; p < 0.001). Moreover, compared to high volume hospitals, medium volume (OR:1.48; p = 0.02) and low volume hospitals (OR:2.11; p < 0.001) were associated with higher rates of open conversion. Last but not least, when the effect of obesity was tested according to hospital volume, the rates of open conversion ranged from 2.2 (non obese patients treated at high volume hospitals) to 9.8% (obese patients treated at low volume hospitals).

Conclusion: Overall contemporary (2008-2015) rate of open conversion at MIPN was 3.8% and it was strongly associated with patient obesity and hospital surgical volume. In consequence, these two parameters should be taken into account during preoperative patients counselling, as well as in clinical and administrative decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.12.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Anastomosis quality score during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a new simple tool to maximize postoperative management.

World J Urol 2021 Aug 3;39(8):2921-2928. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: The urethro-vesical anastomosis represents one of the most challenging steps of robotic prostatectomy (RARP). To maximize postoperative management, we specifically designed our anastomosis quality score (AQS), based on the intraoperative characteristics of the urethra and bladder neck.

Methods: This is a prospective study, conducted from April 2019 to March 2020. All the patients were classified into three different AQS categories (low, intermediate, high) based on the quality of the anastomosis. The postoperative management was modulated accordingly.

Results: We enrolled 333 patients. According to AQS, no differences were recorded in intraoperative complications (p = 0.9). Median hospital stay and catheterization time were longer in AQS 1 group (p < 0.001). Additionally, the occurrence of postoperative complication was higher in AQS 1 category (p = 0.002) but, when focusing on the complications related to the quality of the anastomosis, no differences were found neither for acute urinary retention (p = 0.12) nor urine leakage (p = 0.11). Finally, concerning the continence recovery, no significant differences were found among the three groups for each time point. The highest potency recovery rate at one month of follow-up was recorded in AQS 3 category (p = 0. 03).

Conclusion: The AQS proposed revealed to be a valid too to intraoperatively categorize patients who underwent RARP on the basis of the urethral and bladder neck features. The modulated postoperative management for each specific score category allowed to limit the occurrence of complications and to maximize the functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03549-6DOI Listing
August 2021

The importance of anatomical reconstruction for continence recovery after robot assisted radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and pooled analysis from referral centers.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 04 17;73(2):165-177. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Introduction: Urinary incontinence is one of the most scared sequelae of robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Therefore, different surgical modifications, aimed to restore the original anatomy, were proposed to overcome this issue. The purpose of this study is to assess which is the best reconstruction technique (posterior only: PR; anterior only: AR; total: TR) compared to the standard approach for continence recovery after RARP in a tertiary care center.

Evidence Acquisition: After establishing an a priori protocol, a systematic electronic literature search was conducted in May 2019. The article selection proceeded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered (PROSPERO registry number 131667). The risk of bias and the quality assessment of the included studies were performed. Simple pooled analysis was performed for continence rates according to the definition of continence (0 pad vs. 0-1 pad) and the different types of reconstruction at 1, 4, 12, 24, 52 weeks after RARP. Complication rate, operative and console time and estimated blood loss were pooled. Two-side test of proportion and T-test were used to compare rates and mean, respectively.

Evidence Synthesis: Six studies meeting the inclusion criteria were found and included in the analysis. All the included studies were of "poor" or "good" quality. A high or moderate risk of bias was recorded. TR showed higher continence recovery rates, compared to their anterior reconstruction counterpart at 1, 4, 12, 24, 52 weeks (P<0.001 at all time-points). At 12 weeks TR showed the highest continence rates (P<0.001), followed by AR and PR. No statistically significant differences were recorded regarding anastomosis-related complication rates (anastomosis stricture P=0.08; urine leakage P=0.1).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing RARP, TR facilitates a faster and higher continence recovery compared to standard approach or PR or AR only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.20.04146-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic factors in patients with small renal masses: a comparison between <2 vs. 2.1-4 cm renal cell carcinomas.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Feb 9;32(2):119-126. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Few data factually support the prognostic distinction between renal cell carcinomas (RCC) < 2 vs. 2.1-4 cm, in terms of cancer-specific mortality (CSM). We investigated CSM rates over time in <2 vs. 2.1-4 cm RCC, according to patient and tumor characteristics.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, we focused on patients with TNM RCC who underwent either radical or partial nephrectomy between 2000 and 2015. Temporal trends, Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox-regression analyses assessed CSM.

Results: Of 43,147 TNM patients, 12,238 (28.4%) harbored RCC < 2 cm and 30,909 (71.6%) 2.1-4 cm RCC. The distribution of histological subtypes according to 2 cm cut-off was as follows: a). clear-cell G1/G2: 64.5 vs. 61.8%; b). papillary G1/G2 15.9 vs. 11.1%; c). clear-cell G3/G4: 9.9 vs. 16.1%; d). papillary G3/G4 4.9 vs. 5.4%; and e). chromophobe 4.9 vs. 5.2%. Five-year CSM rates were invariably lower in RCC < 2 cm than in 2.1-4 cm, for all histological subtypes and grade groups (a-e), even after additional multivariable adjustment for age and residual tumor size differences. 5-year CSM rates improved in more contemporary years, in both tumor size groups (< 2 vs. 2.1-4 cm), but to a greater extent in 2.1-4 cm renal masses.

Conclusion: Our results validate the presence of prognostically more favorable CSM outcomes in RCC < 2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm, across all histological subtypes and grades. Moreover, temporal improvements were also recorded in both <2 and 2.1-4 cm RCC groups, with more pronounced improvements in patients with 2.1-4 cm renal masses. However, prospective randomized trials are needed to further confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01364-3DOI Listing
February 2021
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