Publications by authors named "Ane Nærde"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bullying Victimization and Trauma.

Front Psychiatry 2020 14;11:480353. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Oslo, Norway.

Bullying victimization and trauma research traditions operate quite separately. Hence, it is unclear from the literature whether bullying victimization should be considered as a form of interpersonal trauma. We review studies that connect bullying victimization with symptoms of PTSD, and in doing so, demonstrate that a conceptual understanding of the consequences of childhood bullying needs to be framed within a developmental perspective. We discuss two potential diagnoses that ought to be considered in the context of bullying victimization: (1) developmental trauma disorder, which was suggested but not accepted as a new diagnosis in the DSM-5 and (2) complex post-traumatic stress disorder, which has been included in the ICD-11. Our conclusion is that these frameworks capture the complexity of the symptoms associated with bullying victimization better than PTSD. We encourage practitioners to understand how exposure to bullying interacts with development at different ages when addressing the consequences for targets and when designing interventions that account for the duration, intensity, and sequelae of this type of interpersonal trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.480353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841334PMC
January 2021

Duration of Breastfeeding Mediates the Association Between Early Socioeconomic Risk and Child Vocabulary at Age 4.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with both obesity and lower cognitive abilities in childhood. One theorized underlying mechanism is breastfeeding duration because breast milk contains nutrients that can promote healthy adiposity profiles and stimulate brain development. However, studies have rarely examined these potential associations with child body mass index (BMI) in high-income Western countries, much less investigated breastfeeding duration as a mediator of the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and later child vocabulary. The current study aimed to prospectively examine associations between early-life family socioeconomic risk and both child BMI and vocabulary at age 4 in a Norwegian cohort and the potential mediating contribution of breastfeeding duration.

Methods: The Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study (BONDS) followed 1159 families and their children from 6 months of age onward. Parents reported on SES and breastfeeding duration in infancy, and child BMI and vocabulary ability were assessed at age 4. Direct and indirect effects were estimated using a path model that adjusted for several demographic and perinatal covariates (e.g., parental nativity and birthweight).

Results: Family socioeconomic risk was significantly and negatively related to child vocabulary but was unrelated to child BMI. In addition, breastfeeding duration mediated the association between family socioeconomic risk and child vocabulary, with greater family socioeconomic risk associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration, which, in turn, predicted poorer child vocabulary.

Conclusion: The current findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration is a viable target for preventatively promoting child vocabulary, especially among families at socioeconomic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000913DOI Listing
January 2021

An examination of validity and reliability of the Parental Stress Scale in a population based sample of Norwegian parents.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(12):e0242735. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Oslo, Norway.

The parental stress scale (PSS) is a widely used instrument that assesses stress related to child rearing. Even though several studies have investigated the construct validity and reliability of the PSS, no consensus has been reached regarding which and how many of the original eighteen items that should be included, or a robust factor structure with satisfactory reliability. The present study tested the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the PSS and used the advantages of complementary exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to investigate the underlying factor structure of the PSS items. Data stem from a community sample of 1096 parents from five counties in Norway with a one-year-old child. The sample was randomly split (N = 553/543), and exploratory and confirmatory analyses were performed on each of the samples. Using predefined criteria for the selection of robust items, results revealed a two-dimensional structure (Parental stressors and Lack of rewards) across 13 PSS items, displaying satisfactory reliability. Network analyses revealed differential associations within item constellations and with covariates. Implications of the findings and study limitations are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242735PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710163PMC
January 2021

Hot and Cool Self-Regulation, Academic Competence, and Maladjustment: Mediating and Differential Relations.

Child Dev 2019 11 22;90(6):2171-2188. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development.

This study examined differential and mediating relations between hot and cool self-regulation (M  = 48.2 months; N = 1,155, 48% girls), first-grade (M  = 77.5 months) maladjustment (externalizing [EXT] and internalizing [INT] behavior), and first- and second-grade (M  = 89.5 months) academic competence (AC). Using teacher reported EXT, INT, and AC, partial support for the differential perspective was found in that only hot self-regulation was significantly related to EXT, whereas both hot and cool self-regulation was significantly related to AC. Moreover, hot self-regulation indirectly predicted second-grade AC through first-grade EXT, lending some support for the mediating perspective also. The findings contribute to an understanding of how self-regulation is related to academic and behavioral school adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13104DOI Listing
November 2019

Stressful life events and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers of young children.

J Affect Disord 2018 04 3;230:22-27. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Parents of young children generally report more depressive symptoms than parents of adult children or people without children, mainly because the presence of young children increases exposure to significant stressors (such as stressful life events). However, most studies on the depressogenic role of stressful life events in parents of young children have focussed on mothers.

Methods: Using data from 1138 families with young children in Norway, we investigated gender differences in the effect of stressful life events after a child's birth on the development of parental depressive symptoms in 3 follow-ups at child's ages 3-6 years. We also explored if gender differences in disposition (personality) may explain any gender differences in the depressogenic effect of life events.

Results: Nesting parents within families, we found a female gender bias for both neuroticism and depressive symptoms but no gender difference in the number of life events reported. Importantly, the number of stressful life events predicted the level and course of depressive symptoms similarly for mothers and fathers. Personality traits did not change the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in either mothers or fathers.

Limitations: Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred.

Conclusions: There was no gender difference in the depressogenic effect of stressful life events in our sample. There was no evidence for a female dispositional sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stressful life events, either. Stressful life events put both mothers and fathers of young children at risk of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.098DOI Listing
April 2018

Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

J Affect Disord 2016 May 17;196:181-9. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Postboks 7053 Majorstuen, 0306 Oslo, Norway.

Background: While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems.

Methods: We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes.

Results: Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences.

Limitations: Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms.

Conclusions: Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.02.020DOI Listing
May 2016

Age of Entry Into Early Childhood Education and Care as a Predictor of Aggression: Faint and Fading Associations for Young Norwegian Children.

Psychol Sci 2015 Oct 14;26(10):1595-607. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, University of Oslo.

Socioemotional risks associated with nonparental care have been debated for decades, and research findings continue to be mixed. Yet few studies have been able to test the causal hypothesis that earlier, more extensive, and longer durations of nonmaternal care lead to more problems. To examine the consequences of age of entry into nonparental care for childhood aggression, we used prospective longitudinal data from Norway, where month of birth partly determines age of entry into Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. In this sample of 939 children followed from ages 6 months through 4 years, ECEC teachers reported the children's aggression when they were 2, 3, and 4 years old. We found some evidence that age of entry into ECEC predicted aggression at age 2, albeit modestly and not robustly. Between the ages of 2 and 4 years, the effect of age of entry on aggression faded to negligible levels. The implications for psychological science and policy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797615595011DOI Listing
October 2015

Measuring Effortful Control Using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form: Modeling Matters.

J Pers Assess 2016 9;98(1):100-9. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

a The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development , Oslo , Norway.

Effortful control (EC) is an important concept in the research on self-regulation in children. We tested 2 alternative factor models of EC as measured by the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006 ) in a large sample of preschoolers (N = 1,007): 1 lower order and 1 hierarchical second-order structure. Additionally, convergent and predictive validity of EC as measured by the CBQ-VSF were investigated. The results supported a hierarchical model. Moderate convergent validity of the second-order latent EC factor was found in that it correlated with compliance and observed EC tasks. Both CBQ-VSF EC measures were also negatively correlated with child physical aggression. The results have implications for the measurement, modeling, and interpretation of EC applying the CBQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2015.1056303DOI Listing
October 2016

Maternal mental distress influences child outcomes in brief parent training.

Child Adolesc Ment Health 2014 Sep 8;19(3):171-177. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Unirand, University of Oslo, Oslo, 0306, Norway.

Background: Brief Parent Training (BPT) promotes effective parenting in parents of children with conduct problems. As previous research has provided inconsistent results, this study explored the impact of maternal mental distress on outcomes of BPT.

Method: Participants included 216 families randomized to BPT or a comparison group.

Results: Maternal distress negatively predicted five of eight outcomes, regardless of intervention allocation. Low-maternal distress predicted lower conduct problems (parent- and teacher-reported), whereas high distress predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems in BPT relative to comparisons.

Conclusions: Refinement of interventions to help children with conduct problems and distressed mothers should be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/camh.12028DOI Listing
September 2014

Normative development of physical aggression from 8 to 26 months.

Dev Psychol 2014 Jun 7;50(6):1710-20. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, University of Oslo.

This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and fathers reported frequently about their child's use of PA in personal and telephone interviews. Mean number of reports per child was 7.16 (SD 1.70), with 90% having at least 6 reports. We employed Rasch scaling to construct a single linear PA measure and multilevel growth curve modeling to address the research questions. The results confirm that the development of PA is nonlinear, with a peak in frequency at about 20-22 months, which is followed by a decline toward 26 months. There is both within- and between-child variance in the development of PA. Higher levels of PA were predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling, maternal and paternal mental distress, and difficult child temperament (high activity level and distress due to limitations), whereas the main effect of gender was only trend-significant. Growth of PA across this developmental period was predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling and high activity level. The results both support and transcend previous research within this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036324DOI Listing
June 2014

Temperament in adults--reliability, stability, and factor structure of the EAS Temperament Survey.

J Pers Assess 2004 Feb;82(1):71-9

Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

We assessed the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability (EAS) Temperament Survey (Buss & Plomin, 1984) for adults using a longitudinal sample of adult women. The stability estimates of the EAS instrument were assessed over a period of 3 years. The results indicated an acceptable fit for the basic theoretical EAS model, implying that the scale is functioning satisfactory. However, the results also suggest that the measure could be improved. Across time, latent stability factors explained within-scale covariances. Both latent stability factors and time-specific factors accounted for cross-sectional covariances between subscales. Additional research is warranted to guide the further development of the EAS model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8201_12DOI Listing
February 2004