Publications by authors named "Andy V Khamoui"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Distinct glycolytic pathway regulation in liver, tumour and skeletal muscle of mice with cancer cachexia.

Cell Biochem Funct 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Energetically inefficient inter-organ substrate shuttles are proposed contributors to cachexia-related weight loss. Here, we examined glycolytic pathway metabolites, enzyme activity and transport proteins in skeletal muscle, liver and tumours of mice with cachexia-related weight loss induced by colon-26 cancer cells. Skeletal muscle of cachexic mice had increased [L-lactate]/[pyruvate], LDH activity and lactate transporter MCT1. Cachexic livers also showed increased MCT1. This is consistent with the proposal that the rate of muscle-derived lactate shuttling to liver for use in gluconeogenesis is increased, that is, an increased Cori cycle flux in weight-losing cachexic mice. A second shuttle between liver and tumour may also contribute to disrupted energy balance and weight loss. We found increased high-affinity glucose transporter GLUT1 in tumours, suggesting active glucose uptake, tumour MCT1 detection and decreased intratumour [L-lactate]/[pyruvate], implying increased lactate efflux and/or intratumour lactate oxidation. Last, high [L-lactate]/[pyruvate] and MCT1 in cachexic muscle provides a potential muscle-derived lactate supply for the tumour (a 'reverse Warburg effect'), supporting tumour growth and consequent cachexia. Our findings suggest several substrate shuttles among liver, skeletal muscle and tumour contribute to metabolic disruption and weight loss. Therapies that aim to normalize dysregulated substrate shuttling among energy-regulating tissues may alleviate unintended weight loss in cancer cachexia. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Cachexia is a serious complication of cancer characterized by severe weight loss, muscle atrophy and frailty. Cachexia occurs in roughly half of all cancer patients, and in up to 80% of patients with advanced disease. Cachexia independently worsens patient prognosis, lowers treatment efficacy, increases hospitalization cost and length of stay, and accounts for 20-30% of cancer-related deaths. There are no effective treatments. Our findings suggest several substrate shuttles among liver, skeletal muscle and tumour contribute to metabolic disruption and weight loss in cancer cachexia. Identifying therapies that normalize dysregulated substrate shuttling among energy-regulating tissues may protect against cachexia-related weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3652DOI Listing
June 2021

Mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are altered in a hepatic cell culture model of cancer cachexia.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jan 14;476(1):23-34. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd, FH-11A, Rm 128-B, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA.

Hepatic mitochondrial function loss is associated with cancer cachexia pathology in vivo. Here, we examined if hepatic mitochondrial defects observed in vivo in the cachexic liver also recapitulate during the in vitro treatment of mouse hepatocytes with tumor conditioned media. In vitro experiments were combined with proteome-wide expression analysis of cachexic liver tissue curated for mitochondrial dynamics and quality control proteins, to determine the fidelity of hepatic mitochondrial maladaptation in cancer cachexia pathology. AML12 hepatocytes were exposed to colon-26 (C26) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) conditioned media for 6-72 h and assayed for cell viability, membrane potential, respiratory function, HO production, total ROS/RNS, and mitochondrial dynamics and quality control proteins by immunoblotting. Liver tissue from cachexic C26 mice was analyzed by TMT-based quantitative proteomics for in vivo comparison. Cell viability, membrane potential, HO production, total ROS/RNS, and respiration were decreased 48-72 h after exposure to C26 and/or LLC. Protein expression of treated hepatocytes and cachexic liver tissue showed altered mitochondrial dynamics and quality control, in a manner that suggests limited fusion and content mixing, but also impaired ability to fragment and clear damaged mitochondria. Two strategies to maintain mitochondrial health, therefore, may not be functioning sufficiently in the cachexic liver. Together these findings imply adverse effects of C26 and LLC exposure on hepatocyte health, due to impaired mitochondrial function and remodeling. Exposure of mouse hepatocytes to tumor conditioned media models aspects of cachexic liver mitochondria dysfunction in vivo and validates the importance of hepatic mitochondrial maladaptation in cancer cachexia pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-03882-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Low-volume acute multi-joint resistance exercise elicits a circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor response but not a cathepsin B response in well-trained men.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 Dec 12;45(12):1332-1338. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Florida Atlantic University, Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.

This study examined if acute multi-joint resistance exercises (RE; back squat, bench press, and deadlift) to volitional failure elicited a postexercise increase in the circulating response of biomarkers associated with neuroprotection. Thirteen males (age: 24.5 ± 3.8 years, body mass: 84.01 ± 15.44 kg, height: 173.43 ± 8.57 cm, training age: 7.1 ± 4.2 years) performed 4 sets to failure at 80% of a 1-repetition maximum on the squat, bench press, and deadlift in successive weeks. The measured biomarkers were brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), cathepsin B (CatB), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Biomarkers were assessed immediately before and 10-min after exercise. There was a main time effect (pre-exercise: 24.00 ± 0.61 to postexercise: 27.38 ± 0.48 ng/mL; < 0.01) for BDNF with increases in the deadlift ( = 0.01) and bench press ( = 0.01) conditions, but not in the squat condition ( = 0.21). There was a main time effect (pre-exercise: 0.87 ± 0.16 to postexercise: 2.03 ± 0.32 pg/mL; < 0.01) for IL-6 with a significant increase in the squat ( < 0.01), but not the bench press ( = 0.88) and deadlift conditions ( = 0.24). No main time effect was observed for either CatB ( = 0.62) or IGF-1 ( = 0.56). In summary, acute multi-joint RE increases circulating BDNF. Further, this investigation is the first to report the lack of a transient change of CatB to an acute RE protocol. Low-volume RE to failure can increase BDNF. Resistance training does not confer an acute Cat B response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0854DOI Listing
December 2020

Hepatic proteome analysis reveals altered mitochondrial metabolism and suppressed acyl-CoA synthetase-1 in colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia.

Physiol Genomics 2020 05 9;52(5):203-216. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.

Cachexia is a life-threatening complication of cancer traditionally characterized by weight loss and muscle dysfunction. Cachexia, however, is a systemic disease that also involves remodeling of nonmuscle organs. The liver exerts major control over systemic metabolism, yet its role in cancer cachexia is not well understood. To advance the understanding of how the liver contributes to cancer cachexia, we used quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics to identify hepatic pathways and cellular processes dysregulated in mice with moderate and severe colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia; ~300 differentially expressed proteins identified during the induction of moderate cachexia were also differentially regulated in the transition to severe cachexia. KEGG pathway enrichment revealed representation by oxidative phosphorylation, indicating altered hepatic mitochondrial function as a common feature across cachexia severity. Glycogen catabolism was also observed in cachexic livers along with decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase protein X component (Pdhx), increased lactate dehydrogenase A chain (Ldha), and increased lactate transporter Mct1. Together this suggests altered lactate metabolism and transport in cachexic livers, which may contribute to energetically inefficient interorgan lactate cycling. Acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (ACSL1), known for activating long-chain fatty acids, was decreased in moderate and severe cachexia based on LC-MS/MS analysis and immunoblotting. ACSL1 showed strong linear relationships with percent body weight change and muscle fiber size (R = 0.73-0.76, < 0.01). Mitochondrial coupling efficiency, which is compromised in cachexic livers to potentially increase energy expenditure and weight loss, also showed a linear relationship with ACSL1. Findings suggest altered mitochondrial and substrate metabolism of the liver in cancer cachexia, and possible hepatic targets for intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00124.2019DOI Listing
May 2020

Hippocampal Growth Factor and Myokine Cathepsin B Expression following Aerobic and Resistance Training in 3xTg-AD Mice.

Int J Chronic Dis 2020 30;2020:5919501. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA.

Aerobic training (AT) can support brain health in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the role of resistance training (RT) in AD is not well established. Aside from direct effects on the brain, exercise may also regulate brain function through secretion of muscle-derived myokines. . This study examined the effects of AT and RT on hippocampal BDNF and IGF-1 signaling, -amyloid expression, and myokine cathepsin B in the triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) model of AD. 3xTg-AD mice were assigned to one of the following groups: sedentary (Tg), aerobic trained (Tg+AT, 9 wks treadmill running), or resistance trained (Tg+RT, 9 wks weighted ladder climbing) ( = 10/group). Rotarod latency and strength were assessed pre- and posttraining. Hippocampus and skeletal muscle were collected after training and analyzed by high-resolution respirometry, ELISA, and immunoblotting. Tg+RT showed greater grip strength than Tg and Tg+AT at posttraining ( < 0.01). Only Tg+AT improved rotarod peak latency ( < 0.01). Hippocampal IGF-1 concentration was ~15% greater in Tg+AT and Tg+RT compared to Tg ( < 0.05); however, downstream signals of p-IGF-1R, p-Akt, p-MAPK, and p-GSK3 were not altered. Cathepsin B, hippocampal p-CREB and BDNF, and hippocampal mitochondrial respiration were not affected by AT or RT. -Amyloid was ~30% lower in Tg+RT compared to Tg ( < 0.05). This data suggests that regular resistance training reduces -amyloid in the hippocampus concurrent with increased concentrations of IGF-1. Both types of training offered distinct benefits, either by improving physical function or by modifying signals in the hippocampus. Therefore, inclusion of both training modalities may address central defects, as well as peripheral comorbidities in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5919501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011393PMC
January 2020

Impact of resistance training program configuration on the circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor response.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 Jun 2;45(6):667-674. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.

This study examined the acute and resting changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inteleukin-6 (IL-6) and if changes in these biomarkers were correlated during resistance training (RT). Fifteen men with ≥2 years of RT experience (age: 23 ± 3 years, body mass: 84.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated. Subjects performed RT 3×/week for 6 weeks in either a high-repetition (HR; = 8) or low-repetition (LR; = 7) group. Protocols during week 1 were HR - Monday: 4 (sets) × 12 (repetitions) at 60% of 1-repetition maximum, Wednesday: 4 × 10 at 65%, Friday: 5 × 8 at 70%; LR - Monday: 8 × 6 at 75%, Wednesday 9 × 4 at 80%, Friday: 10 × 2 at 85%. Total volume was equated for the 6 weeks but not for individual sessions. Greater volume and intensity were performed in LR versus HR ( < 0.01) on Mondays. Plasma was collected immediately before and after exercise of the Monday session. There were no significant interactions or main effects for BDNF ( > 0.05). There was a moderate between-group effect size (0.57) in favor of LR in week 6, suggesting a potentially greater acute increase in BDNF in LR versus HR. For IL-6, a statistically significant main effect was observed for training ( < 0.0001), showing an acute increase in IL-6 in both weeks ( < 0.01); however, no other 3-way or 2-way interactions existed ( > 0.05). A minimum volume threshold of RT may be needed to induce acute elevations in BDNF. A minimum RT volume threshold may be needed to elicit BDNF. A close proximity to failure may be needed to elicit BDNF. BDNF and IL-6 did not correlate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0419DOI Listing
June 2020

The effects of eccentric phase duration on concentric outcomes in the back squat and bench press in well-trained males.

J Sports Sci 2019 Dec 16;37(23):2676-2684. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Florida Atlantic University , Boca Raton , FL , USA.

The velocity and magnitude in which the eccentric phase of an exercise is completed directly affects performance during the concentric phase. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of eccentric phase duration on concentric outcomes at 60% and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the squat and bench press. Sixteen college-aged, resistance-trained males completed 1RM testing, established normative eccentric durations, and performed fast (0.75 times normative) and slow (2.0 times normative) metronome-controlled eccentric duration repetitions. Outcome measures assessed during the concentric phase were: average concentric velocity (ACV), peak concentric velocity (PCV), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), range of motion (ROM), and barbell path. Eccentric duration was significantly and inversely correlated with ACV at 60% ( = -0.408, p = 0.004) and 80% ( = -0.477, p = 0.001) of 1RM squat. At 60% of 1RM squat, both fast and slow eccentric conditions produced greater (p < 0.001) PCV than normative duration with fast also producing greater PCV than slow (p = 0.044). Eccentric duration had no impact on RPE, ROM, or barbell path. Our results report for the first time that resistance-trained males performing a deliberately faster eccentric phase may enhance their own squat and bench press performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1655131DOI Listing
December 2019

Chronic Fish Oil Consumption with Resistance Training Improves Grip Strength, Physical Function, and Blood Pressure in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Sports (Basel) 2019 Jul 9;7(7). Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.

Fish oil (FO) has received great attention for its health-enhancing properties. However, its potential synergistic effects with resistance training (RT) are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of FO supplementation during 12-weeks of RT on handgrip strength, physical function, and blood pressure (BP) in community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-eight healthy older adults (10 males, 18 females; 66.5 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control (CON), resistance training (RT), resistance training with FO (RTFO). Handgrip strength, physical function [five times sit-to-stand (5T-STS), timed up and go (TUG), 6-m walk (6MW), 30-s sit-to-stand (30S-STS)], and BP were measured pre- and post-intervention. ANOVA was used with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Handgrip strength significantly increased in RT (+5.3%) and RTFO (+9.4%) but decreased in CON (-3.9%). All physical function outcomes increased in RT and RTFO. CON exhibited significantly decreased TUG and 30S-STS with no change in 5T-STS and 6MW. BP substantially decreased only in RTFO, systolic blood pressure (-7.8 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4.5 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (-5.6 mmHg), while no change was found in CON and RT. Chronic RT enhanced strength and physical function, while FO consumption combined with RT improved BP in community-dwelling older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7070167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6680896PMC
July 2019

Tissue-specific dysregulation of mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control in colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 07 24;317(1):R68-R82. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University , Boca Raton, Florida.

In addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction, cancer cachexia is a systemic disease involving remodeling of nonmuscle organs such as adipose and liver. Impairment of mitochondrial function is associated with multiple chronic diseases. The tissue-specific control of mitochondrial function in cancer cachexia is not well defined. This study determined mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control of skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue (WAT), and liver in colon-26 (C26) tumor-induced cachexia. Tissues were collected from PBS-injected weight-stable mice, C26 weight-stable mice and C26 mice with moderate (10% weight loss) and severe cachexia (20% weight loss). The respiratory control ratio [(RCR) an index of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) coupling efficiency] was low in WAT during the induction of cachexia because of high nonphosphorylating LEAK respiration. Liver RCR was low in C26 weight-stable and moderately cachexic mice because of reduced OXPHOS. Liver RCR was further reduced with severe cachexia, where Ant2 but not Ucp2 expression was increased. Ant2 was inversely correlated with RCR in the liver ( = -0.547, < 0.01). Liver cardiolipin increased in moderate and severe cachexia, suggesting this early event may also contribute to mitochondrial uncoupling. Impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration occurred predominantly in severe cachexia, at complex I. These findings suggest that mitochondrial function is subject to tissue-specific control during cancer cachexia, whereby remodeling in WAT and liver arise early and may contribute to altered energy balance, followed by impaired skeletal muscle respiration. We highlight an under-recognized role of liver and WAT mitochondrial function in cancer cachexia and suggest mitochondrial function of multiple tissues to be therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00028.2019DOI Listing
July 2019

Resistance training during a 12-week protein supplemented VLCD treatment enhances weight-loss outcomes in obese patients.

Clin Nutr 2019 02 23;38(1):372-382. Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment.

Methods: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6). Both groups underwent a pedometer-based walking program; however only RT performed resistance training 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), neuromuscular function, and serum biomarkers were measured at weeks 0, 6, and 13.

Results: Both groups exhibited a significant loss of total body mass (TBM) (CON: -19.4 ± 2.3 kg, p = 0.0009 vs. RT: -15.8 ± 1.5 kg, p = 0.0002) and fat mass (FM) (CON: -14.7 ± 1.8 kg, p = 0.0002 vs. RT: -15.1 ± 2.1 kg, p = 0.0002) with no group differences. CON lost 4.6 ± 0.8 kg (p = 0.004) of lean mass (LM) while RT demonstrated no changes. Group differences were found for the relative proportion of total weight-loss due to FM-loss (CON: 75.6 ± 3.4% vs. RT: 96.0 ± 6.0%, p = 0.03) and LM-loss (CON: 24.4 ± 3.2% vs. RT: 4.0 ± 6.5%, p = 0.03). CON demonstrated a 328.6 ± 72.7 kcal/day (-14.3 ± 2.4%) (p = 0.02) decrease in REE while RT exhibited a non-significant decrease of 4.6 ± 1.6% (p = 0.78). RT demonstrated greater improvements in all measures of contractile function and strength when compared to CON (p < 0.05). At post-treatment, RT exhibited greater serum free fatty acids (p = 0.01), glycerol (p = 0.003), and β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.005) than CON.

Conclusion: Resistance training was advantageous for weight-loss composition by preservation of LM without compromising overall weight- or fat-loss in morbidly obese men and women undergoing a protein supplemented VLCD. These changes accompanied positive adaptations for resting metabolism and muscular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.12.015DOI Listing
February 2019

Promoting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in midlife prolongs healthy lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster.

Nat Commun 2017 09 6;8(1):448. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

The accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria has been implicated in aging, but a deeper understanding of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy during aging is missing. Here, we show that upregulating Drp1-a Dynamin-related protein that promotes mitochondrial fission-in midlife, prolongs Drosophila lifespan and healthspan. We find that short-term induction of Drp1, in midlife, is sufficient to improve organismal health and prolong lifespan, and observe a midlife shift toward a more elongated mitochondrial morphology, which is linked to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in aged flight muscle. Promoting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission, in midlife, facilitates mitophagy and improves both mitochondrial respiratory function and proteostasis in aged flies. Finally, we show that autophagy is required for the anti-aging effects of midlife Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. Our findings indicate that interventions that promote mitochondrial fission could delay the onset of pathology and mortality in mammals when applied in midlife.Mitochondrial fission and fusion are important mechanisms to maintain mitochondrial function. Here, the authors report that middle-aged flies have more elongated, or 'hyper-fused' mitochondria, and show that induction of mitochondrial fission in midlife, but not in early life, extends the health and life of flies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00525-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5587646PMC
September 2017

Effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids with or without resistance training on muscle mass in high-fat diet-fed middle-aged mice.

Exp Physiol 2017 11 30;102(11):1500-1512. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? This study examined the effects of 20 weeks of administration of conjugated linoleic acids/omega-3 fatty acids with or without programed resistance exercise training on body composition, skeletal muscle properties and functional capacity in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic daily administration of conjugated linoleic acids/omega-3 fatty acids with resistance exercise training can help to blunt fat gain, alleviate loss of myogenic capacity and sensorimotor function and lower tissue inflammation in middle-aged mice during chronic high-fat diet-induced catabolism. This study investigated the effects of 20 weeks of combined conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)/omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) administration independently or combined with resistance exercise training (RET) on skeletal muscle in middle-aged mice consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine-month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (H, high-fat diet; HE, H + RET; HCN, H + CLA/n-3; and HECN, H + CLA/n3 + RET). Body composition and functional capacity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle tissues were collected at 14 months of age. ANOVA was used, with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Fat mass significantly increased in H (+74%), HE (+142%) and HECN (+43%) but not in HCN. Muscle wet weights were significantly lower in H and HCN than in HE and HECN. Grip strength substantially declined in H (-15%) and HCN (-17%), whereas sensorimotor function significantly declined only in H (-11%). HECN exhibited improvement in strength (+22%) and sensorimotor coordination (+17%). In comparison to H, muscle tumour necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was significantly lower in HE (-39%), HCN (-24%) and HECN (-21%), respectively. Mean myofibre cross-sectional areas were markedly lower in H and HCN than in HE and HECN. H showed significantly lower satellite cell abundance and numbers of myonuclei than all other groups. Our findings suggest that long-term daily CLA/n-3 intake with resistance training improved sensorimotor function, ameliorated fat gain and prevented loss of myogenic capacity while lowering tumour necrosis factor-α expression during chronic HFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086317DOI Listing
November 2017

Impact of a Submaximal Warm-Up on Endurance Performance in Highly Trained and Competitive Male Runners.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2017 Mar 16;88(1):114-119. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

d Florida State University.

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, M = 21 ± 2 years, M = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min).

Method: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VOmax). A 2-min walk at 3.2 km/hr concluded the 13-min warm-up protocol. For the control condition, participants sat quietly for 13 min. VO and heart rate (HR) were determined at Minutes 0, 5, and 13 of the pre-exercise protocol in each condition.

Results: At the end of 13 min prior to the distance trial, mean VO (warm-up = 14.1 ± 2.2 mL/kg/min vs. control = 5.5 ± 1.7 mL/kg/min) and mean HR (warm-up = 105 ± 11 bpm vs. control = 67 ± 11 bpm) were statistically greater (p < .001) in the warm-up condition compared with the control condition. The distance run did not statistically differ (p = .37) between the warm-up (7.8 ± 0.5 km) and control (7.7 ± 0.6 km) conditions; however, effect size calculation revealed a small effect (d = 0.2) in favor of the warm-up condition. Thus, the warm-up employed may have important and practical implications to determine placing among high-level athletes in close races.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a submaximal running warm-up may have a small but critical effect on a 30-min distance trial in competitive endurance athletes. Further, the warm-up elicited increases in physiological variables VO and HR prior to performance; thus, a submaximal specific warm-up should warrant consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2016.1224294DOI Listing
March 2017

Aerobic and resistance training dependent skeletal muscle plasticity in the colon-26 murine model of cancer cachexia.

Metabolism 2016 May 4;65(5):685-698. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; The Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The appropriate mode of exercise training for cancer cachexia is not well-established. Using the colon-26 (C26) mouse model of cancer cachexia, we defined and compared the skeletal muscle responses to aerobic and resistance training.

Methods: Twelve-month old Balb/c mice were initially assigned to control, aerobic training (AT; wheel running), or resistance training (RT; ladder climbing) (n=16-17/group). After 8weeks of training, half of each group was injected with C26 tumor cells, followed by 3 additional weeks of training. Body composition and neuromuscular function was evaluated pre- and post-training. Muscles were collected post-training and analyzed for fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), Akt-mTOR signaling, and expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and myogenic regulatory factors.

Results: Total body mass decreased (p<0.05) in C26 (-8%), AT+C26 (-18%), and RT+C26 (-15%) but not control. Sensorimotor function declined (p<0.05) in control (-16%), C26 (-13%), and RT+C26 (-23%) but not AT+C26. Similarly, strength/body weight decreased (p<0.05) in control (-7%), C26 (-21%), and RT+C26 (-10%) but not AT+C26. Gastrocnemius mass/body weight tended to be greater in AT+C26 vs. C26 (+6%, p=0.09). Enlargement of the spleen was partially corrected in AT+C26 (-27% vs. C26, p<0.05). Fiber CSA was lower in all C26 groups vs. control (-32% to 46%, p<0.05); however, the effect size calculated from C26 and AT+C26 was large (+24%, d=1.04). Phosphorylated levels of mTOR in AT+C26 exceeded C26 (+32%, p<0.05). RT+C26 showed greater mRNA expression (p<0.05) of IGF-IEa (+79%) and myogenin (+126%) with a strong tendency for greater IGF-IEb (+127%, p=0.069) vs.

Conclusions: Aerobic or resistance training was unable to prevent tumor-induced body weight loss. However, aerobic training may have preserved function, reduced the inflammatory response of the spleen, and marginally rescued muscle mass possibly through activation of mTOR. Aerobic training may therefore have therapeutic value for patients with cancer cachexia. In contrast, resistance training induced the expression of genes associated with muscle damage and repair. This gene response may be supportive of excessive stress generated by high resistance loading in a tumor-bearing state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2016.01.014DOI Listing
May 2016

Effects of Elastic Band Resistance Training on Glucose Control, Body Composition, and Physical Function in Women With Short- vs. Long-Duration Type-2 Diabetes.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 06;30(6):1688-99

1Department of Physical Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea; 2Division of Respiratory & Critical Care Physiology & Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California; 3Department of Kinesiology, Center for Sport Performance, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California; 4Department of Physical Education, Inha University, Incheon, Korea; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea; and 6Department of Sports Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Korea.

This study examined whether the existing duration of type-2 diabetes influenced patient responses to progressive resistance training. Twenty-six women with type-2 diabetes were stratified into short- (3 ± 2 years; n = 12) or long-standing (10 ± 3 years; n = 14) disease groups. Patients participated in a high daily or high weekly frequency elastic band resistance training program that consisted of 2 daily sessions, 5 d·wk for 12 weeks. Glucose control, body composition, and physical function were evaluated pre- and posttraining. No significant diabetes duration × training interactions were detected for blood markers of glucose control (p > 0.05); however, there were significant main effects of training driven by comparable improvements in both cohorts (hemoglobin A1c, -13 to 18%; fasting glucose, -23 to 31%; postprandial glucose, -36 to 40%; insulin, -34 to 40%; C-peptide, -38 to 51%; p ≤ 0.05). Anthropometrics and body composition were also favorably modified in both the groups after training (weight, -5 to 9%; body mass index, -6 to 9%; waist-to-hip ratio, -3 to 5%; percent fat, -14 to 20%; p ≤ 0.05). Likewise, indices of physical function improved in both the groups after training (bicep curl repetitions, +15-33%; sit-and-stand repetitions, +45-47%; p ≤ 0.05). A few exceptions were noted in which patients with long-standing disease demonstrated greater pre-to-post gains (p ≤ 0.05) in grip strength (+11-13%) and peak exercise time (+19%) and load (+21%) during graded exercise, whereas those with shorter disease duration did not. Overall, these data suggest that patients with a long history of diabetes respond positively to resistance training and in a manner comparable to their recently diagnosed counterparts. Therefore, current inactivity in patients with long-standing disease should not deter from beginning an exercise program.
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June 2016

Modified Daily Undulating Periodization Model Produces Greater Performance Than a Traditional Configuration in Powerlifters.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Mar;30(3):784-91

1Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Boca Raton, Florida; 2Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, Human Performance Research Laboratory, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Pomona, California; 3Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida; 4Department of Kinesiology and Dance, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico; and 5College of Arts and Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.

The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 daily undulating periodization (DUP) models on one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in the squat, bench press, deadlift, total volume (TV) lifted, and temporal hormone response. Eighteen male, college-aged (21.1 ± 1.9 years) powerlifters participated in this study and were assigned to one of 2 groups: (a) traditional DUP training with a weekly training order: hypertrophy-specific, strength-specific, and power-specific training (HSP, n = 9) or (b) modified DUP training with a weekly training order: hypertrophy-specific, power-specific, and strength-specific training (HPS, n = 9). Both groups trained 3 nonconsecutive days per week for 6 weeks and performed the squat, bench press, and deadlift exercises. During hypertrophy and power sessions, subjects performed a fixed number of sets and repetitions but performed repetitions until failure at a given percentage during strength sessions to compare TV. Testosterone and cortisol were measured at pretesting and posttesting and before each strength-specific day. Hypertrophy, power, and strength produced greater TV in squat and bench press (p ≤ 0.05) than HSP, but not for deadlift (p > 0.05). For squat and deadlift, there was no difference between groups for 1RM (p > 0.05); however, HPS exhibited greater increases in 1RM bench press than HSP (p ≤ 0.05). Effect sizes (ES) showed meaningful differences (ES > 0.50) in favor of HPS for squat and bench press 1RM. Testosterone decreased (p ≤ 0.05) at weeks 5 and 6 and cortisol decline at weeks 3 and 4. However, neither hormone was different at posttesting compared with pretesting (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that an HPS configuration of DUP has enhanced performance benefits compared with HSP.
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March 2016

Effects of chronic high-fat feeding on skeletal muscle mass and function in middle-aged mice.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2015 Aug 3;27(4):403-11. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Department of Health and Sport Sciences, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background And Aims: Increased adipose tissue may promote catabolic events in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to test whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity would accelerate the onset of muscle wasting in middle-aged mice.

Methods: Muscle was collected from C57BL/6 mice at 9 months of age (baseline) and 14 months of age after consuming a control (C) or HFD. Mice in C and HFD were also subjected to evaluations of body composition and function before and after their respective diets.

Results: HFD demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) losses of grip strength (-15 %) and sensorimotor coordination (-11 %), whereas C did not. Lean mass decreased to a greater degree in HFD although not significantly (C: -20.69 ± 7.94 vs. HFD: -31.14 ± 5.49 %, p > 0.05). Gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and hamstrings mass in C and HFD were significantly reduced from baseline (-27 to 43 and -39 to 47 %, respectively, p < 0.05) with no differences between the two; however, soleus mass was lower only in HFD (-24 %, p = 0.03). Myofiber area, satellite cells, and myonuclei of the gastrocnemius were lower only in HFD (-23, -19, and -16 %, respectively, p < 0.05) compared to baseline.

Conclusions: HFD-induced obesity adversely affected function in middle-aged mice. Atrophy of the soleus in HFD but not C suggests sensitivity of oxidative muscle to HFD-dependent catabolism more so than aging. In the muscles containing fast/mixed fibers, aging effects may have concealed the catabolic nature of HFD; however, morphological changes in the gastrocnemius including decreased fiber area, satellite cells, and myonuclei are consistent with an atrophic phenotype related to HFD.
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August 2015

Repeated Bout Effect in Muscle-Specific Exercise Variations.

J Strength Cond Res 2015 Aug;29(8):2270-6

1Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida; 2Military Performance Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts; 3Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California; 4Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida; 5Department of Health and Sport Sciences, The University and Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee; 6Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri; and 7School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

A single bout of unaccustomed exercise confers protective effect against muscle damage from a subsequent bout of similar activity, that is, repeated bout effect (RBE). It remains unknown whether varying muscle-specific exercise between sessions alters the magnitude of the RBE. This study examined the effects of muscle-specific exercise variation between consecutive sessions on the RBE. Twenty untrained males (21 ± 2 years) were assigned to one of 2 groups (n = 10 per group): (a) 2 sessions of incline curls, Fixed Exercise or (b) 1 session of incline curls followed by 1 session of preacher curls, Varied Exercise, with 7 days between sessions. Subjects performed 5 sets of 6 repetitions at ∼50% of maximal isometric elbow flexor strength during each session. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic torque, range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase were measured before, immediately after, and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after each exercise session, and the changes were compared between bouts and between groups. There were significant time effects (p < 0.05) for isometric maximal voluntary contraction, concentric maximal voluntary contraction, range of motion, and muscle soreness during sessions 1 and 2 with no between-group differences. Both groups demonstrated a significantly faster recovery of range of motion and soreness to baseline levels after session 2 compared with session 1. Overall, our findings suggest that incline curls conferred a protective effect during subsequent preacher curls in a similar way to repeating incline curls; therefore, the RBE was not exercise specific.
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August 2015

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as a countermeasure for cancer cachexia: a cellular and molecular rationale.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2013 Oct;13(8):1188-96

Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, 432 Sandels Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1493, USA.

Cancer cachexia is a life-threatening condition characterized by involuntary body weight loss and skeletal muscle wasting. In addition to being associated with poor prognosis and reduced survival, patients with cachexia exhibit a critical loss of physical function that impinges upon their ability to perform basic activities of daily living. Consequently, there is a loss of independence and a drastically reduced quality of life. Despite being a major unmet medical need of patients, very few treatment options exist. Maintaining muscle mass represents an important objective in the cancer patient trajectory not only because it relates to one's capacity to perform activities of daily living, but also because muscle preservation may be a critical determinant of survival while in a tumor-bearing state. In this regard, research has been directed towards identifying countermeasures effective in preserving muscle. With respect to nutritional approaches, administration of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could be a viable component in multi-modal therapies targeting cancer cachexia. Evidence suggests that HMB treatment promotes regenerative events (i.e. myogenic program), suppresses protein degradation, and activates signaling pathways preceding protein synthesis and skeletal muscle growth. HMB therefore, could conceivably act on key regulatory events driving cancer cachexia, thereby favoring muscle growth/preservation. In this review, we take a mechanistic approach in making a case for the use of HMB provision as a possible therapeutic strategy for cancer cachexia by highlighting the cellular and molecular aspects of HMB function.
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October 2013

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate did not enhance high intensity resistance training-induced improvements in myofiber dimensions and myogenic capacity in aged female rats.

Mol Cells 2012 Nov 6;34(5):439-48. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Older women exhibit blunted skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) compared to other age and gender cohorts that is partially due to an impaired regenerative capacity. In the present study, we examined whether β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) provision to aged female rodents would enhance regenerative mechanisms and facilitate RT-induced myofiber growth. Nineteen-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: HMB (0.48 g/kg/d; n = 6), non-HMB (n = 6), and control (n = 4). HMB and non-HMB groups underwent RT every third day for 10 weeks using a ladder climbing apparatus. Whole body strength, grip strength, and body composition was evaluated before and after RT. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to determine myofiber dimensions, transcript expression, and satellite cells/myonuclei, respectively. ANOVAs were used with significance set at p < 0.05. There were significant time effects (pre vs. post) for whole body strength (+262%), grip strength (+17%), lean mass (+20%), and fat mass (-19%). Both RT groups exhibited significant increases in the mean myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in the gastrocnemius and soleus (+8-22%) compared to control. Moreover, both groups demonstrated significant increases in the numbers of satellite cells (+100-108%) and myonuclei (+32%) in the soleus but not the gastrocnemius. A significant IGF-I mRNA elevation was only observed in soleus of the HMB group (+33%) whereas MGF and myogenin increased significantly in both groups (+32-40%). Our findings suggest that HMB did not further enhance intense RT-mediated myogenic mechanisms and myofiber CSA in aged female rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887788PMC
November 2012

Effects of different elastic cord assistance levels on vertical jump.

J Strength Cond Res 2011 Dec;25(12):3472-8

Center for Sport Performance, Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.

Tran, TT, Brown, LE, Coburn, JW, Lynn, SK, Dabbs, NC, Schick, MK, Schick, EE, Khamoui, AV, Uribe, BP, and Noffal, GJ. Effects of different elastic cord assistance levels on vertical jump. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3472-3478, 2011-Currently, little research has been conducted using body weight reduction (BWR) as a means to enhance vertical jump. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different elastic cord assistance levels on vertical jump height (JH), takeoff velocity (TOV), relative ground reaction force (rGRF), relative impact force (RIF), and descent velocity (DV). Thirty recreationally trained college men and women (M = 15, W = 15) completed 3 testing sessions consisting of 5 conditions: 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% BWR. In all BWR conditions, the subjects wore a full body harness while being attached to 2 elastic cords suspended from the ceiling and a linear velocity transducer. They then performed 3 maximal countermovement jumps with arm swing on a force plate. The results indicated no interaction of condition by sex for any variable; however, there was a significant (p < 0.05) main effect for condition for each variable. The JH significantly increased across all conditions (0%: 43.73 ± 1.62 cm, 40%: 64.77 ± 2.36 cm). The TOV at 30% (2.73 ± 0.34 m·s) was significantly greater than that at 0% (2.59 ± 0.39 m·s) and 10% (2.63 ± 0.34 m·s), whereas that at 40% (2.79 ± 0.43 m·s) was significantly greater than that at >0, 10, and 20%. The rGRF at 30% (18.62 ± 4.35 N·kg) was significantly greater than that at >0, 10, and 20%, whereas that at 40% (21.38 ± 5.21 N·kg) was significantly greater than in all conditions. The RIF at 20, 30, and 40% (40%: 61.60 ± 18.53 N·kg) was significantly greater than that at 0% (44.46 ± 9.12 N·kg). The DV at 20% (2.61 ± 0.31 m·s) was significantly greater than at 10%, whereas those at 30 and 40% (2.8 ± 0.41 m·s) were significantly greater than at 0, 10, and 20%. These results demonstrate that using different elastic cord levels to reduce body weight appears effective for increasing ascent and descent force and velocity variables. Future research should investigate greater BWR% and chronic training.
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December 2011

Effect of four different starting stances on sprint time in collegiate volleyball players.

J Strength Cond Res 2010 Oct;24(10):2641-6

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.

Starting stance plays an important role in influencing short-distance sprint speed and, therefore, the ability to reach a ball during sport play. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 4 different starting stances on sprint time. Twenty-six male and female collegiate volleyball players volunteered to participate in 1 testing session. Each subject performed 3 15-ft sprint trials at each of 4 different starting stances (P-parallel, FS-false step, S-staggered, and SFS-staggered false step) in random order. Analysis of variance revealed that there was no significant interaction of sex by stance, but there were main effects for sex (men were faster than women) and stance. The FS (1.18 ± 0.10 seconds), S (1.16 ± 0.07 seconds), and SFS (1.14 ± 0.06 seconds) stances were faster than the P (1.25 ± 0.09 seconds) stance, and the SFS stance was faster than the FS stance. This indicates that starting with a staggered stance (regardless of stepping back) produced the greatest sprinting velocity over the initial 15 feet. Although taking a staggered stance seems counterproductive, the resultant stretch-shortening cycle action and forward body lean likely increase force production of the push-off phase and place the total body center of mass ahead of the contacting foot, thereby, decreasing sprint time.
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October 2010

Performance differences between sexes in the pop-up phase of surfing.

J Strength Cond Res 2010 Oct;24(10):2821-5

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.

Surfing is a dynamic sport that is multidirectional in nature and requires peak performance in variable ocean conditions. Its growing popularity among the female population has stirred curiosity as to whether women can and will 1 day face their male counterparts in head-to-head competition at the top levels. The purpose of this study was to examine male and female differences in performance of a simulated surfing pop-up movement. Forty recreationally trained surfers (20 men and 20 women) were instructed to lie prone on a force plate, in the pop-up position (similar to a push-up), with only their hands in contact with the plate. A velocity transducer was attached to their back via an adjustable strap around their upper trunk. They completed 3 pop-ups as explosively as possible by pushing forcefully with their hands and jumping to their feet. Absolute and relative force and power were measured. Results demonstrated that men exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) greater relative force (M = 9.56 ± 1.25 N·kg⁻¹, W = 8.15 ± 0.98) and relative power (M = 16.39 ± 4.22 W·kg⁻¹, W = 9.98 ± 2.58) when compared to women. These findings demonstrate that men produce greater force and power than do women even relative to body weight when performing a simulated surfing pop-up movement. It appears that women may be at a disadvantage in regards to peak performance when compared to their male counterparts in the surfing pop-up movement. Therefore, women should train for both maximum and explosive upper-body strength in addition to their time spent surfing.
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October 2010

Muscle activation when performing the chest press and shoulder press on a stable bench vs. a Swiss ball.

J Strength Cond Res 2010 Apr;24(4):1028-33

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a stable surface (bench) vs. an unstable surface (Swiss ball) on muscle activation when performing the dumbbell chest press and shoulder press. Sixteen healthy men (24.19 +/- 2.17 years) performed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests for the chest press and shoulder press on a stable surface. A minimum of 48 hours post 1RM, subjects returned to perform 3 consecutive repetitions each of the chest press and shoulder press at 80% 1RM under 4 different randomized conditions (chest press on bench, chest press on Swiss ball, shoulder press on bench, shoulder press on Swiss ball). Electromyography was used to assess muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and rectus abdominus. The results revealed no significant difference in muscle activation between surface types for either exercise. This suggests that using an unstable surface neither improves nor impairs muscle activation under the current conditions. Coaches and other practitioners can expect similar muscle activation when using a Swiss ball vs. a bench.
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April 2010

A comparison of muscle activation between a Smith machine and free weight bench press.

J Strength Cond Res 2010 Mar;24(3):779-84

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.

The bench press exercise exists in multiple forms including the machine and free weight bench press. It is not clear though how each mode differs in its effect on muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and pectoralis major during a Smith machine and free weight bench press at lower (70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and higher (90% 1RM) intensities. Normalized electromyography amplitude values were used during the concentric phase of the bench press to compare muscle activity between a free weight and Smith machine bench press. Participants were classified as either experienced or inexperienced bench pressers. Two testing sessions were used, each of which entailed either all free weight or all Smith machine testing. In each testing session, each participant's 1RM was established followed by 2 repetitions at 70% of 1RM and 2 repetitions at 90% of 1RM. Results indicated greater activation of the medial deltoid on the free weight bench press than on the Smith machine bench press. Also, there was greater muscle activation at the 90% 1RM load than at the 70% 1RM load. The results of this study suggest that strength coaches should consider choosing the free weight bench press over the Smith machine bench press because of its potential for greater upper-body muscular development.
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March 2010

Relationship between force-time and velocity-time characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions.

J Strength Cond Res 2011 Jan;25(1):198-204

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California, USA.

Previous research has investigated the force-time curve characteristics of isometric and dynamic muscle actions; however, few studies have addressed their relationship to dynamic exercise velocity-time variables. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between velocity-time characteristics (high pull and vertical jump peak velocity and rate of velocity development [HPPV, HPRVD, VJPV, VJRVD]), force-time characteristics (isometric peak force [IsoPF], body mass adjusted isometric peak force [IsoPF/BM], isometric rate of force development at different millisecond windows [IsoRFD50-250], dynamic peak force [HPPF], body mass adjusted dynamic peak force [HPPF/BM]), and vertical jump height (VJHeight). Nineteen recreationally trained men (age 23.89 ± 2.92 yr; height 176.32 ± 7.06 cm; mass 78.76 ± 16.50 kg) completed 2 testing sessions. The first session consisted of 3 isometric mid-thigh pulls on a force plate with each repetition held for 3 seconds. On the second testing session, subjects completed 3 dynamic mid-thigh high pulls with 30% IsoPF followed by 3 vertical jumps on a force plate. The HPRVD correlated with IsoRFD50 (r = 0.52) and IsoRFD100 (r = 0.49). The HPPV correlated with IsoPF/BM (r = -0.60), IsoRFD50 (r = 0.56), and IsoRFD100 (r = 0.56). The VJHeight correlated with IsoPF/BM (r = 0.61), whereas VJPV correlated with IsoPF/BM (r = 0.62). These correlations suggest that explosive isometric force production within 50 to 100 milliseconds may influence the ability to accelerate an implement or body and attain high velocity, albeit in a moderate fashion. In addition, body mass adjusted strength may positively influence vertical jump parameters.
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January 2011

Effect of potentiating exercise volume on vertical jump parameters in recreationally trained men.

J Strength Cond Res 2009 Aug;23(5):1465-9

Department of Kinesiology, Human Performance Laboratory, California State University, Fullerton, California 92831, USA.

High-force activities have demonstrated postactivation potentiation (PAP) and may enhance performance in athletes; however, the efficacy of high-force activities to generate PAP in recreationally trained men remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-force back squat volume on vertical jump (VJ) height, ground reaction force (GRF), impulse (IMP), and takeoff velocity (TOV) in recreationally trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age 24.56 +/- 2.10 years, height 174.53 +/- 8.54 cm, mass 84.59 +/- 14.75 kg, and 1 repetition maximum [1RM] back squat 124.71 +/- 17.58 kg) with at least 1 year of back squat experience completed 5 testing sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours' rest. On session 1, subjects completed VJ testing without a potentiating exercise intervention (control condition) in a test-retest fashion (3 VJs, 5 minutes seated rest, and 3 more VJs) and performed 1RM back squat testing. Subjects completed the subsequent 4 testing sessions in a test-retest fashion (3 VJs, experimental condition, 5 minutes seated rest, and 3 more VJs) in random order. The 4 experimental conditions required subjects to perform the back squat using a load of 85% 1RM with volumes of 1 x 2, 1 x 3, 1 x 4, or 1 x 5. Analysis of variance revealed no significant (p > 0.05) condition by time interactions for any dependent variable; however, there were significant (p < 0.05) main effects for time for GRF (pre 2,123.74 +/- 422.86 N, > post 2,094.53 +/- 390.99 N) and IMP (pre 210.88 +/- 100.97 Nxs, > post 204.63 +/- 106.14 Nxs) but not for VJ or TOV. These results suggest that 85% 1RM back squat volume assignments do not produce a VJ potentiation response in recreationally trained men.
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August 2009

Effect of delayed-onset muscle soreness on elbow flexion strength and rate of velocity development.

J Strength Cond Res 2009 Jul;23(4):1282-6

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.

Eccentric muscle actions cause muscle damage and lead to delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which may impair performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of DOMS on elbow flexion strength and rate of velocity development (RVD). Nineteen college male subjects performed 6 tests (pre- and posteccentric and every 24 hours for 4 days). In the preeccentric tests, each subject reported his arm pain and then did 5 concentric repetitions of elbow flexion/extension on an isokinetic dynamometer at 240 degrees x s(-1). Each subject then completed 6 sets of 10 eccentric elbow flexion actions at 30 degrees x s(-1) and finished with a posteccentric test with another 5 concentric repetitions at 240 degrees x s(-1). On days 1-4, each subject reported his arm pain and then did 5 more repetitions at 240 degrees x s(-1). Analysis was performed on the values for DOMS, peak torque (PT), and RVD. For DOMS, scores on the posteccentric test (2.34 +/- 2.53), day 1 (3.18 +/- 2.18), day 2 (3.21 +/- 2.91), day 3 (1.81 +/- 1.78), and day 4 (1.02 +/- 1.30) were all significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the preeccentric scores (0.00 +/- 0.00). For PT, the scores on the posteccentric test (22.40 +/- 8.87 ft x lb(-1)) and day 1 (23.88 +/- 9.00 ft x lb(-1)) were both significantly less than on the preeccentric test (29.56 +/- 8.42 ft x lb(-1)). The RVD scores on the posteccentric test (1505.73 +/- 462.12 d x s(-1) x s(-1)), day 1 (1571.55 +/- 475.99 d x s(-1) x s(-1)), and day 2 (1546.99 +/- 494.52 d x s(-1) x s(-1)) were all significantly less than on the preeccentric test (1719.86 +/- 473.18 d x s(-1) x s(-1)). This suggests that muscle damage may cause significant decreases in elbow flexion concentric strength and RVD even as DOMS remains elevated.
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July 2009