Publications by authors named "Angela K Goodenough"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of the Selective CYP17A1 Lyase Inhibitor BMS-351 for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 Jan 2;7(1):40-5. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development , Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000, United States.

Efforts to identify a potent, reversible, nonsteroidal CYP17A1 lyase inhibitor with good selectivity over CYP17A1 hydroxylase and CYPs 11B1 and 21A2 for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) culminated in the discovery of BMS-351 (compound 18), a pyridyl biaryl benzimidazole with an excellent in vivo profile. Biological evaluation of BMS-351 at a dose of 1.5 mg in castrated cynomolgus monkeys revealed a remarkable reduction in testosterone levels with minimal glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid perturbation. Based on a favorable profile, BMS-351 was selected as a candidate for further preclinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716597PMC
January 2016

Quantification of 4-beta-hydroxycholesterol in human plasma using automated sample preparation and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

Chem Res Toxicol 2011 Sep 21;24(9):1575-85. Epub 2011 Jul 21.

Department of Bioanalytical and Discovery Analytical Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000, USA.

It has recently been proposed that plasma levels of 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) may be indicative of cytochrome P450 3A4 (P450 3A) activity and therefore could be used to probe for P450 3A-mediated drug-drug interactions. With this in mind, we describe a highly sensitive and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 4βHC in human plasma with a lower limit of quantification established at 2 ng/mL using 50 μL of plasma. The entire sample preparation scheme including saponification and derivatization of 4βHC to the corresponding dipicolinyl ester (DPE) was completed in less than 8 h using an automated sample preparation scheme enabling higher-throughput capabilities. Chromatographic resolution of 4βHC from 4α-hydroxycholesterol and other endogenous isobaric species was achieved in 11-min using an isocratic gradient on a C18 column. Because of endogenous concentrations of 4βHC in plasma, a stable isotope labeled (SIL) analogue, d7-4βHC, was used as a surrogate analyte and measured in the standard curve and quality control samples prepared in plasma. A second SIL analogue, d4-4βHC, was used as the internal standard. The intraday and interday accuracy for the assay was within 6% of nominal concentrations, and the precision for these measurements was less than 5% relative standard deviation. Rigorous stability assessments demonstrated adequate stability of endogenous 4βHC in plasma and the corresponding DPE derivative for the analysis of clinical study samples. The results from clinical samples following treatment with a potent P450 3A inducer (rifampin) or inhibitor (ketoconazole) are reported and demonstrate the potential future application for this highly precise and robust analytical assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx2001898DOI Listing
September 2011

Four novel spirooxazacamphorsultam derivatives.

Acta Crystallogr C 2010 Dec 9;66(Pt 12):o600-5. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

Knox College, Department of Chemistry, 2 E. South Street, Galesburg, Illinois 61401, USA.

The chiral compounds (6aS,9S,10aR)-11,11-dimethyl-5,5-dioxo-2,3,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-6a,9-methanooxazaolo[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-10(7H)-one, C(12)H(17)NO(4)S, (1), (7aS,10S,11aR)-12,12-dimethyl-6,6-dioxo-3,4,9,10-tetrahydro-7H-7a,10-methano-2H-1,3-oxazino[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-11(8H)-one, C(13)H(19)NO(4)S, (2), (6aS,9S,10R,10aR)-11,11-dimethyl-5,5-dioxo-2,3,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-6H-6a,9-methanooxazolo[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-10-ol, C(12)H(19)NO(4)S, (3), and (7aS,10S,11R,11aR)-12,12-dimethyl-6,6-dioxo-3,4,8,9,10,11-hexahydro-7H-7a-methano-2H-[1,3]oxazino[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-11-ol, C(13)H(21)NO(4)S, (4), consist of a camphor core with a five-membered spirosultaoxazolidine or six-membered spirosultaoxazine, as both their keto and hydroxy derivatives. In each structure, the molecules are linked via hydrogen bonding to the sulfonyl O atoms, forming chains in the unit-cell b-axis direction. The chains interconnect via weak C-H...O interactions. The keto compounds have very similar packing but represent the highest melting [507-508 K for (1)] and lowest melting [457-458 K for (2)] solids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0108270110041843DOI Listing
December 2010

Characterization of protein therapeutics by mass spectrometry: recent developments and future directions.

Drug Discov Today 2011 Jan 18;16(1-2):58-64. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Bioanalytical and Discovery Analytical Sciences, Research and Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, PO Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA.

Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful technology in the discovery and development of protein therapeutics in the biopharmaceutical industry. This review article describes recent developments and future trends in the characterization of protein therapeutics using MS. We discuss top-down MS for the characterization of protein modifications, hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS and ion mobility MS methods for higher order protein structure studies. Quantitative analysis of protein therapeutics (in vivo) by MS as an orthogonal approach to immunoassay for pharmacokinetics studies will also be illustrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2010.11.003DOI Listing
January 2011

Identification of carcinogen DNA adducts in human saliva by linear quadrupole ion trap/multistage tandem mass spectrometry.

Chem Res Toxicol 2010 Jul;23(7):1234-44

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

DNA adducts of carcinogens derived from tobacco smoke and cooked meat were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multistage tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) in saliva samples from 37 human volunteers on unrestricted diets. The N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts of the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), were characterized and quantified by LC-ESI/MS/MS(n), employing consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS(3) scan stage mode with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer (MS). DNA adducts of PhIP were found most frequently: dG-C8-PhIP was detected in saliva samples from 13 of 29 ever-smokers and in saliva samples from 2 of 8 never-smokers. dG-C8-AalphaC and dG-C8-MeIQx were identified solely in saliva samples of three current smokers, and dG-C8-4-ABP was detected in saliva from two current smokers. The levels of these different adducts ranged from 1 to 9 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases. These findings demonstrate that PhIP is a significant DNA-damaging agent in humans. Saliva appears to be a promising biological fluid in which to assay DNA adducts of tobacco and dietary carcinogens by selective LIT MS techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx100098fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916027PMC
July 2010

Long-term estrogen exposure promotes carcinogen bioactivation, induces persistent changes in gene expression, and enhances the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009 Nov 18;240(3):355-66. Epub 2009 Jul 18.

Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

The cumulative exposure to estrogens is an important determinant in the risk of breast cancer, yet the full range of mechanisms involving estrogens in the genesis and progression of breast cancer remains a subject of debate. Interactions of estrogens and environmental toxicants have received attention as putative factors contributing to carcinogenesis. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated interactions between estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), with consequences on the genes that they regulate. Many studies of ERalpha and AhR-mediated effects and crosstalk between them have focused on the initial molecular events. In this study, we investigated ERalpha- and AhR-mediated effects in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which were obtained by continuous culturing for at least 12 weeks in medium supplemented with 1 nM of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). With these LTEE cells and with parallel control cells cultured without E(2) supplementation, we performed an extensive study of cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction, carcinogen bioactivation, global gene expression, and tumorigenicity in immunocompromised mice. We found that LTEE cells, in comparison with control cells, had higher levels of AhR mRNA and protein, greater responsiveness for AhR-regulated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction, a 6-fold higher initial level of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts as determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, marked differences in the expression of numerous genes, and a higher rate of E(2)-dependent tumor growth as xenografts. These studies indicate that LTEE causes adaptive responses in MCF-7 cells, which may reflect processes that contribute to the overall carcinogenic effect of E(2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180932PMC
November 2009

Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

Anal Chem 2009 Jan;81(2):809-19

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA.

A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac802096pDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646368PMC
January 2009

Transcription processing at 1,N2-ethenoguanine by human RNA polymerase II and bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase.

J Mol Biol 2008 Jan 30;375(2):353-66. Epub 2007 Oct 30.

Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

The DNA lesion 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-epsilon G) is formed endogenously as a by-product of lipid peroxidation or by reaction with epoxides that result from the metabolism of the industrial pollutant vinyl chloride, a known human carcinogen. DNA replication past 1,N(2)-epsilon G and site-specific mutagenesis studies on mammalian cells have established the highly mutagenic and genotoxic properties of the damaged base. However, there is as yet no information on the processing of this lesion during transcription. Here, we report the results of transcription past a site-specifically modified 1,N(2)-epsilon G DNA template. This lesion contains an exocyclic ring obstructing the Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding edge of guanine. Our results show that 1,N(2)-epsilon G acts as a partial block to the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP), which allows nucleotide incorporation in the growing RNA with the selectivity A>G>(C=-1 deletion)>U. In contrast, 1,N(2)-epsilon G poses an absolute block to human RNAP II elongation, and nucleotide incorporation opposite the lesion is not observed. Computer modeling studies show that the more open active site of T7 RNAP allows lesion bypass when the 1,N(2)-epsilon G adopts the syn-conformation. This orientation places the exocyclic ring in a collision-free empty pocket of the polymerase, and the observed base incorporation preferences are in agreement with hydrogen-bonding possibilities between the incoming nucleotides and the Hoogsteen edge of the lesion. On the other hand, in the more crowded active site of the human RNAP II, the modeling studies show that both syn- and anti-conformations of the 1,N(2)-epsilon G are sterically impermissible. Polymerase stalling is currently believed to trigger the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair machinery. Thus, our data suggest that this repair pathway is likely engaged in the clearance of the 1,N(2)-epsilon G from actively transcribed DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2007.10.057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2262288PMC
January 2008

Structure of the 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct in duplex DNA at pH 8.6.

Chem Res Toxicol 2007 Nov 18;20(11):1601-11. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Center in Molecular Toxicology, and the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA.

The structure of the 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) adduct, arising from the reaction of vinyl chloride with dG, was determined in the oligonucleotide duplex 5'-d(CGCATXGAATCC)-3'.5'-d(GGATTCCATGCG)-3' (X=1,N(2)-epsilondG) at pH 8.6 using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The exocyclic lesion prevented Watson-Crick base-pairing capability at the adduct site and resulted in an approximately 17 degrees C decrease in Tm of the oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. At neutral pH, conformational exchange resulted in spectral line broadening near the adducted site, and it was not possible to determine the structure. However, at pH 8.6, it was possible to obtain well-resolved (1)H NMR spectra. This enabled a total of 385 NOE-based distance restraints to be obtained, consisting of 245 intra- and 140 inter-nucleotide distances. The (31)P NMR spectra exhibited two downfield-shifted resonances, suggesting a localized perturbation of the DNA backbone. The two downfield (31)P resonances were assigned to G(7) and C(19). The solution structure was refined by molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints, using a simulated annealing protocol. The generalized Born approximation was used to simulate solvent. The emergent structures indicated that the 1,N(2)-epsilondG-induced structural perturbation was localized at the X(6).C(19) base pair, and its 5'-neighbor T(5).A(20). Both 1,N(2)-epsilondG and the complementary dC adopted the anti conformation about the glycosyl bonds. The 1,N (2)-epsilondG adduct was inserted into the duplex but was shifted towards the minor groove as compared to dG in a normal Watson-Crick C.G base pair. The complementary cytosine was displaced toward the major groove. The 5'-neighbor T(5).A(20) base pair was destabilized with respect to Watson-Crick base pairing. The refined structure predicted a bend in the helical axis associated with the adduct site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx7001788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2546360PMC
November 2007

Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Jul 9;104(29):12129-34. Epub 2007 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Significant epidemiologic features of EN include its focal occurrence in certain villages and a familial, but not inherited, pattern of disease. Our experiments test the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid is responsible for EN and its associated urothelial cancer. Using (32)P-postlabeling/PAGE and authentic standards, we identified dA-aristolactam (AL) and dG-AL DNA adducts in the renal cortex of patients with EN but not in patients with other chronic renal diseases. In addition, urothelial cancer tissue was obtained from residents of endemic villages with upper urinary tract malignancies. The AmpliChip p53 microarray was then used to sequence exons 2-11 of the p53 gene where we identified 19 base substitutions. Mutations at A:T pairs accounted for 89% of all p53 mutations, with 78% of these being A:T --> T:A transversions. Our experimental results, namely, that (i) DNA adducts derived from aristolochic acid (AA) are present in renal tissues of patients with documented EN, (ii) these adducts can be detected in transitional cell cancers, and (iii) A:T --> T:A transversions dominate the p53 mutational spectrum in the upper urinary tract malignancies found in this population lead to the conclusion that dietary exposure to AA is a significant risk factor for EN and its attendant transitional cell cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0701248104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1913550PMC
July 2007

Identification of 2-amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline: an abundant mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked beef.

Chem Res Toxicol 2007 Mar 23;20(3):520-30. Epub 2007 Feb 23.

Division of Environmental Disease Prevention, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA.

A previously unknown isomer of the carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx) was recently discovered in the urine of meat eaters and subsequently detected in cooked ground beef (Holland, R.D., et al. (2004) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17, 1121-1136). In this current investigation, the identity of the analyte was determined through a comparison of its chromatographic tR by HPLC and through UV and mass spectral comparisons to the synthesized isomers of 8-MeIQx. Angular tricyclic isomers of 8-MeIQx were excluded as potential structures of the newly discovered HAA, on the basis of dissimilar tR and product ion mass spectral data. The linear tricyclic isomers 2-amino-1,6-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (6-MeIgQx) and 2-amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (7-MeIgQx) were postulated as plausible structures. Both compounds were synthesized from 4-fluoro-5-nitro-benzene-1,2-diamine in five steps. The structure of the analyte was proven to be 7-MeIgQx, on the basis of co-injection of the compound with the synthetic isomers, and corroborated by comparisons of the UV and mass spectral data of the analyte and MeIgQx isomers. 7-MeIgQx induced 348 revertants/microg in the S. typhimurium tester strain YG1024, when liver S-9 homogenate of rats pretreated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was used for bioactivation. This newly discovered 7-MeIgQx molecule is one of the most abundant HAAs formed in cooked ground beef patties and pan-fried scrapings. The human health risk of 7-MeIgQx requires investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx600317rDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2533101PMC
March 2007

Novel LC-ESI/MS/MS(n) method for the characterization and quantification of 2'-deoxyguanosine adducts of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

Chem Res Toxicol 2007 Feb;20(2):263-76

Division of Environmental Disease Prevention, Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) technique has been developed for the characterization and quantification of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the dietary mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). PhIP is an animal and potential human carcinogen that occurs in grilled meats. Following enzymatic digestion and adduct enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE), PhIP-DNA adducts were analyzed by MS/MS and MS(n) scan modes on a 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QIT/MS). The major DNA adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP), was detected in calf thymus (CT) DNA modified in vitro with a bioactivated form of PhIP and in the colon and liver of rats given PhIP as part of the diet. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was 1 adduct per 10(8) DNA bases, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 3 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases in both MS/MS and MS(3) scan modes, using 27 microg of DNA for analysis. Measurements were based on isotope dilution with the internal standard, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-(trideutero)methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-[2H3C]-PhIP). The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) scan mode in MS/MS was employed to monitor the loss of deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated molecules of the adducts ([M + H - 116]+). The consecutive reaction monitoring (CRM) scan modes in MS(3) and MS(4) were used to measure and further characterize product ions of the aglycone ion (BH2+) (Guanyl-PhIP). The MS(3) scan mode was effective in eliminating isobaric interferences observed in the MS/MS scan mode and resulted in an improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Moreover, the product ion spectra obtained by the MS(n) scan modes provided rich structural information about the adduct and were used to corroborate the identity of dG-C8-PhIP. In addition, an isomeric dG-PhIP adduct was detected in vivo. This LC-ESI/MS/MS(n) method is the first reported application on the use of the MS(3) scan mode for the analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx0601713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2593646PMC
February 2007

Translesion synthesis across 1,N2-ethenoguanine by human DNA polymerases.

Chem Res Toxicol 2006 Jun;19(6):879-86

Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0146, USA.

1,N(2)-Etheno(epsilon)guanine (epsilon) is formed in DNA as a result of exposure to certain vinyl monomers (e.g., vinyl chloride) or from lipid peroxidation. This lesion has been shown to be mutagenic in bacteria and mammalian cells. 1,N(2)-epsilon-G has been shown to block several model replicative DNA polymerases (pols), with limited bypass. Recently, an archebacterial DNA pol, Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4, has been shown to copy past 1,N(2)-epsilon-G. In this study, we examined the abilities of recombinant, full-length human pol delta and three human translesion DNA pols to copy past 1,N(2)-epsilon-G. The replicative pol, pol delta, was completely blocked. Pols iota and kappa showed similar rates of incorporation of dTTP and dCTP. Pol eta was clearly the most active of these pols in copying past 1,N(2)-epsilon-G, incorporating in the order dGTP > dATP > dCTP, regardless of whether the base 5' of 1,N(2)-epsilon-G in the template was C or T. Pol eta also had the highest error frequency opposite 1,N(2)-epsilon-G. Analysis of the extended products of the pol eta reactions by mass spectrometry indicated only two products, both of which had G incorporated opposite 1,N(2)-epsilon-G and all other base pairing being normal (i.e., G:C and A:T). One-half of the products contained an additional A at the 3'-end, presumably arising from a noninformational blunt end addition or possibly a slipped insertion mechanism at the end of the primer-template replication process. In summary, the most efficient of the four human DNA pols was pol eta, which appeared to insert G opposite 1,N(2)-epsilon-G and then copy correctly. This pattern differs with the same oligonucleotide sequences and 1,N(2)-epsilon-G observed using Dpo4, emphasizing the importance of pols in mutagenesis events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx060051vDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130186PMC
June 2006

Site specific synthesis and polymerase bypass of oligonucleotides containing a 6-hydroxy-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-9H-imidazo[1,2-a]purin-9-one base, an intermediate in the formation of 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine.

Chem Res Toxicol 2005 Nov;18(11):1701-14

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235-1822, USA.

The reaction of DNA with certain bis-electrophiles such as chlorooxirane and chloroacetaldehyde produces etheno adducts. These lesions are highly miscoding, and some of the chemical agents that produce them have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals and in humans. An intermediate in the formation of 1,N2-ethenoguanine is 6-hydroxy-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-9H-imidazo[1,2-a]purin-9-one (6-hydroxyethanoguanine), which undergoes conversion to the etheno adduct. The chemical properties and miscoding potential of the hydroxyethano adduct have not been previously studied. A synthesis of the hydroxyethano-adducted nucleoside was developed, and it was site specifically incorporated into oligonucleotides. This adduct had a half-life of between 24 and 48 h at neutral pH and 25 degrees C at the nucleoside and oligonucleotide levels. The miscoding potential of the hydroxyethano adduct was examined by primer extension reactions with the DNA polymerases Dpo4 and pol T7-, and the results were compared to the corresponding etheno-adducted oligonucleotide. Dpo4 preferentially incorporated dATP opposite the hydroxyethano adduct and dGTP opposite the etheno adduct; pol T7- preferentially incorporated dATP opposite the etheno adduct while dGTP and dATP were incorporated opposite the hydroxyethano adduct with nearly equal catalytic efficiencies. Collectively, these results indicate that the hydroxyethano adduct has a sufficient lifetime and miscoding properties to contribute to the mutagenic spectrum of chlorooxirane and related genotoxic species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx050141kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135970PMC
November 2005

DNA adduct bypass polymerization by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4: analysis and crystal structures of multiple base pair substitution and frameshift products with the adduct 1,N2-ethenoguanine.

J Biol Chem 2005 Aug 17;280(33):29750-64. Epub 2005 Jun 17.

Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

1,N(2)-Etheno(epsilon)guanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion derived from lipid oxidation products and also from some chemical carcinogens. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the products of primer extension by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) indicated preferential incorporation of A opposite 3'-(1,N(2)-epsilon-G)TACT-5', among the four dNTPs tested individually. With the template 3'-(1,N(2)-epsilon-G)CACT-5', both G and A were incorporated. When primer extension was done in the presence of a mixture of all four dNTPs, high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the products indicated that (opposite 3'-(1,N(2)-epsilon-G)CACT-5') the major product was 5'-GTGA-3' and the minor product was 5'-AGTGA-3'. With the template 3'-(1,N(2)-epsilon-G)TACT-5', the following four products were identified by high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: 5'-AATGA-3', 5'-ATTGA-3', 5'-ATGA-3', and 5'-TGA-3'. An x-ray crystal structure of Dpo4 was solved (2.1 A) with a primer-template and A placed in the primer to be opposite the 1,N(2)-epsilon-G in the template 3'-(1,N(2)-epsilon-G)TACT 5'. The added A in the primer was paired across the template T with classic Watson-Crick geometry. Similar structures were observed in a ternary Dpo4-DNA-dATP complex and a ternary Dpo4-DNA-ddATP complex, with d(d)ATP opposite the template T. A similar structure was observed with a ddGTP adjacent to the primer and opposite the C next to 1,N(2)-epsilon-G in 3'-(1,N(2)-epsilon-G)CACT-5'. We concluded that Dpo4 uses several mechanisms, including A incorporation opposite 1,N(2)-epsilon-G and also a variation of dNTP-stabilized misalignment, to generate both base pair and frameshift mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M504756200DOI Listing
August 2005