Publications by authors named "Ang Li"

1,227 Publications

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COL4A1 as a novel oncogene associated with the clinical characteristics of malignancy predicts poor prognosis in glioma.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Nov 27;22(5):1224. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Orthopedics and Microbiome Laboratory, Henan University People's Hospital, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, P.R. China.

Studies have indicated that collagen α-1 (IV) chain (COL4A1) has an indispensable regulatory role in the complex pathological mechanisms of numerous types of malignant tumor. However, its role in the development of glioma has remained elusive. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the association between the expression levels of COL4A1 and the clinical characteristics of gliomas by analyzing large samples. First, analysis of thousands of glioma tissue samples collected from the Gene expression profiling interactive analysis, Gene Expression Omnibus database, the Ivy glioblastoma atlas, The Human Protein Atlas, Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas and The Cancer Genome Atlas. In addition, glioma tissues and normal brain tissues from patients with glioma and epilepsy undergoing surgical resection were collected. These samples, which were subjected to a variety of different detection techniques (including sequencing data, chip data, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, cell lines and tissue samples, hybridization and immunology) revealed that COL4A1 expression was not only increased at the mRNA level but also at the protein level as compared with that in normal brain tissue. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that COL4A1 expression was associated with reduced overall survival of patients, particularly those with World Health Organization grade III glioma. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that COL4A1 had a moderate diagnostic value for glioma. In addition, the Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that the expression levels of COL4A1 were positively associated with the histological type and historical grade of the tumor, patient age, 'Primary, Recurrent, Secondary' type and the chemotherapy status, and negatively associated with isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation and 1p19q co-deletion (P<0.001). Gene-set enrichment analysis indicated that overexpression of COL4A1 promoted cancer-associated pathways, such as the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and cell cycle regulation. Finally, an MTT assay, immunohistochemical analysis of the cell cycle regulator KI67 and a wound-healing assay further confirmed that knockdown of COL4A1 inhibited the proliferation and migration ability of glioma cells. In conclusion, COL4A1, as a novel oncogene, is a marker for poor prognosis in patients with glioma. The present study expanded the understanding of the pathogenesis of glioma and identified COL4A1 as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438660PMC
November 2021

Clinical effectiveness of adjunctive diode laser on scaling and root planing in the treatment of periodontitis: is there an optimal combination of usage mode and application regimen? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 98 Xiwu Road, Xi'an, 710004, China.

This review aims to evaluate the adjunctive clinical effectiveness of diode laser (DL) to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis, and identify the optimal combination of usage mode and application regimen of DL. Eight electronic databases were searched up to January 2021. Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) were assessed at short-term (4-6 weeks), 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. Based on DL usage mode, studies were divided into three groups: inside, outside pocket, and combined modes. As for application regimen, studies in each group were further subdivided into single- and multiple-session subgroups. Thirty randomized controlled trials with 825 participants were included. For inside mode, single-session DL showed significant improvements for PPD (short-term, and 3-month, p < 0.05), CAL (short-term, and 3-month, p < 0.05), PI (3- and 6-month, p < 0.05), and GI (short-term, 3-month, and 6-month, p < 0.05). For outside mode, multiple-session DL showed notable improvements for most clinical outcomes (p < 0.05). The effect of combined mode was still uncertain. Adjunctive DL had additional clinical benefits in the treatment of periodontitis. One session laser treatment is suggested when DL is applied inside pocket in future clinical practice. Meanwhile, more than one session laser treatment presents better outcomes when DL is used outside pocket. PROSPERO: CRD42020156162.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03412-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Loss of density dependence underpins decoupling of livestock population and plant biomass in intensive grazing systems.

Authors:
Ang Li Shi Chen

Ecol Appl 2021 Sep 13:e02450. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA, 28223.

Across the world, social-ecological rangeland systems have been transformed from a preindustrial extensive status to intensive exploitation, often leading to long-term livestock population booms, overgrazing and rangeland degradation. To understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in such historical social-ecological transformations, we collected population data on the native sheep of the last nomadic county in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (1961-2005). We detected changes in internal feedbacks (e.g., density-dependent effects) and external disturbance (e.g., winter harshness, rainfall, harvest) between the extensive and intensive management periods using regression models of sheep population growth rate and counterfactual analyses. We found that, in the extensive period, sheep populations were regulated during harsh winters by climate, while they were regulated during mild winters by negative density dependence. In the intensive period, the negative feedback of density dependence was removed through the provision of additional forage and shelter, and only winter climate and growing season rainfall regulated sheep populations. Counterfactual analyses also confirmed the irreplaceable role of density-dependence in maintaining a sustainable rangeland ecosystem. Although herders attempted to adapt to the removal of negative feedbacks by improving livestock harvest, overgrazing and grassland degradation remain a challenge in this system. We conclude that internal feedbacks within social-ecological systems should be carefully anticipated and accounted for when managing rangelands for sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2450DOI Listing
September 2021

Fabrication and Elastic Properties of TiO Nanohelix Arrays through a Pressure-Induced Hydrothermal Method.

ACS Nano 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Function Materials for Molecule & Structure Construction, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

TiO nanohelices (NHs) have attracted extensive attention owing to their high aspect ratio, excellent flexibility, elasticity, and optical properties, which endow promising performances in a vast range of vital fields, such as optics, electronics, and micro/nanodevices. However, preparing rigid TiO nanowires (TiO NWs) into spatially anisotropic helical structures remains a challenge. Here, a pressure-induced hydrothermal strategy was designed to assemble individual TiO NWs into a DNA-like helical structure, in which a Teflon block was placed in an autoclave liner to regulate system pressure and simulate a cell-rich environment. The synthesized TiO NHs of 50 nm in diameter and 5-7 mm in length approximately were intertwined into nanohelix bundles (TiO NHBs) with a diameter of 20 μm and then assembled into vertical TiO nanohelix arrays (NHAs). Theoretical calculations further confirmed that straight TiO NWs prefer to convert into helical conformations with minimal entropy () and free energy () for continuous growth in a confined space. The excellent elastic properties exhibit great potential for applications in flexible devices or buffer materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c10901DOI Listing
September 2021

CheckMate 73L: A Phase 3 Study Comparing Nivolumab Plus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Nivolumab With or Without Ipilimumab Versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Durvalumab for Previously Untreated, Locally Advanced Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Oncology Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne University, Switzerland.

Introduction: The 5 year survival rate for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not amenable for definitive resection with historical standard-of-care concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) ranges from 15% to 32%. cCRT primes anti-tumor immunity and also upregulates programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), providing a rationale for combining an immune checkpoint inhibitor with cCRT to improve outcomes. In the PACIFIC trial, consolidation therapy with the PD-L1 inhibitor durvalumab improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) vs. placebo in patients with stage III NSCLC who did not have disease progression after cCRT. CheckMate73L (NCT04026412), a randomized phase 3 study, evaluates the efficacy of nivolumab plus cCRT followed by nivolumab with or without ipilimumab vs. cCRT followed by durvalumab for untreated, stage III NSCLC.

Patients And Methods: Patients with untreated, stage III NSCLC will be randomized 1:1:1 to nivolumab plus cCRT followed by nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (Arm A) or nivolumab alone (Arm B); or cCRT followed by durvalumab (Arm C). Primary endpoints are PFS and OS (Arm A vs. Arm C). Secondary endpoints include additional analyses of PFS and OS (Arm A vs. Arm B; Arm B vs. Arm C), as well as objective response rate, complete response rate, time to response, duration of response, time to death or distant metastases, and safety and tolerability. Recruitment began on August 20, 2019, and the estimated primary completion date is October 17, 2022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2021.07.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimal extent of lymphadenectomy for radical surgery of pancreatic head adenocarcinoma: 2-year survival rate results of single-center, prospective, randomized controlled study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(35):e26918

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy is the only possible cure for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma, and although several RCT studies have suggested the extent of lymph node dissection, this issue remains controversial. This article wanted to evaluate the survival benefit of different lymph node dissection extent for radical surgical treatment of pancreatic head adenocarcinoma.

Methods: A total of 240 patients were assessed for eligibility in the study, 212 of whom were randomly divided into standard lymphadenectomy group (SG) or extended lymphadenectomy group (EG), there were 97 patients in SG and 95 patients in EG receiving the radical pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Result: The demography, histopathology and clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The 2-year overall survival rate in the SG was higher than the EG (39.5% vs 25.3%; P = .034). The 2-year overall survival rate in the SG who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was higher than the EG (60.7% vs 37.1%; P = .021). There was no significant difference in the overall incidence of complications between the 2 groups (P = .502). The overall recurrence rate in the SG and EG (70.7% vs 77.5%; P = .349), and the patterns of recurrence between 2 groups were no significant differences.

Conclusion: In multimodality therapy system, the efficacy of chemotherapy should be based on the appropriate lymphadenectomy extent, and the standard extent of lymphadenectomy is optimal for resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The postoperative slowing of peripheral blood lymphocyte recovery might be 1 of the reasons why extended lymphadenectomy did not result in survival benefits.

Clinical Trial Registration: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02928081) in October 7, 2016. https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415937PMC
September 2021

Integrating Bioelectrical Currents and Ca Signaling with Biochemical Signaling in Development and Pathogenesis.

Bioelectricity 2020 Sep 16;2(3):210-220. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Pathology and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Roles of bioelectrical signals are increasingly recognized in excitable and nonexcitable non-neural tissues. Diverse ion-selective channels, pumps, and gap junctions participate in bioelectrical signaling, including those transporting calcium ions (Ca). Ca is the most versatile transported ion, because it serves as an electrical charge carrier and a biochemical regulator for multiple molecular binding, enzyme, and transcription activities. We aspire to learn how bioelectrical signals crosstalk to biochemical/biomechanical signals. In this study, we review four recent studies showing how bioelectrical currents and Ca signaling affect collective dermal cell migration during feather bud elongation, affect chondrogenic differentiation in limb development, couple with mechanical tension in aligning gut smooth muscle, and affect mitochondrial function and skeletal muscle atrophy. We observe bioelectrical signals involved in several developmental and pathological conditions in chickens and mice at multiple spatial scales: cellular, cellular collective, and subcellular. These examples inspire novel concept and approaches for future basic and translational studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bioe.2020.0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370337PMC
September 2020

Comparative therapeutic efficacy of interferon alfa-2b and combination lopinavir/ritonavir plus interferon alfa-2b against SARS-CoV-2.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 30;21(1):885. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Jingshundong Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100015, People's Republic of China.

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an enormous threat to public health. The use of antiviral drugs in patients with this disease have triggered people's attentions. Whether interferon alfa-2b or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus interferon alfa-2b treatment can against SARS-CoV-2 was unknown. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa-2b and LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b for SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 patients confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR on nasopharyngeal swab and symptoms between Jan. 13 and Apr. 23, 2020. All patients received standard supportive care and regular clinical monitoring. Patients were assigned to standard care group (n = 12), interferon alfa-2b group (n = 44), and combination LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b group (n = 67). The primary endpoints were duration of required oxygen support and virus clearance time. Associations between therapies and these outcomes were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different among the three groups (P > 0.05). No significant associations were observed between LPV/r/interferon alfa-2b and faster SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance (HR, 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.61]; P = 0.61 in interferon alfa-2b group vs HR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.32-1.11]; P = 0.10 in LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b group). Individual therapy groups also showed no significant association with duration of required oxygen support. There were no significant differences among the three groups in the incidence of adverse events (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, no benefit was observed from interferon alfa-2b or LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b treatment. The findings may provide references for treatment guidelines of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06595-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404023PMC
August 2021

Minimizing OCT quantification error via a surface-tracking imaging probe.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Jul 10;12(7):3992-4002. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.

OCT-based quantitative tissue optical properties imaging is a promising technique for intraoperative brain cancer assessment. The attenuation coefficient analysis relies on the depth-dependent OCT intensity profile, thus sensitive to tissue surface positions relative to the imaging beam focus. However, it is almost impossible to maintain a steady tissue surface during intraoperative imaging due to the patient's arterial pulsation and breathing, the operator's motion, and the complex tissue surface geometry of the surgical cavity. In this work, we developed an intraoperative OCT imaging probe with a surface-tracking function to minimize the quantification errors in optical attenuation due to the tissue surface position variations. A compact OCT imaging probe was designed and engineered to have a long working distance of ∼ 41 mm and a large field of view of 4 × 4 mm while keeping the probe diameter small (9 mm) to maximize clinical versatility. A piezo-based linear motor was integrated with the imaging probe and controlled based upon real-time feedback of tissue surface position inferred from OCT images. A GPU-assisted parallel processing algorithm was implemented, enabling detection and tracking of tissue surface in real-time and successfully suppressing more than 90% of the typical physiologically induced motion range. The surface-tracking intraoperative OCT imaging probe could maintain a steady beam focus inside the target tissue regardless of the surface geometry or physiological motions and enabled to obtain tissue optical attenuation reliably for assessing brain cancer margins in challenging intraoperative settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.423233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367274PMC
July 2021

Bonding Performance of Universal Adhesives Applied to Nano-Hydroxyapatite Desensitized Dentin Using Etch-and-Rinse or Self-Etch Mode.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 22;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China.

The study assessed the bonding performance of three universal adhesives on desensitized dentin with etch-and-rinse mode or self-etch mode after nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp)-based desensitizers application. Simulated sensitive dentin specimens were prepared and separated into four groups: no treatment as the negative control, groups desensitized by Biorepair toothpaste, Dontodent toothpaste, or nHAp paste. Three universal adhesives of All-Bond Universal, Single Bond Universal, and Clearfil Universal Bond with etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode were bonded to the desensitized dentin specimens separately, followed by resin composite build-ups. Micro-tensile bond strength was measured using a micro-tensile tester. The wettability of desensitized dentin was evaluated by the contact angle of the adhesives. Resin infiltration was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dentin tubular occlusion and nanoleakage were observed by scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode of each adhesive showed similar bond strength when bonding to nHAp-based desensitized dentin. The dentin surface was partially covered by desensitizers after desensitization. Compared with the self-etch mode, stronger demineralization and more reopened dentin tubules were observed in the etch-and-rinse mode after acid etching; longer resin tags and more nanoleakage in the resin-dentin interface were observed when using the etch-and-rinse mode. When bonding to nHAp-based desensitized dentin with universal adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was found between self-etch mode or etch-and-rinse mode; while the latter produced more nanoleakage in the resin-dentin interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14164746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398634PMC
August 2021

Modified Meso-Rex bypass with umbilical vein recanalization and intra-operative stenting.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Hepatopancreatobiliary Center, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Institute for Precision Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 102218, China.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of a novel modified Meso-Rex bypass surgical technique with umbilical vein recanalization and intra-operative stenting to treat portal vein cavernous transformation.

Methods: In total, 13 portal vein cavernous transformation patients underwent Meso-Rex bypass surgery, consisting of bypass grafts between the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and the recess of Rex as well as through the ligamentum teres hepatis without stent implantation (Group A, n = 9) and umbilical vein recanalization with intra-operative stent implantation (Group B, n = 4).

Results: In Group A, the bypass diameter was 0-6 mm (median 3 mm) and blood flow velocity 25-115 cm/s (median 72 cm/s) 1 month after Meso-Rex bypass surgery, with open bypass times of 0-67 months (median 6 months); 6 patients in this group developed postoperative Meso-Rex bypass occlusions. A patient in Group A treated with ligamentum teres hepatis recanalization needed a thrombectomy and stent implantation during a second surgery 2 days after the Meso-Rex bypass, because of bypass thrombosis and umbilical vein stenosis. In Group B, the average modified Meso-Rex bypass diameter was 5.5-6.5 mm (median 6 mm), and the bypass vessels remained open in all patients, with blood flow rates of 45-100 cm/s (median 76.5 cm/s) 1 month after the modified Meso-Rex bypass, up to the endpoint (15-33 months, median 24 months). The rate of bypass occlusions in Group A and Group B were 22.2% and 0%, 30.0% and 0%, and 55.6% and 0% at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year, respectively, after bypass surgery.

Conclusions: Our novel modified Meso-Rex bypass approach for portal vein cavernous transformation treatment was effective with excellent long-term bypass patency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02308-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of procalcitonin-guided antimicrobial stewardship in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia.

JAC Antimicrob Resist 2021 Sep 20;3(3):dlab133. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Procalcitonin is a biomarker that may be able to identify patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who do not require antimicrobials for bacterial respiratory tract co-infections.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a procalcitonin-guided algorithm in rationalizing empirical antimicrobial prescriptions in non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Methods: Retrospective, single-site, cohort study in adults hospitalized with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia and receiving empirical antimicrobials for potential bacterial respiratory tract co-infection. Regression models were used to compare the following outcomes in patients with and without procalcitonin testing within 72 h of starting antimicrobials: antimicrobial consumption (DDD); antimicrobial duration; a composite safety outcome of death, admission to HDU/ICU or readmission to hospital within 30 days; and length of admission. Procalcitonin levels of ≤0.25 ng/L were interpreted as negatively predictive of bacterial co-infection. Effects were expressed as ratios of means (ROM) or prevalence ratios (PR) accordingly.

Results: 259 patients were included in the final analysis. Antimicrobial use was lower in patients who had procalcitonin measured within 72 h of starting antimicrobials: mean antimicrobial duration 4.4 versus 5.4 days, adjusted ROM 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.9); mean antimicrobial consumption 6.8 versus 8.4 DDD, adjusted ROM 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8). Both groups had similar composite safety outcomes (adjusted PR 0.9; 95% CI 0.6-1.3) and lengths of admission (adjusted ROM 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.6).

Conclusions: A procalcitonin-guided algorithm may allow for the safe reduction of antimicrobial usage in hospitalized non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jacamr/dlab133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378277PMC
September 2021

Simultaneous adrenal tuberculosis and renal oncocytoma mimicking malignant masses incidentally detected by F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with lymphoma.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05533-7DOI Listing
August 2021

The association of arsenic exposure with hypertension and blood pressure: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 4;289:117914. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China; Center of Environmental and Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China. Electronic address:

Chronic arsenic exposure can induce cardiovascular diseases through oxidative stress injury, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, evidence for hypertension related to chronic arsenic exposure remains limited and inconclusive. To investigate the association of arsenic exposure with hypertension, we reviewed cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies among general population (only excluded pregnant woman and children). Compared with non-exposure (or low exposure) group, we assessed relationship between the exposure (or high exposure) of arsenic and hypertension or blood pressure. We also examined the dose-response relationship to provide a theoretical basis for precision interventions in the population by conducting a two-stage random-effects dose-response meta-analysis. The weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated to compare the blood pressure of exposed and reference arsenic exposure groups. Twenty-seven studies comprising 117,769 participants were included. The pooled OR and RR for hypertension compared the highest with lowest arsenic exposure categories were 1.14 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.23] and 1.30 [95 % CI: 0.91-1.84], respectively. A dose-response assessment of six studies with the necessary data available demonstrated that the OR of hypertension increased with an increasement of arsenic exposure. The differences in systolic blood pressure levels between the exposed and reference groups were 4.03 mmHg (95 % CI: 1.24-6.82). The meta-analysis further revealed the significant association of chronic arsenic exposure with hypertension among cross-sectional studies and the marginal significance in cohort studies. Besides, arsenic was mainly associated with increasing systolic blood pressure but not significantly related to diastolic blood pressure. We also demonstrated statistical evidence of a nonlinear dose-response association. Details on mechanisms and cohort studies are required to elucidate population-wide health influence of chronic arsenic exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117914DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical and virological features of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern: a retrospective cohort study comparing B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.315 (Beta), and B.1.617.2 (Delta).

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore.

Background: he impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) on disease severity is unclear. In this retrospective study, we compared outcomes of patients infected with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2 with those with wild-type strains from early 2020.

Methods: National surveillance data from 1-January-2021 to 22-May-2021 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, and outcomes in relation to VOC were explored. Detailed patient level data from all patients with VOC infection admitted to our center between 20-December-2020 and 12-May-2021 were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were compared with a cohort of 846 patients admitted from January-April 2020.

Results: 829 patients in Singapore in the study period were infected with these 3 VOCs. After adjusting for age and sex, B.1.617.2 was associated with higher odds of oxygen requirement, ICU admission, or death (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.90, [95% CI 1.43-30.78]). 157 of these patients were admitted to our center. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, and vaccination, aOR for pneumonia with B.1.617.2 was 1.88 [95% CI 0.95-3.76]) compared with wild-type. These differences were not seen with B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Vaccination status was associated with decreased severity. B.1.617.2 was associated with significantly lower PCR Ct values and longer duration of Ct value ≤30 (median duration 18 days for B.1.617.2, 13 days for wild-type).

Conclusions: There was a signal toward increased severity associated with B.1.617.2. The association of B.1.617.2 with lower Ct value and longer viral shedding provides a potential mechanism for increased transmissibility. These findings provide an impetus for the rapid implementation of vaccination programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab721DOI Listing
August 2021

Tegaserod Maleate Inhibits Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Proliferation by Suppressing the Peroxisome Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:683241. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Pathophysiology Department, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are the two major types of esophageal cancer (EC). ESCC accounts for 90% of EC. Recurrence after primary treatment is the main reason for poor survival. Therefore, recurrence prevention is a promising strategy for extending the 5-year survival rate. Here, we found tegaserod maleate could inhibit ESCC proliferation both and . Proteomics analysis revealed that tegaserod maleate suppressed the peroxisome signaling pathway, in which the key molecules peroxisome membrane protein 11B (PEX11B) and peroxisome membrane protein 13 (PEX13) were downregulated. The immunofluorescence, catalase activity assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirmed that downregulation of these proteins was related to impaired peroxisome function. Furthermore, we found that PEX11B and PEX13 were highly expressed in ESCC, and knockout of PEX11B and PEX13 further demonstrated the antitumor effect of tegaserod maleate. Importantly, tegaserod maleate repressed ESCC tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model . Our findings conclusively demonstrated that tegaserod maleate inhibits the proliferation of ESCC by suppressing the peroxisome pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.683241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372369PMC
August 2021

XPF -673C>T variation is associated with the susceptibility to breast cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Oct 17;74:102007. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, 063210, China; Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Life Science, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, 063210, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: XPF variations might decrease the DNA repair capacity and further contribute to cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the association of XPF polymorphisms with risk of developing breast cancer.

Methods: TCGA, the Human Protein Atlas and Kaplan-Meier plotter were used to analyze the expression of XPF in breast cancer tissues and its effect on the survival of breast cancer patients. The expression of XPF in breast cancer tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. This case-control study included 467 breast cancer patients and 467 healthy controls. The genotype of genetic variation was detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Correlations between XPF variation and clinicopathological parameters were assessed through Kendall's Tau-b test. The relationship between XPF gene function variation and XPF gene expression was analyzed by GTEx.

Results: The expression of XPF in breast cancer tissues is higher than that in normal tissues. Breast cancer patients with high XPF expression have a higher relapse free survival rate (HR = 0.88, 95 % CI = 0.80-0.97), but have no effect on the overall survival rate (logrank P = 0.28). XPF -673C > T variant can reduce the risk of breast cancer patients (OR = 0.35, 95 %CI = 0.20-0.63 for codominant mode; OR = 0.66, 95 %CI = 0.51-0.85 for dominant model; OR = 0.40, 95 %CI = 0.23-0.70 for recessive model). The XPF 11985 GG genotype reduced the risk of early breast cancer (OR = 0.49, 95 %CI = 0.24-0.97), but not the risk of advanced breast cancer (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 0.58-2.48). XPF 11985A > G variant can also reduce the risk of ERBB2 expression in patients (OR = 0.50, 95 %CI = 0.27-0.94). There is no correlation between XPF -673C > T/XPF11985A > G variants and ER and PR. XPF -673C > T variant can reduce XPF expression (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Genetic variations of XPF gene may affect its expression and the risk of breast cancer in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.102007DOI Listing
October 2021

Study of aerosol characteristics and sources using MAX-DOAS measurement during haze at an urban site in the Fenwei Plain.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Sep 5;107:1-13. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029, China.

Atmospheric aerosols have effects on atmospheric radiation assessments, global climate change, local air quality and visibility. In particular, aerosols are more likely transformed and accumulated in winter. In this paper, we used the Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument to study the characteristics of aerosol type and contributions of PM chemical components to aerosol extinction (AE), vertical distribution of aerosols, and source. From December 30, 2018 to January 27, 2019, we conducted MAX-DOAS observations on Sanmenxia. The proportion of PM to PM was 69.48%-95.39%, indicating that the aerosol particles were mainly fine particles. By analyzing the ion data and modifying Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) method, we found that nitrate was the largest contributor to AE, accounting for 31.51%, 28.98%, and 27.95% of AE on heavily polluted, polluted, and clean days, respectively. NH, OC, and SO were also major contributors to AE. The near-surface aerosol extinction retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement the PM and PM concentrations measured by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) have the same trend in vertical distribution. AE increased about 3 times from surface to 500 m. With the backward trajectory of the air mass during the haze, we also found that the continuous heavy pollution was mainly caused by transport of polluted air from the northeast, then followed by local industrial emissions and other sources of emissions under continuous and steady weather conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.12.015DOI Listing
September 2021

China experts' consensus on preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatments of malocclusions of children.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Aug;39(4):369-376

Wuxi Stomatology Hospital, Wuxi 214000, China.

Malocclusion is one of the three most common oral diseases reported by World Health Organization(WHO). In China, its incidence rate is rising. Malocclusion seriously affects the dental and maxillofacial function, facial appearance and growth development of nearly 260 million children in China, and what is more, it affects their physical and mental health development. Malocclusion occurrence is related to genetic and environmental factors. Early treatment of malocclusion can create a good dental and maxillofacial development environment, correct abnormal growth and control the adverse effects of abnormal genetic factors. It can effectively reduce the prevalence of children's malocclusion and enhance their physical and mental health. This is an urgent need from the economic perspective of our society, so it has great practical and social significance. Experts from the project group "standard diagnose and treatment protocols for early orthodontic intervention of malocclusions of children" which initiated by China National Health Institute of Hospital Administration wrote the "China Experts' Consensus on Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontic Treatments of Malocclusions of Children", which aims to guide and popularize the clinical practice, improve the clinical theory and practice level, and accelerate the disciplinary development of early treatment of children's malocclusion in China. The consensus elaborates the harmfulness of malocclusion and the necessity of early treatment, and brings up the principles and fundamental contents. Based on the law of dental and maxillofacial development, this paper puts forward the guiding suggestions of preventive and interceptive treatments in different stages of dental development ranging from fetus to early permanent dentition. It is a systematic project to promote and standardize the early treatment of malocclusion. Through scientific and comprehensive stratified clinical practice and professional training, the clinical system of early treatment of malocclusion in China will eventually be perfected, so as to comprehensively care for children's dental and maxillofacial health, and improve their oral and physical health in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381117PMC
August 2021

Epidemiological factors associated with the absence of previous HIV testing among HIV-positive persons in Singapore, 2012-2017.

BMJ Open 2021 08 17;11(8):e050133. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore.

Objective: To assess the temporal trend and identify risk factors associated with the absence of previous HIV testing prior to their diagnosis among HIV-positive persons in Singapore.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting And Participants: We analysed data of HIV-positive persons infected via sexual transmission, who were notified to the National HIV Registry in 2012-2017.

Outcomes: Epidemiological factors associated with the absence of HIV testing prior to diagnosis were determined separately for two groups of HIV-positive persons: early and late stages of HIV infection at diagnosis.

Results: 2188 HIV-positive persons with information on HIV testing history and CD4 cell count were included in the study. The median age at HIV diagnosis was 40 years (IQR 30-51). Nearly half (45.1%) had never been tested for HIV prior to their diagnosis. The most common reason cited for no previous HIV testing was 'not necessary to test' (73.7%). The proportion diagnosed at late-stage HIV infection was significantly higher among HIV-positive persons who had never been tested for HIV (63.9%) compared with those who had undergone previous HIV tests (29.0%). Common risk factors associated with no previous HIV testing in multivariable logistic regression analysis stratified by stage of HIV infection were: older age at HIV diagnosis, lower educational level, detection via medical care and HIV infection via heterosexual transmission. In the stratified analysis for persons diagnosed at early-stage of HIV infection, in addition to the four risk factors, women and those of Malay ethnicity were also less likely to have previous HIV testing prior to their diagnosis.

Conclusion: Targeted prevention efforts and strategies are needed to raise the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS and to encourage early and regular screening among the at-risk groups by making HIV testing more accessible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372883PMC
August 2021

A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Single-Row With Double-Row Fixation in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Long-Term Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med 2021 09 16;49(11):3021-3029. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Section of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: The long-term outcomes of single- versus double-row fixation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair are not currently known.

Purpose: To compare the treatment effects of the single- versus double-row suture technique in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of full-thickness tears at 10-year follow-up.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Methods: Patients were evaluated at 10 years postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC). Secondary outcome measures included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, strength, and incidence of revision surgery. Ultrasound was used to evaluate the rotator cuff to determine repair integrity. Statistical analyses consistent with those of the main trial were conducted.

Results: Of the original 90 participants, 77 (85%) returned at a mean follow-up of 10 years. At ten year follow-up, the WORC score was higher in the double row group (79.9 [95% CI, 16.2 to 99.1]) compared with the single row group (72.9, [95% CI, 4.3 to 100]), = .020. From baseline to 2 years, the mean change in WORC scores for the single-row group was -48.5 compared with -40.6 for the double-row group, with a between-group difference of -7.8 (95% CI, -20.4 to 4.7). From 2 to 10 years, the change in WORC scores for the single-row group was 11.5 compared with -0.2 for the double-row group, with a between-group difference of 11.7 (95% CI, -0.7 to 24.3). From baseline to 10 years, the mean between-group difference was 3.9 (95% CI, -7.8 to 15.6). Similarly, a decrease in ASES scores was observed between 2 and 10 years for the single-row group (9.2 [95% CI, 0.9 to 17.5]; = .029), with a nonsignificant decrease in ASES scores for the double-row group (6.2 [95% CI, -3.2 to 15.6]; = .195) as well as a decrease in Constant scores for both the single- (9.5 [95% CI, 1.4 to 17.5]; = .020) and double-row (14.4 [95% CI, 5.6 to 23.3]; = .001) groups. Overall, 3 participants developed a full-thickness tear after 2 years: 2 from the double-row group and 1 from the single-row group. One participant from each study group underwent revision surgery after the 2-year time point.

Conclusion: A statistically significant (but likely not clinically important) difference in WORC scores was seen at 10-year follow-up in favor of double-row fixation. Between baseline and 10-year follow-up, a decrease in most outcome scores was observed in both the single- and the double-row groups.

Registration: NCT00508183 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211029029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411465PMC
September 2021

Correction to: The germline/somatic DNA damage repair gene mutations modulate the therapeutic response in Chinese patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

J Transl Med 2021 Aug 12;19(1):345. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Abdominal Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02997-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361738PMC
August 2021

Prospects for ozone pollution control in China: An epidemiological perspective.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 29;285:117670. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China; Center of Environmental and Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China. Electronic address:

Severe surface ozone pollution has become widespread in China. To protect public health, Chinese scientific communities and government agencies have striven to mitigate ozone pollution. However, makers of pollution mitigation policies rarely consider epidemiological research, and communication between epidemiological researchers and the government is poor. Therefore, this article reviews the current mitigation policies and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone from an epidemiological perspective and proposes recommendations for researchers and policy makers on the basis of epidemiological evidence. We review current nationwide ozone control measures for mitigating ozone pollution from four dimensions: the integration of ozone and particulate matter control, ozone precursors control, ozone control in different seasons, and regional cooperation on the prevention of ozone pollution. In addition, we present environmental and epidemiological evidence and propose recommendations and discuss relevant ozone metrics and the criteria values of the NAAQS. We finally conclude that the disease burden attributable to ozone exposure in China may be underestimated and that the epidemiological research regarding the health effects of integrating ozone and particulate matter control is insufficient. Furthermore, atmospheric volatile organic compounds are severely detrimental to health, and related control policies are urgently required in China. We recommend a greater focus on winter ozone pollution and conclude that the health benefits of regional cooperation on ozone control and prevention are salient. We argue that daily average ozone concentration may be a more biologically relevant ozone metric than those currently used by the NAAQS, and accumulating epidemiological evidence supports revision of the standards. This review provides new insight for ozone mitigation policies and related epidemiological studies in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117670DOI Listing
September 2021

Gut microbial biomarkers for the treatment response in first-episode, drug-naïve schizophrenia: a 24-week follow-up study.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Aug 10;11(1):422. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital/Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Preclinical studies have shown that the gut microbiota can play a role in schizophrenia (SCH) pathogenesis via the gut-brain axis. However, its role in the antipsychotic treatment response is unclear. Here, we present a 24-week follow-up study to identify gut microbial biomarkers for SCH diagnosis and treatment response, using a sample of 107 first-episode, drug-naïve SCH patients, and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected biological samples at baseline (all participants) and follow-up time points after risperidone treatment (SCH patients). Treatment response was assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale total (PANSS-T) score. False discovery rate was used to correct for multiple testing. We found that SCH patients showed lower α-diversity (the Shannon and Simpson's indices) compared to HCs at baseline (p = 1.21 × 10, 1.23 × 10, respectively). We also found a significant difference in β-diversity between SCH patients and HCs (p = 0.001). At baseline, using microbes that showed different abundance between patients and controls as predictors, a prediction model can distinguish patients from HCs with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.867. In SCH patients, after 24 weeks of risperidone treatment, we observed an increase of α-diversity toward the basal level of HCs. At the genus level, we observed decreased abundance of Lachnoclostridium (p = 0.019) and increased abundance Romboutsia (p = 0.067). Moreover, the treatment response in SCH patients was significantly associated with the basal levels of Lachnoclostridium and Romboutsia (p = 0.005 and 0.006, respectively). Our results suggest that SCH patients may present characteristic microbiota, and certain microbiota biomarkers may predict treatment response in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01531-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355081PMC
August 2021

Effect of a smartphone application (Perx) on medication adherence and clinical outcomes: a 12-month randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 08 9;11(8):e047041. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Boden Collaboration, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To determine whether the Perx app improves medication adherence and clinical outcomes over 12 months compared with standard care in patients requiring polypharmacy.

Design: Randomised controlled trial with 12-month follow-up.

Setting: Outpatient clinics in three tertiary hospitals in Sydney, Australia.

Participants: Eligible participants were aged 18-75 years, with at least one chronic condition, taking ≥3 different medications (oral medications or injections), with smartphone accessibility. Participants were randomised in a 1:1 ratio.

Interventions: The intervention group used the Perx app that contained customised reminders and gamified interactions to reward verified medication adherence.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was medication adherence over 12 months measured using pill counts. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cholesterol, blood glucose, triglycerides, creatinine, thyroid function, blood pressure and weight).

Results: Of 1412 participants screened for eligibility, 124 participants were randomised; 45 in the Perx arm and 40 in the control arm completed the study. The average age was 59.5, 58.9% were women, chronic conditions were cardiovascular disease (78%), type 2 diabetes (75%), obesity (65%) or other endocrine disorders (18%). On average, participants were taking six medications daily. The Perx group had greater improvements in adherence at month 2 (Coef. 8%; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15), month 3 (Coef. 7%; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.14) and month 12 (Coef. 7%; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.13). The probability of HbA1c ≤6.5% was greater in the Perx group at months 9 and 12 and cholesterol (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was lower in the Perx group at month 3. The intervention was particularly effective for those with obesity, taking medications for diabetes and taking ≤4 medications.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that app-based behavioural change interventions can increase medication adherence and produce longer-term improvements in some clinical outcomes in adults managing multimorbidity. More trials are needed to build the evidence base.

Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12617001285347.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354275PMC
August 2021

Effects of Smoking on Inflammatory Markers in a Healthy Population as Analyzed the Gut Microbiota.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:633242. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Health Management Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

The number of people who smoke has increased in recent years, and the incidence of smoking-related diseases increases annually. This study was conducted to explore whether smoking affects diseases changes in the gut microbiota. We enrolled 33 smokers and 121 non-smokers. We collected fecal samples from all participants and performed whole-genome sequencing. Smoking significantly affected the gut microbiota. At the phylum through genus levels, the smokers' microbiotas showed slight changes compared with those of the non-smokers. The α- and β-diversities differed significantly between the smokers and non-smokers, and the smokers' gut microbiota compositions differed significantly from those of the non-smokers. At the species level, the relative abundances of (=0.00197) and (=0.0468) were significantly greater in the smokers than in the non-smokers, while the relative abundances of (=0.0000052) and (=0.0057) were significantly lower in the smokers. Smoking increases inflammation in the body by inducing an increased abundance of proinflammatory bacteria. Non-smokers had higher abundances of anti-inflammatory microorganisms than did smokers; these microorganisms can produce short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.633242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342938PMC
August 2021

Postharvest nitric oxide treatment induced the alternative oxidase pathway to enhance antioxidant capacity and chilling tolerance in peach fruit.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 30;167:113-122. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory of Agro-products Quality and Safety Control in Storage and Transport Process, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/ Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of plant response to cold stress. In this study, NO treatment delayed the development of chilling injury (CI), inhibited the increase in HO content, O production rate and decrease in firmness of postharvest peach fruit. Meanwhile, through RNA-seq analysis, NO treatment up-regulated gene expression of PpG-6-PDH, Pp6-PGDH and PpAOX while it down-regulated the expression of PpGPI and PpHK, suggesting that the pentose phosphate respiratory pathway and cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway were promoted and the glycolysis pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, the PpAOX expression was consistent with the trend of PpPOD1/2 expression and HO content, indicating that AOX may play a role in reducing oxidative damage of peach fruit by scavenging HO. Thus, it was concluded that NO treatment could induce the cyanide-resistant respiration pathway to enhance antioxidant ability and chilling tolerance in post-harvest peach fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.07.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Carbon limitation overrides acidification in mediating soil microbial activity to nitrogen enrichment in a temperate grassland.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Higher ecosystem nitrogen (N) inputs resulting from human activities often suppress soil microbial biomass and respiration, thereby altering biogeochemical cycling. Soil acidification and carbon (C) limitation may drive these microbial responses, yet their relative importance remains elusive, which limits our understanding of the longer term effects of increasing N inputs. In a field experiment with continuous N addition at seven different rates from 0 to 50 g N m  year over 6 years in a temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, China, we examined the responses of soil microbial biomass and respiration to changes in soil acidity and C availability by adding lime and/or glucose to soil samples. Soil microbial biomass and respiration did only weakly respond to increasing soil pH, but increased strongly in response to higher C availability with increasing N addition rates. Soil net N immobilization increased in response to glucose addition, and soil microbial biomass increased at higher rates than microbial respiration along the gradient of previous N addition rates, both suggesting increasingly reinforced microbial C limitation with increasing N addition. Our results provide clear evidence for strong N-induced microbial C limitation, but only little support for soil acidity effects within the initial pH range of 4.73-7.86 covered by our study. Field data support this conclusion by showing reduced plant C allocation belowground in response to N addition, resulting in soil microbial C starvation over the long term. In conclusion, soil microbial biomass and respiration under N addition were strongly dependent on C availability, most likely originating from plant belowground C inputs, and was much less affected by changes in soil pH. Our data help clarify a long-standing debate about how increasing N input rates affect soil microbial biomass and respiration, and improve the mechanistic understanding of the linkages between ecosystem N enrichment and C cycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15819DOI Listing
August 2021

The Global Epidemiology of RSV in Community and Hospitalized Care: Findings From 15 Countries.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jul 30;8(7):ofab159. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infections. To optimize control strategies, a better understanding of the global epidemiology of RSV is critical. To this end, we initiated the Global Epidemiology of RSV in Hospitalized and Community care study (GERi).

Methods: Focal points from 44 countries were approached to join GERi and share detailed RSV surveillance data. Countries completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of their surveillance system.

Results: Fifteen countries provided granular surveillance data and information on their surveillance system. A median (interquartile range) of 1641 (552-2415) RSV cases per season were reported from 2000 and 2020. The majority (55%) of RSV cases occurred in the <1-year-olds, with 8% of cases reported in those aged ≥65 years. Hospitalized cases were younger than those in community care. We found no age difference between RSV subtypes and no clear pattern of dominant subtypes.

Conclusions: The high number of cases in the <1-year-olds indicates a need to focus prevention efforts in this group. The minimal differences between RSV subtypes and their co-circulation implies that prevention needs to target both subtypes. Importantly, there appears to be a lack of RSV surveillance data in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320297PMC
July 2021

Systematic thermodynamic analysis of apremilast polymorphs via solubility measurement with modeling: Mechanism evaluation through molecular simulation.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 25;165:105958. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

The polymorphism of apremilast has been investigated. Two polymorphs have been identified and characterized by differential scanning calorimeter, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffractometer. Solubilities of apremilast forms B and E in three binary solvents of methanol-water, acetonitrile-water, and acetonitrile-methanol have been measured using the static method at a temperature ranging from 288.15 K to 328.15 K under standard atmospheric pressure. Subsequently, the solubility data have been analyzed using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models, respectively. Furthermore, the Gibbs energy of solution and the radial distribution function have been calculated using the molecular simulation method to evaluate the dissolution mechanism. The Gibbs energy of solution reveals that the rank of solute-solvent interaction correlated well with solubility order in binary solvent mixtures, and the radial distribution function indicates that weakening of solvent-solvent interaction led to an increase in solubility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105958DOI Listing
October 2021
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