Publications by authors named "Angel Gil-Izquierdo"

116 Publications

Phytoprostanes, phytofurans, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids and free amino acids and biological potential of sea buckthorn juices.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Juices are currently a fast-growing segment in the fruit and vegetable industry sector. However, there are still no reports on the diversity of the phytochemical profile and health-promoting properties of commercial sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) juices. This study aimed to identify and quantify phytoprostanes, phytofurans by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), tocopherols, tocotrienols by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector (UPLC-FL), carotenoids, and free amino acids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode detector-quadrupole and tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS), and assess their anti-cholinergic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potential by in vitro assays of commercial sea buckthorn juices.

Results: Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) in sea buckthorn juices were identified for the first time. Juices contained eight F -, D -, B - and L -phytoprostanes and one phytofuran (32.31-1523.51 ng and up to 101.47 μg/100 g dry weight (DW)), four tocopherol congeners (22.23-94.08 mg 100 g DW) and three tocotrienols (5.93-25.34 mg 100 g DW). Eighteen carotenoids were identified, including ten xanthophylls, seven carotenes and phytofluene, at a concentration of 133.65 to 839.89 mg 100 g DW. Among the 20 amino acids (175.92-1822.60 mg 100 g DW), asparagine was dominant, and essential and conditionally essential amino acids constituted 11 to 41% of the total. The anti-enzyme and antioxidant potential of juices correlated selectively with the composition.

Conclusion: Sea buckthorn juice can be a valuable dietary source of vitamins E and A, oxylipins and amino acids, used in the prevention of metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and neurodegenerative processes. The differentiation of the composition and the bioactive potential of commercial juices indicate that, for the consumer, it should be important to choose juices from the declared berry cultivars and crops. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11345DOI Listing
June 2021

Caffeine Health Claims on Sports Supplement Labeling. Analytical Assessment According to EFSA Scientific Opinion and International Evidence and Criteria.

Molecules 2021 Apr 6;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain.

Caffeine is a food supplement widely consumed by athletes, but it has not been established. So far, the veracity of their labeling in terms of the dosage and cause/effect relationship aimed at the consumer. The aim is to analyze the health claims and the dosage presented on the labeling of caffeine supplements and to evaluate if they follow the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and international criteria. A descriptive cross-sectional study of a sample of caffeine supplements was carried out. The search was done through the Amazon and Google Shopping web portals. In order to assess the adequacy of the health claims, the guidelines of reference established by European Food Safety Authority were compared to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, International Olympic Committee, and Australian Institute of Sport guidelines; in addition, recent systematic reviews were addressed. A review of labels of 42 caffeine supplements showed that, in less than 3% of the products were the health claims supported by the recommendations and by the labeled quantity of caffeine. The claims that fully complied the recommendations were, "improves or increases endurance performance", "improves strength performance", or "improves short-term performance". In most cases, the recommended dosage was 200 mg/day for these products, which is the minimum for the caffeine effects to be declared. The rest of the health claims were not adequate or need to be modified. Most of the health claims identified indicated an unproven cause and effect, which constitutes consumer fraud, and so must be modified or eliminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26072095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038803PMC
April 2021

Phytoprostanes and phytofurans modulate COX-2-linked inflammation markers in LPS-stimulated THP-1 monocytes by lipidomics workflow.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 05 17;167:335-347. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods. Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, University Campus of Espinardo - Edif. 25, 30100, Espinardo, Spain.

Inflammation is a fundamental pathophysiological process which occurs in the course of several diseases. The present work describes the capacity of phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) (plant oxylipins), present in plant-based foods, to modulate inflammatory processes mediated by prostaglandins (PGs, human oxylipins) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells, through a panel of 21 PGs and PG's metabolites, analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-ESI-MS/MS. Also, the assessment of the cytotoxicity of PhytoPs and PhytoFs on THP-1 cells evidenced percentages of cell viability higher than 90% when treated with up to 100 μM. Accordingly, 50 μM of the individual PhytoPs and PhytoFs 9-F-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F-PhytoP, ent-16-F-PhytoP, ent-16-epi-16-F-PhytoP, ent-9-D-PhytoP, 16-B-PhytoP, 9-L-PhytoP, ent-16(RS)-9-epi-ST-Δ-10-PhytoF, ent-9(RS)-12-epi-ST-Δ-13-PhytoF, and ent-16(RS)-13-epi-ST-Δ-9-PhytoF were evaluated on their capacity to modulate the expression of inflammatory markers. The results obtained demonstrated the presence of 7 metabolites (15-keto-PGF, PGF, 11β-PGF, PGE, PGD, PGDM, and PGF) in THP-1 monocytic cells, which expression was significantly modulated when exposed to LPS. The evaluation of the capacity of the individual PhytoPs and PhytoFs to revert the modification of the quantitative profile of PGs induced by LPS revealed the anti-inflammatory ability of 9-F-PhytoP, ent-9-D-PhytoP, 16-B-PhytoP, 9-L-PhytoP, and ent-9(RS)-12-epi-ST-Δ-13-PhytoF, as evidenced by their capacity to prevent the up-regulation of 15-keto-PGF, PGF, PGE, PGF, PGDM, and PGD induced by LPS. These results indicated that specific plant oxylipins can protect against inflammatory events, encouraging further investigations using plant-based foods rich in these oxylipins or enriched extracts, to identify specific bioactivities of the diverse individual molecules, which can be useful for nutrition and health in the frame of well-defined pathophysiological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.03.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Activation of caspase-3 in gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells by Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. fruit and characterization of its phenolic fingerprint by HPLC-DAD-ESI(Ion Trap)-MS and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

Food Res Int 2021 03 12;141:110121. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

While the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. are important in African countries as a local trade product, their composition remains scarcely investigated. Phenolic fingerprint is herein delivered through HPLC-DAD-ESI(Ion Trap)-MS and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis, six cinnamoylquinic acid derivatives and twenty-four flavonoid glycosides being determined, chrysoeriol-7-O-glycosides being the main constituents. A cytotoxicity screening of twenty-eight hydroethanol extracts, obtained from a collection of Guinea-Bissauan plants, against A549 and AGS carcinoma cells, revealed the selective and potent effect towards AGS cells (IC = 151 × 10 g L), upon exposure to the extract from X. aethiopica fruits. Additional experiments demonstrated insignificant effect on LDH release at 151 × 10 g L, morphological analysis further suggesting induction of apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic effects were confirmed, as the extract enabled the activation of the effector caspase-3, broadening the knowledge on the anticancer mechanisms elicited by the fruits of X. aethiopica. Phenolic constituents might contribute to the cytotoxic effects, particularly via caspase-3 activation. Considering that X. aethiopica fruit is very often referred as an anticancer ingredient in Africa, but mainly the potent cytotoxicity herein recorded, our results call for additional research aiming to identify non-phenolic constituents contributing to the effects and also to further detail the anticancer mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110121DOI Listing
March 2021

Analysis of health claims regarding creatine monohydrate present in commercial communications for a sample of European sports foods supplements.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jan 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, Campus de Sant Vicent Del Raspeig, Ap.99, E-03080 Alacant, Spain.

Objective: To analyse the information on health claims present in the labelling of creatine monohydrate (CM) products.

Design: A descriptive study of a selection of products marketed as CM, with health claims, and that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, was conducted using the Amazon and Google Shopping websites. The adequacy and compliance of the health claims were evaluated with the European legislative requirements (European Food Safety Authority and European Commission). The results were discussed with scientific evidence criteria from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, International Olympic Committee, and International Society of Sports Nutrition, as well as the systematic review carried out by Mielgo-Ayuso in 2019.

Setting: Health claims in the commercial communications of a sample of CM supplements, in relation to current legislation and scientific knowledge.

Participant: A total of 554 CM products were obtained.

Results: Of the total sample, only 167 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of these, 30·5 % recommended a CM dose of 5·0-5·9 g/d, while 29·9 % recommended 3·0 to 3·9 g/d. As for the health claims, 'Enhances physical performance' appeared in 73·1 % of the supplements, in most cases referring to a dosage of 3·0 to 3·9 g/d for these products. The rest of the declarations were not adequate or needed to be modified.

Conclusion: Only 25 % of the health claims complied with the criteria established by the scientific reference documents. Most of the declarations must be modified or eliminated, as they could be considered fraudulent and/or misleading for the consumer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020005121DOI Listing
January 2021

Cassia sieberiana DC. leaves modulate LPS-induced inflammatory response in THP-1 cells and inhibit eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 24;269:113746. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: According to ethnobotanical surveys, Cassia sieberiana DC. (1825) is a particularly reputed species in African folk Medicine, namely due to the application of its leaves and roots for the treatment of diseases and symptomatology that appear to be related with an inflammatory background. In contrast with the roots of the plant, the leaves remain to be investigated, which prompted us to further detail mechanisms underlying their anti-inflammatory properties, by using in vitro models of disease.

Aim Of The Study: Considering its use in the amelioration and treatment of conditions that frequently underlie an inflammatory response, C. sieberiana leaves extract was prioritized amongst a collection of extracts obtained from plants collected in Guinea-Bissau. As such, this work aims to deliver experimental data on the anti-inflammatory properties of C. sieberiana leaf and to establish possible associations with its chemical composition, thus providing a rationale on its use in folk Medicine.

Materials And Methods: The chemical profile of an hydroethanol extract obtained from the leaves of the plant was established by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS in order to identify bioactives. The extract and its main compound were tested towards a series of inflammatory mediators, both in enzymatic and cell-based models. The capacity to interfere with the eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2) was evaluated in cell-free systems, while the effects in interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels produced by THP-1 derived macrophages were assessed through ELISA.

Results: HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis of the extract elucidated a chemical profile qualitatively characterized by a series of anthraquinones, particularly rhein derivatives, and nine flavonols, most of which 3-O-glycosylated. Considering the concentrations of the identified compounds, quercetin was detached as the main component. Effects of the hydroethanol extract obtained from C. sieberiana leaves against key enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade were recorded, namely a concentration-dependent inhibition against 5-LOX, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 250 μg mL and a selective inhibitory action upon COX-2 (IC = 3.58 μg mL) in comparison with the isoform COX-1 (IC = 9.10 μg mL). Impact on inflammatory cytokines was also noted, C. sieberiana leaf extract significantly decreasing IL-6 levels in THP-1 derived macrophages at 250 and 500 μg mL. In contrast, TNF-α levels were found to be increased in the same model. Quercetin appears to partially account for the observed effects, namely due to the significant inhibitory effects on the activity of the arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes COX-2 and 5-LOX.

Conclusions: The anti-inflammatory effects herein reported provide a rationale for the use of C. sieberiana leaves in African folk practices, such as in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism and body aches. Considering the occurrence of flavonoidic and anthraquinonic constituents, as well as the observed anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin, recorded effects must be related with the presence of several bioactives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113746DOI Listing
April 2021

Gustavia gracillima Miers. flowers effects on enzymatic targets underlying metabolic disorders and characterization of its polyphenolic content by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.

Food Res Int 2020 11 16;137:109694. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Notwithstanding Gustavia gracillima Miers widespread distribution in neotropical regions, its chemical profile and biological properties remain uninvestigated. A methanol extract obtained from the flowers was characterized through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, nine ellagic acid derivatives and twelve kaempferol 3-O-glycosides being identified and quantitated for the first time at the species and genus. Preliminary cytotoxicity screening did not reveal noticeable effects upon gastrointestinal representative cell lines (AGS, Caco-2 and Hep G2), which further prompted us to evaluate the impact in a series of targets involved in metabolic disorders and associated complications. Despite of the moderate inhibition towards 5-lipoxygense activity, G. gracillima methanol extract displayed significant effects on carbohydrates-hydrolysing enzymes. In contrast with the antidiabetic reference drug acarbose, the extract was able to selectively inhibit yeast α-glucosidase activity (IC = 4.72 µg/mL), with negligible inhibitory effects upon α-amylase. Kinetic studies pointed to a model of mixed inhibition with a great binding activity, characterized by an inhibitory constant of 2.91 µg/mL. The notable inhibitory activity was also confirmed in α-glucosidase homogenates isolated from human intestinal cells (IC = 34.03 µg/mL). Moreover, the extract obtained from the flowers of G. gracillima displayed significant aldose reductase inhibition (IC = 61.88 µg/mL), as well as O and NO scavenging properties. A moderate inhibitory effect was also recorded against pancreatic lipase (IC = 362.17 µg/mL) through a mixed inhibition mode. Recorded data supports the potential incorporation of G. gracillima flowers on antidiabetic herbal formulations and/or supplements, with not only straight action on carbohydrates digestion, but also direct interference with targets involved on subsequent diabetes events, such as triglycerides metabolism, inflammation and radical-mediated stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109694DOI Listing
November 2020

Valorisation of kitul, an overlooked food plant: Phenolic profiling of fruits and inflorescences and assessment of their effects on diabetes-related targets.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 8;342:128323. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Caryota urens L. has long been valued as a traditional food, the edible fruits being eaten raw and the inflorescences commonly used on sweet sap and flour production. In the current work, the phenolic profile of methanol extracts obtained from the inflorescences and fruits was unveiled for the first time, nine caffeic acid derivatives being identified and quantified. Since kitul products have been reported for their antidiabetic properties, extracts radical scavenging activity and α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activity were assessed. The inflorescences' extract was particularly active against yeast α-glucosidase (IC = 1.53 μg/mL), acting through a non-competitive inhibitory mechanism. This activity was also observed in enzyme-enriched homogenates obtained from human Caco-2 cells (IC = 64.75 µg/mL). Additionally, the extract obtained from the inflorescences showed no cytotoxicity on HepG2, AGS and Caco-2 cell lines. Our data suggest that C. urens inflorescences can support the development of new functional foods with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128323DOI Listing
April 2021

How does water stress affect the low molecular weight phenolics of hydroSOStainable almonds?

Food Chem 2021 Mar 19;339:127756. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group "Food Quality and Safety", Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address:

Water scarcity is a threat for food production because, water, is more and more limited and force farmers to use new deficit irrigation (DI) strategies without affecting fruit yield and quality. No information exists on almond polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (PAs) produced under DI. The present work studied the effect of 2 regulated DI (RDI) and one sustained (SDI) on the low molecular weight phenolics together with the antioxidant activity (AA) in almonds. Fifteen phenolic compounds were identified (13 flavonoids and 2 non-flavonoids) and 10 PAs. Kaempferol-3-O-galactoside was the predominant compound in almond skin and whole kernel but it was not found in deskinned kernels. The use of moderate RDI significantly increased the total phenolic content in skin (∼9.8%), PAs, and the AA. Consequently, after one season the application of DI positively affected the almond cv. Vairo phenols, however, several seasons must be evaluated in order to corroborate the present results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127756DOI Listing
March 2021

Oxylipin regulation by phenolic compounds from coffee beverage: Positive outcomes from a randomized controlled trial in healthy adults and macrophage derived foam cells.

Free Radic Biol Med 2020 11 31;160:604-617. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Vidarium - Nutrition, Health and Wellness Research Center, Nutresa Business Group, Calle 8 Sur No. 50-67, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address:

Oxylipins are considered biomarkers related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). They are generated in vivo via the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids as a result of oxidative stress and inflammation. Oxylipins are involved in vascular functions and are produced during foam cell formation in atherogenesis. Additionally, the consumption coffee is associated with the regulation on a particular oxylipin group, the F-isoprostanes (F-IsoPs). This function has been attributed to the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) from the coffee beverage. Considering the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of CGAs, we evaluated the effects of two types of coffee that provided 787 mg CGAs/day (Coffee A) and 407 mg CGAs/day (Coffee B) by reducing 35 selected oxylipins in healthy subjects. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of CGAs on the cellular proatherogenic response in foam cells by using an oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-macrophage interaction model. After eight weeks of coffee consumption, the contents of 12 urine oxylipins were reduced. However, the effect of Coffee A showed a stronger decrease in IsoPs, dihomo-IsoPs, prostaglandins (PGs) and PG metabolites, probably due to its higher content of CGAs. Neither of the two coffees reduced the levels of oxLDL. Moreover, the in vitro oxylipin induction by oxLDL on foam cells was ameliorated by phenolic acids and CGAs, including the inhibition of IsoPs and PGs by caffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, respectively, while the phenolic acids maintained both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These findings suggest that coffee antioxidants are strong regulators of oxylipins related to CVDs. The clinical trial was registered on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, WHO primary registry (RPCEC00000168).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.07.020DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee on markers of cardiometabolic health: results from the pocket-4-life project.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Apr 29;60(3):1453-1463. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Drugs, University of Parma, 43125, Parma, Italy.

Purpose: Coffee is an important source of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, trigonelline, and phenolic compounds. Several studies have highlighted the preventive effects of coffee consumption on major cardiometabolic (CM) diseases, but the impact of different coffee dosages on markers of CM risk in a real-life setting has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee consumption on several CM risk factors in healthy subjects.

Methods: In a three-arm, crossover, randomized trial, 21 volunteers were assigned to consume in a random order for 1 month: 1 cup of espresso coffee/day, 3 cups of espresso coffee/day, and 1 cup of espresso coffee plus 2 cocoa-based products containing coffee, twice per day. At the last day of each treatment, blood samples were collected and used for the analysis of inflammatory markers, trimethylamine N-oxide, nitric oxide, blood lipids, and markers of glucose/insulin metabolism. Moreover, anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured. Finally, food consumption during the interventions was monitored.

Results: After 1 month, energy intake did not change among treatments, while significant differences were observed in the intake of saturated fatty acids, sugars, and total carbohydrates. No significant effect on CM markers was observed following neither the consumption of different coffee dosages nor after cocoa-based products containing coffee.

Conclusions: The daily consumption of common dosages of coffee and its substitution with cocoa-based products containing coffee showed no effect on CM risk factors in healthy subjects.

Trial Registration Number: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03166540, May 21, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02347-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987697PMC
April 2021

Evaluation of Edible Parts and Byproducts as Sources of Phytoprostanes and Phytofurans.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Aug 10;68(33):8942-8950. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Research Group on Quality, Safety, and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, University Campus of Espinardo, Edif. 25, E-30100 Murcia, Spain.

Even though traditionally date-fruit has been featured by a marginal use, mainly restricted to its dietary intake, in recent years, it has raised the range of applications for this agro-food production. These new uses have entailed an enlarged production of date fruits and, simultaneously, of date palm byproducts. Encouraged by the traditional medicinal uses of dates, according to their phytochemical composition, the present work was focused on the evaluation of a new family of secondary metabolites, the plant oxylipins phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs), in six separate matrixes of the date palm edible parts and byproducts, applying an UHPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS-based methodology. The evaluation for the first time of date palm edible parts and byproducts as a dietary source of PhytoPs and PhytoFs provides evidence on the value of six different parts (pulp, skin, pits, leaves, clusters, and pollen) regarding their content in these plant oxylipins evidenced by the presence of the PhytoPs, 9-F-PhytoP (201.3-7223.1 ng/100 g dw) and 9--9-F-PhytoP (209.7-7297.4 ng/100 g dw), and the PhytoFs -16()-9--ST-Δ-10-PhytoF (4.6-191.0 ng/100g dw), and -16()-13-epi-ST-Δ-9-PhytoF as the most abundant compounds. Regarding the diverse matrixes assessed, pollen, clusters, and leaves for PhytoPs and skins and pollen for PhytoFs were identified as the most interesting sources of these compounds. In this concern, the information obtained upon the detailed characterization performed in the present work will allow unravelling the biological interest of PhytoPs and PhytoFs and the extent to which these compounds could exert valuable biological activities upon (mechanistic) and studies, allocating the effort-focus on the chemical species of PhytoPs and PhytoFs responsible for such traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03364DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of Deficit Irrigation, Rootstock, and Roasting on the Contents of Fatty Acids, Phytoprostanes, and Phytofurans in Pistachio Kernels.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Aug 4;68(33):8915-8924. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods. Food Science and Technology Dept., CEBAS-CSIC, Campus de Espinardo 25, Espinardo 30100, Spain.

Pistachio ( L.) is a drought-tolerant species grown under the semiarid conditions of the Mediterranean basin. For this reason, it is essential to make an exhaustive quantification of yield and quality benefits of the kernels because the regulated deficit irrigation will allow significant water savings with a minimum impact on yield while improving kernel quality. The goal of this scientific work was to study the influence of the rootstock, water deficit during pit hardening, and kernel roasting on pistachio (, cv. Kerman) fruit yield, fruit size, and kernel content of fatty acids phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) for the first time. Water stress during pit hardening did not affect the pistachio yield. The kernel cultivar showed a lower oleic acid and a higher linoleic acid contents than other cultivars. Kernels from plants grafted on the studied rootstocks showed very interesting characteristics. led to the highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids. Regarding the plant oxylipins, led to the highest contents of PhytoPs and PhytoFs (1260 ng/100 g and 16.2 ng/100 g, respectively). In addition, nuts from trees cultivated under intermediate water deficit during pit hardening showed increased contents of the 9-series F-phytoprostanes and -16()-9--ST-Δ-10-phytofuran. However, roasting of pistachios led to PhytoP degradation. Therefore, plant cultivar, deficit irrigation, rootstock, and roasting must be considered to enhance biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. New tools using agricultural strategies to produce hydroSOS pistachios have been opened thanks to the biological properties of these prostaglandin-like compounds linking agriculture, nutrition, and food science technology for further research initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c02901DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of the Probiotic Properties and the Capacity to Form Biofilms of Various Strains.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 15;8(7). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

MIcalis Institute, AgroParisTech, INRAE, Université Paris-Saclay, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Over the last 20 years, species inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have received much attention, and their health-promoting properties are now well-described. Probiotic effects cannot be generalized, and their uses cover a wide range of applications. It is thus important to proceed to an accurate selection and evaluation of probiotic candidates. We evaluate the probiotic potential of six strains of in different in vitro models representing critical factors of either survival, efficacy, or both. We characterized the strains for their ability to (i) modulate intestinal permeability using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), (ii) form biofilms and resist stressful conditions, and (iii) produce beneficial host and/or bacteria metabolites. Our data reveal the specificity of strains to modulate intestinal permeability depending on the cell type. The six isolates were able to form spatially organized biofilms, and we provide evidence that the biofilm form is beneficial in a strongly acidic environment. Finally, we demonstrated the ability of the strains to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that is involved in the gut-brain axis and beneficial enzymes that promote the bacterial tolerance to bile salts. Overall, our study highlights the specific properties of strains and their possible applications as biofilms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409210PMC
July 2020

In vitro multifunctionality of phlorotannin extracts from edible Fucus species on targets underpinning neurodegeneration.

Food Chem 2020 Dec 3;333:127456. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Bioprospecting for seaweed-derived multimodal acting products have earned increasing attention in the fight against diseases of multifactorial origin, such as neurodegenerative conditions. This is a pioneer study on the in vitro screening of neuroactive properties of phlorotannin-targeted extracts from edible Fucus species. Phlorotannin extracts exhibited multifunctional antioxidant properties, which were suggested to be responsible for counteracting glutamate toxicity in neuronal human-derived SH-SY5Y cells. They also inhibited the activity of enzymes (cholinesterases, monoaminoxidases A and B, and tyrosinase) linked to a set of events that contribute to the onset/progression of neurodegeneration. In general, the bioactivities were correlated with the total phlorotannin content and phloroglucinol tetramers were suggested to be behind the observed effects. The capacity of the phlorotannin extracts to interact with multiple in vitro targets underpinning neurodegeneration points to the potential interest of the selected seaweed species for development of new added-value products and promising neuroactive agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127456DOI Listing
December 2020

Targeted Lipidomics Profiling Reveals the Generation of Hydroxytyrosol-Fatty Acids in Hydroxytyrosol-Fortified Oily Matrices: New Analytical Methodology and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jul 10;68(29):7789-7799. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Research Group on Quality, Safety, and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, University Campus of Espinardo, Edif. 25, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Lipophenols have been stressed as an emerging class of functional compounds. However, little is known about their diversity. Thus, this study is aimed at developing a new method for the extraction, cleanup, and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS)-based analysis of the lipophenols derived from hydroxytyrosol (HT): α-linolenic (HT-ALA), linoleic acid (HT-LA), and oleic acid (HT-OA). The method validated provides reliable analytical data and practical applications. It was applied to an array of oily (extra virgin olive oil, refined olive oil, flaxseed oil, grapeseed oil, and margarine) and aqueous (pineapple juice) matrices, nonfortified and fortified with HT. Also, the present work reported the formation of fatty acid esters of HT (HT-FAs) that seem to be closely dependent on the fatty acid profile of the food matrix, encouraging the further exploration of the theoretical basis for the generation of HT-FAs, as well as their contribution to the healthy attributions of plant-based foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01938DOI Listing
July 2020

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol are dependent on the food matrix in humans.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Mar 10;60(2):905-915. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Research Group on Quality, Safety, and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Edif. 25, 30100, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated the properties of hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound present in olive oils and olives with a well-characterized impact on human health. Nevertheless, some knowledge gaps remain on its bioavailability and metabolism; overall concerning to the real rate per cent of absorption and biovailability of dietary hydroxytyrosol and the influence of the dietary food-containing hydroxytyrosol on it.

Methods: A double-blind study was performed including 20 volunteers who ingested 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol through diverse food matrices, to discover the influence on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of HT metabolites (hydroxytyrosol acetate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), tyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol) of the distinct matrices by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS.

Results: The HT pharmacokinetics after consumption of different food matrices was strongly dependent on the food matrix. In this aspect, the intake of extra virgin olive exhibited significantly higher plasma concentrations after 30 min of oral intake (3.79 ng/mL) relative to the control. Regarding the hydroxytyrosol bioavailability, the intake of extra virgin olive oil, as well as fortified refined olive, flax, and grapeseed oils provided significantly higher urinary contents (0.86, 0.63, 0.55, and 0.33 µg/mg creatinine, respectively) compared with basal urine, whereas hydroxytyrosol metabolites showed no significant changes. No differences were found between men and women.

Conclusions: The metabolic profile of hydroxytyrosol is influenced by the food matrix in which is incorporated, with the oily nature for the final bioavailability being relevant. Extra virgin olive oil was identified as the best matrix for this compound. The results described contribute to the understanding of the relevance of the food matrices for the final absorption of hydroxytyrosol and hence, the achievement of the highest health protection potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02295-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Phytoprostanes and Phytofurans-Oxidative Stress and Bioactive Compounds-in Almonds are Affected by Deficit Irrigation in Almond Trees.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jul 24;68(27):7214-7225. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group "Food Quality and Safety", Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Carretera de Beniel, Km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.

Almonds have gained consumers' attention due to their health benefits (they are rich in bioactive compounds) and sensory properties. Nevertheless, information about phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) (new plant markers of oxidative stress and compounds with biological properties for human health) in almonds under deficit irrigation is scarce or does not exist. These compounds are plant oxylipins synthesized by the oxidation of α-linolenic acid (ALA). Besides, they are biomarkers of plant oxidative degradation and biologically active molecules involved in several plant defense mechanisms. hydroSOStainable or hydroSOS mean plant foods made from from plants under controlled water stress. Almonds are a good source of polyunsaturated fatty (PUFAs) acids, including a high content of ALA. This paper aimed to describe the influence of diverse irrigation treatments on anti-oxidant activity (AAc) and total phenolic content (TPC), as well as on the level of ALA, PhytoP, and PhytoF in "Vairo" almonds. The AAc and TPC were not affected by the irrigation strategy, while the oxidative stress makers, PhytoPs and PhytoFs, exhibited significant differences in response to water shortage. The total PhytoP and PhytoF contents ranged from 4551 to 8151 ng/100 g dry weight (dw) and from 33 to 56 ng/100 g dw, respectively. The PhytoP and PhytoF profiles identified in almonds showed significant differences among treatments. Individual PhytoPs and PhytoFs were present above the limit of detection only in almonds obtained from trees maintained under deficit irrigation (DI) conditions (regulated deficit irrigation, RDI, and sustained deficit irrigation, SDI) but not in control almonds obtained from fully irrigated trees. Therefore, these results confirm PhytoPs and PhytoFs as valuable biomarkers to detect whether an almond-based product is hydroSOStainable. As a final conclusion, it can be stated that almond quality and functionality can be improved and water irrigation consumption can be reduced if controlled DI strategies are applied in almond orchards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c02268DOI Listing
July 2020

Urinary oxylipin signature as biomarkers to monitor the allograft function during the first six months post-renal transplantation.

Free Radic Biol Med 2020 01 15;146:340-349. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100, Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Oxylipins such as isoprostanes (IsoPs), prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs) are lipid mediators derived from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which regulate the magnitude of oxidative stress and inflammation processes and play an important role in pathophysiological processes in the kidney. A total of 36 oxylipins were analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS in the urine of 41 renal recipients from cadaveric donors of the Nephrology Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca during the first six months after renal transplantation, in order to investigate several candidate oxylipins as more accurate and predictive biomarkers in renal transplantation than classical biological variables. A decrease in nine PGs, mostly from the AA-D pathway (p < 0.05) and one IsoP: 15-keto-15-F-IsoP (p < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, two PGs (2,3-dinor-11β-PGF and 17-trans-PGF) increased between five days and six months after renal transplantation (p < 0.05). In addition, when kidney function improved, a positive correlation between oxylipin levels and the excretion of urine proteins was observed. These results suggest that oxylipins could be useful markers for monitoring renal function in the post-renal transplantation period. These findings could be of utility not only for the development of strategies for long-term preservation of graft function, but also for innovative and alternative therapies -using oxylipins as predictive markers-to avoid organ rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.11.010DOI Listing
January 2020

Phenolic Profiling and Biological Potential of Corner Leaves and Stem Bark: 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition and Interference with NO Levels in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

Biomolecules 2019 08 22;9(9). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

The economic value of fig trees has been globally acknowledged due to their utilization in the food industry, being also frequently used in traditional medicine. While ubiquitously distributed in Southeast Asia, Corner remains uninvestigated concerning its biological properties and chemical profile. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS characterization of methanol extracts obtained from the stem bark and leaves allowed the identification and quantitation of 21 phenolic compounds for the first time; the stem bark was predominantly rich in flavan-3-ols and apigenin derivatives, while solely apigenin-di-glycosides have been identified and quantitated on the leaf extract. Both extracts inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity in a concentration-dependent manner, the one obtained from the stem bark being significantly more active (IC = 10.75 μg/mL). The effect of both extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated, and while the stem bark extract did not lead to a noticeable interference on nitric oxide (NO) levels, the extract obtained from the leaves notably decreased NO and L-citrulline levels at concentrations ranging from 250 to 500 μg/mL. Herein, is valorized due to its modulatory effects on inflammatory mediators and also as a source of bioactive phenols, which may fuel further studies on the development of nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9090400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770299PMC
August 2019

Phenolic, oxylipin and fatty acid profiles of the Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana): Antioxidant activity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

Food Chem 2019 Nov 15;298:125026. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Biotechnology Centre and Chemical Sciences Faculty, University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile. Electronic address:

Roasted cotyledons of the Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana) are appreciated as snacks. The aim of our work was to assess the fatty acid, oxylipin and phenolic composition using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), ultra- high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to MS and HPLC coupled to diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Additionally, various antioxidant activities were assessed. The inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1/COX-2), and lipoxygenase was determined. The main fatty acids were oleic and 7-hexadecenoic acids. Eight phytoprostanes and three phytofurans were identified and quantified. Hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic compounds. Oils showed antioxidant activity determined by EPR, and inhibition of COX-1/COX-2. The statistical analysis showed that the roasting does not affect the composition of the samples. The occurrence of oxylipins in this species is reported for the first time. Chilean hazelnuts can be considered a source of health promoting compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125026DOI Listing
November 2019

Comparative study of different cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) clones in terms of their phytoprostanes and phytofurans contents.

Food Chem 2019 May 21;280:231-239. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Cocoa has been widely discussed as a bioactive food rich in sensory stimulation and health benefits. However, no information has been provided concerning phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) in cocoa. These compounds are of interest because they play a role in the regulation of immune function. The present study included 31 cocoa clones. The PhytoPs and PhytoFs were quantified by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. The total PhytoPs and PhytoFs contents ranged from 221.46 to 1589.83 ng g and from 1.18 to 13.13 ng g, respectively. The profiles of the PhytoPs and PhytoFs identified in the cocoa beans showed significant differences among the clones analysed. The results indicate that dry fermented cocoa beans are rich in PhytoPs and PhytoFs, which may represent an additional benefit of the consumption of foods derived from cocoa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.072DOI Listing
May 2019

HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS phenolic profile and in vitro biological potential of Centaurium erythraea Rafn aqueous extract.

Food Chem 2019 Apr 15;278:424-433. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Centaurium erythraea Rafn is a food flavouring used in both food and beverage industries. Despite the existence of some works on this species, only few focus their attention on its common form of consumption (infusion). Thus, we intended to explore the chemical composition and the biological properties of infusions from C. erythraea aerial parts. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, twenty-two flavonoid derivatives being reported for the first time. Concerning to the biological potential, the best scavenging activity was observed for the superoxide anion radical. Moreover, this extract revealed to have some effect on the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, no cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophage cells line, and a weak potential to decrease the nitric oxide levels in this cell system. The results suggest that C. erythraea aerial parts could be valuable sources of health benefits compounds, contributing to its valorisation and its further application in functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.11.082DOI Listing
April 2019

Structural/Functional Matches and Divergences of Phytoprostanes and Phytofurans with Bioactive Human Oxylipins.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Nov 16;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), Campus University Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) constitutes a crucial topic to discover new bioactive molecules. This approach initiates with the comparison of a target candidate with a molecule or a collection of molecules and their attributed biological functions to shed some light in the details of one or more SARs and subsequently using that information to outline valuable application of the newly identified compounds. Thus, while the empiric knowledge of medicinal chemistry is critical to these tasks, the results retrieved upon dedicated experimental demonstration retrieved resorting to modern high throughput analytical approaches and techniques allow to overwhelm the constraints adduced so far to the successful accomplishment of such tasks. Therefore, the present work reviews critically the evidences reported to date on the occurrence of phytoprostanes and phytofurans in plant foods, and the information available on their bioavailability and biological activity, shedding some light on the expectation waken up due to their structural similarities with prostanoids and isoprostanes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262570PMC
November 2018

Potential of Physalis peruviana calyces as a low-cost valuable resource of phytoprostanes and phenolic compounds.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 26;99(5):2194-2204. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), Murcia, Spain.

Background: In Colombia, agro-industrial residues represent an enormous economic and environmental problem, which could be reduced if different techniques for the addition of value to such residues were implemented by this industrial sector. One of the fruits with the highest export rates is Physalis peruviana (goldenberry); however, this fruit is generally marketed without its calyx, generating a large amount of residues. To develop a strategy to add value to these residues, it is essential to know their chemical composition.

Results: In the present work, phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) - new active oxylipins - have been detected for the first time in Physalis peruviana calyces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), F -phytoprostanes and D -phytoprostanes being the predominant and minor classes, respectively. In addition, we were able to characterize the phenolic compounds profile of this matrix using LC-IT-DAD-MS/MS, describing six phenolic derivatives for the first time therein.

Conclusions: This study increases our knowledge of the chemical composition of the calyces of this fruit and thereby supports the recycling of this class of residue. Consequently, goldenberry calyces could be used as phytotherapeutic, nutraceutic, or cosmetic ingredients for the development of diverse natural products. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9413DOI Listing
March 2019

Diffuse light affects the contents of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and free amino acids in lettuce plants.

Food Chem 2019 Jan 11;272:227-234. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 164, E-30100 Espinardo, Spain.

Enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation to which lettuce plants were exposed clearly affected the vitamin C content and the quantitative and qualitative patterns of phenolic compounds and free amino acids (AA) in the leaves. Although the enhanced level of diffuse light was detrimental to the contents of vitamin C and total phenolic compounds, lowering them by 10-46% and 8-11%, respectively, the content of di-caffeoyltartaric acid increased from 0.26 ± 0.19 to 0.52 ± 0.10 μmol 100 g f.w. for plants harvested in summer. The effect of diffuse light on AA depended on the total amount of global radiation incident on the plants. Considering the lowest amount of global radiation, the enhanced diffuse light increased the AA content from 766 ± 89 to 849 ± 90 μmol 100 g f.w. By contrast, under the highest level of global radiation, diffuse light decreased the amount of AA from 990 ± 16 to 830 ± 76 μmol 100 g f.w.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.051DOI Listing
January 2019

Edible seaweeds' phlorotannins in allergy: A natural multi-target approach.

Food Chem 2018 Nov 23;265:233-241. Epub 2018 May 23.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

The anti-allergenicity of phlorotannin-targeted extracts from four edible seaweed species of Fucus genus was evaluated herein for the first time. Extracts were able to act upon cellular events triggered by immunological reaction (IgE/antigen), and on cellular events downstream the Ca influx caused by a chemical stimulus (calcium ionophore A23187), preventing degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. Furthermore, a dose-dependent behaviour towards allergy-related enzymatic systems was observed for all the phlorotannin extracts. Linear correlations were found between reduction of the allergic mediators released and the total phlorotannin content, as well as between the enzyme inhibition and the amount of phlorotannins in the extracts. These results point to a multi-target anti-allergic capacity of phlorotannin-targeted extracts, which displayed effects on different critical steps of the allergic response, contributing to the valorisation of Fucus spp. both as food and for nutraceutical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.05.074DOI Listing
November 2018

Leaves and stem bark from Allophylus africanus P. Beauv.: An approach to anti-inflammatory properties and characterization of their flavonoid profile.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Aug 19;118:430-438. Epub 2018 May 19.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

The small tree Allophylus africanus, widespread in the African continent, has long been considered valuable, as noted by the number of reports on their multiple medicinal uses. With this work, we aimed to extend the current, and so far restricted, knowledge on the chemical composition of the plant, particularly as source of flavonoids, as well as to assess its potential anti-inflammatory properties. The chemical characterization of the aqueous extract obtained from the leaves allowed the identification and quantitation of 30 flavones, predominantly apigenin derivatives, but also four luteolin derivatives, while the stem bark extract was solely characterized by apigenin di-C-glycosides and mono-C-glycosides-O-glycosylated. Strong inhibitory effects towards 5-lipoxygenase were observed with the aqueous extracts obtained from the leaves and stem bark, with IC values of 41.28 and 107.77 μg mL, respectively. Both extracts were also found to reduce NO levels in LPS-challenged RAW 264.7 macrophages, without noticeable cytotoxicity. The flavonoid profile of the plant is disclosed for the first time, allowing the identification of several molecules that may contribute to mitigate the inflammatory response. Jointly, with the current study the anti-inflammatory use of the leaves and stem bark is partially validated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.05.045DOI Listing
August 2018

Nanoparticles and Controlled Delivery for Bioactive Compounds: Outlining Challenges for New "Smart-Foods" for Health.

Foods 2018 May 7;7(5). Epub 2018 May 7.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CEBAS-CSIC), Campus de Espinardo 25, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations. Actually, industry has applied this technology in the search for new oral delivery alternatives obtained upon the modification of the solubility properties of bioactive compounds. Significant works have been made in the last years for testing the input that nanomaterials and nanoparticles provide for an array of pathophysiological situations. In this frame, this review addresses general questions concerning the extent to which nanoparticles offer alternatives that improve therapeutic value, while avoid toxicity, by releasing bioactive compounds specifically to target tissues affected by specific chemical and pathophysiological settings. In this regard, to date, the contribution of nanoparticles to protect encapsulated bioactive compounds from degradation as a result of gastrointestinal digestion and cellular metabolism, to enable their release in a controlled manner, enhancing biodistribution of bioactive compounds, and to allow them to target those tissues affected by biological disturbances has been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7050072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977092PMC
May 2018

Sorting out the phytoprostane and phytofuran profile in vegetable oils.

Food Res Int 2018 05 5;107:619-628. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Research Group on Quality, Safety, and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, University Campus of Espinardo, Edif. 25, 30100, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) are prostaglandin-like compounds, contributing to defense signaling and prevention of cellular damage. These plant oxylipins result from autoxidation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and have been proposed as new bioactive compounds due to their structural analogies with isoprostanes (IsoPs) and prostanoids derived from arachidonic acid in mammals, which have demonstrated diverse biological activities. The present work assesses a wide range of vegetable oils - including extra virgin olive oils (n = 7) and flax, sesame, argan, safflower seed, grapeseed, and palm oils - for their content of PhytoPs and PhytoFs. Flax oil displayed the highest concentrations, being notable the presence of 9-epi-9-D-PhytoP, 9-D-PhytoP, 16-B-PhytoP, and 9-L-PhytoP (7.54, 28.09, 28.67, and 19.22 μg mL, respectively), which contributed to a total PhytoPs concentration of 119.15 μg mL, and of ent-16-(RS)-9-epi-ST-Δ-10-PhytoF (21.46 μg mL). Palm and grapeseed oils appeared as the most appropriate negative controls, given the near absence of PhytoPs and PhytoFs (lower than 0.15 μg mL). These data inform on the chance to develop nutritional trials using flax and grapeseed oils as food matrices that would provide practical information to design further assays intended to determine the actual bioavailability/bioactivity in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.03.013DOI Listing
May 2018
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